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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
f T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

3. CAPPS, ph.d., ll.d. f W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

A. POST, l.h.d. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soo. 



PLUTARCH'S 
MORALIA 

XIV 



428 



PLUTARCH'S 

MORALIA 

IN FIFTEEN VOLUMES 

XIV 

1086 c— 1147 a 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
BENEDICT EINARSON 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

AND 

PHILLIP H. DE LACY 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLXVII 



© The President and Fellows of Harvard College 1967 




Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XIV 

PAGE 

Preface vii 

The Traditional Order of the Books of the 

Moralia xiii 

That Epicurus actually makes a pleasant 
Life impossible — 

Introduction 2 

Text and Translation 14 

Reply to Colotes in Defence of the other 
Philosophers — 

Introduction 153 

Text and Translation 190 

Is " Live Unknown " a wise Precept ? — 

Introduction 318 

Text and Translation 322 

On Music — 

Introduction 344 

Text and Translation 352 

Index 457 

v 



PREFACE 

We retain the moveable v before consonants wherever 
the mss. allow us to do so, and we follow their nearly 
unanimous usage in the treatment of elision and the 
accentuation of io-r.c 

Of the superior figures and letters attached to the 
symbols for mss. 1 indicates the first hand, 2 the 
second, and so forth ; c indicates a correction by the 
first hand, ac the reading thus corrected ; r indicates 
an erasure, ar the reading before erasure ; t indicates 
a reading in the text, ss a superscribed reading, m a 
reading in the margin ; and s indicates a part of the 
ms. supplied by a later hand. 

We have collated from photographs all mss. known 
to us. A list follows ; the dating is that of the cata- 
logues and later studies. An asterisk is appended to 
letters that here indicate a different ms. from the ms. 
they indicated in volume VII. 

A 1671 in the national library at Paris ; a.d. 1296. 
B 1675 in the national library at Paris ; 15th 

century. 
C 1955 in the national library at Paris ; llth-12th 

century. 
D* 1374 in the Vatican library ; 15th-l 6th century. 
E 1672 in the national library at Paris ; written 

shortly after a.d. 1302. 

vii 



PREFACE 

F* 2365 in the Vatican library ; 16th century. 

G* 101 in the Angelican library ; 16th century. 

H 283 in the Palatine library at Heidelberg ; 11th- 

12 century. 
J* III C 1 in the national library at Naples ; 14th- 

15th century. 
K* R-I-5 in the library of the Escorial ; 16th century. 
L 69, 13 in the Laurentian library ; 10th century. 
M* VI in the appendix to the library of St. Mark ; 

12th-13th century. 
N* III C 3 in the national library at Naples ; 15th 

century. 
P 2425 in the national library at Paris ; a.d. 1537. 
Q 173 in the national library at Munich ; 16th 

century. 
R* 977 in the Rossi collection at Rome ; 16th cen- 
tury ; written by Johannes Honorios. 
S* 3>-II-5 in the library of the Escorial ; 16th 

century. 
T 2456 in the national library at Paris ; 16th cen- 
tury ; written by Michael Damascenus. 
U 97 in the Urbino collection at the Vatican ; 10th- 

11th century. 
V* 186 in the Vatican library ; 13th century. 
W* 192 in the Vatican library ; 13th-14th century. 
X 250 in the library of St. Mark ; 11th century. 

X s supplied missing parts in the 15th century. 
Z* 215 in the national library at Munich ; 15th 

century, 
a* 59, 1 in the Laurentian library ; 14th century, 
b* 2048 in the University library at Bologna ; 16th 

century. 
c 5692 in the Harleian collection at the British 

Museum ; 15th century. 

viii 



PREFACE 

d 56, 2 in the Laurentian library ; 15th century. 

The missing conclusion of the Non posse suaviter 

vivi secundum Epicurum has been supplied by d s 

(the same as d 2 ) from k. 
e* 152 in the Este library at Modena ; 15th-16th 

century, 
f* III 40 in the collection of the Acquisiti in the 

Laurentian library ; 15th-16th century, 
g 170 in the Palatine collection at the Vatican ; 

15th century, 
h* 322 in the library of St. Mark ; probably a.d. 

1449. 
j* 265 in the Barberini collection at the Vatican ; 

written by Johannes Honorios in a.d. 1543 (cf. 

R. da Rios, Aristoxeni Elementa Harmonica, Rome, 

1954, p. xxxvii n. 2). 
k* 221 in the Vatican library ; written by Johannes 

Honorios ; a copy of j*. 
n 350 III E 28 in the national library at Naples 

and 1676 in the Vatican library ; 15th century. 
o 2700 in the University library at Bologna ; 1 5th- 

16th century, 
q* 58, 29 in the Laurentian library ; 15th cen- 
tury, 
r 41 in the Rehdiger collection at Wroclaw Univer- 
sity ; 16th century, 
s* 2451 in the national library at Paris ; 15th 

century. 
t 100 in the Urbino collection at the Vatican ; 

a.d. 1402. 
u 99 in the Urbino collection at the Vatican ; 15th 

century, 
v* 176 in the collection of Greek philosophy in the 

national library at Vienna ; 14th century. 

ix 



PREFACE 

x 200 in the collection of the Miscellanei in the 

Bodleian library ; 16th century. 
3^ 1009 in the Vatican library ; 14th century. 
a C 126 inf. (859) in the Ambrosian library ; a.d. 

1294-1295. 
)3 1013 in the Vatican library ; 14th century. 
y 139 in the Vatican library ; written shortly after 

A. 

8 80 in the collection of Queen Christina at the 
Vatican ; 15th century. 

e 4690 in the national library at Madrid ; 14th 

century. 
k 80, 5 in the Laurentian library ; 14th century. 
A 80, 30 in the Laurentian library ; 15th-16th 

century, 
/x 80, 21 in the Laurentian library ; 15th century. 
it 80, 22 in the Laurentian library ; 14th century, 
o- 248 in the library of St. Mark ; a.d. 1455. 

9 Excerpts in ms. <J>-III-11 of the library of the 
Escorial ; 16th century. 

r 51 in the cathedral at Toledo ; 15th-16th cen- 
tury. 

\j/ 25 (B 120) in the Vallicella library ; 16th century. 
A copy of Stephanus' edition. 
517 in the library of St. Mark ; 15th century ; 
see p. 188. 

429 in the national library at Munich ; 15th 
century ; see pp. 11 and 188. 

Aid. 2 indicates manuscript conjectures found in 
certain copies of the Aldine edition of 1509- 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge scholarly help re- 
ceived from Professors W. D. Anderson, D. Feaver, 
C. Finch and H. Lloyd-Jones ; the many courtesies 



PREFACE 

of the custodians of the mss. ; and the generosity of 
the trustees of the Loeb Foundation and of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago in defraying expenses. 

Benedict Einarson Phillip H. De Lacy 

The University of Chicago Cornell University 



XI 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER of the Books of 
the Moralia as they appear since the edition of 
Stephanus (1572), and their division into volumes 
in this edition. 



I. De liberis educandis (Tlepl iraiho)v dycoyrjs) 
Quomodo adolescens poetas audire debeat 

(IIcos Set rov viov 7roi7]fjLdra)v d/couetv) . 
De recta ratione audiendi (He pi rod aKoveiv) 
Quomodo adulator ab amico internoscatur 

(IIa>S dv TtS BtaKpLV€L€ TOV KoAdKOL TOV </)lXov) 

Quomodo quis suos in virtute sentiat profectus 
(Ilai? dv tis atadoiro iavrov irpoKOTTTOvros hr* 
dperrj) ...... 

II. De capienda ex inimicis utilitate (litis dv ns 
VTT* ixOpcjv to^eAotTo) 

De amicorum multitudine (Ilept 7roAu<£tAtW) 

De fortuna (He pi rvxqs) 

De virtute et vitio (lie pi dpeTijs /cat kolklols) 

Consolatio ad Apollonium (HapafjivdrjTiKos npos 
'AnoXAtbviov) ..... 

De tuenda sanitate praecepta ('Yytetra nap- 
ayydXfjLara) ..... 

Coniugalia praecepta (TafiLKa napayyiXfiaTa) 

Septem sapientium convivium (Ta>v eWa, oo(f>a>v 

OVpLTTOGLOV) ..... 

De superstitione (Ilept SetatSat^ovtW) 

III. Regum et imperatorum apophthegmata ('Ano 

(frdey/jLOLTa jSacrtAccov /cat arparTjycov) 

Apophthegmata Laconica (' Ano^deyfiaTa Aa 

KOiVLKa) ...... 

Instituta Laconica (Ta 7raAata tcov Aa/ce8at/zoi>tW 
eVtr^Seu/xaTa) ..... 



PAGE 
lA 

17d 
37b 

48e 



75a 

86b 

93a 

97c 

100b 

101f 

122b 
138a 

146b 
164e 

172 a 

208a 

236f 
xiii 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 



PAGE 

Lacaenarum apophthegmata (Aa/catiw ano- 

<j>diyixara) ...... 240c 

Mulierum virtutes (TvvaiK&v dperat) . . 242e 

IV. Quaestiones Romanae ( Atrta c Pa>/z,at/cd) . . 263d 

Quaestiones Graecae (AtTta 'EAA^vt/cd) . . 29 Id 

Parallela Graeca et Romana (Lwayojyr) loro- 

picbv TrapaXXriXoiv /EAA^vt/caV /cat 'Pa>//,at/ccui>) . 305a 
De fortuna Romanorum (Ilept rrjs 'Pco/xaiW 

rvxys) ....... 316b 

De Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute, li- 

bri ii (Ilept rrjs 'AAe^dVSpou rvx^jS rj dperr)s, 

Ao'yotjS') 326d 

Bellone an pace clariores fuerint Athenienses 

(Uorepov 'AOrjvcuoi /caret TroXepLOV rj Kara oo<j>iav 

ivho^orepoi) ...... 345c 

V. De Iside et Osiride (Ilept latSos /cat 'OoLpihos) 351c 
De E apud Delphos (Ilept rod EI rod eV AeX(f>ots) 384c 
De Pythiae oraculis (Ilept rod firj xpdV e/^terpa 

vdv rr)v HvQiav) ..... 394d 

De defectu oraculorum (Ilept ra>v e/cAeAot770Taw 

XpyjoTTjplojv) ...... 409e 

VI. An virtus doceri possit (Et StSa/croy r) dperrj) . 439a 
De virtute morali (Ilept rrjs r)du<rjs dperrjs) . 440d 
De cohibenda ira (Ilept dopyrjolas) . . 452e 

De tranquillitate animi (Ilept evOvfilas) . . 464e 

De fraterno amore (Ilept <£tAaoeA<£tas-) . . 478a 

De amore prolis (Ilept rrjs els rd e/cyova ^tAo- 

GTopyias) . . . . . .493a 

An vitiositas ad infelicitatem sufficiat (Et 

avTapKTjS r) /ca/cta rrpos /ca/coSatjLto^tW) . . 498a 

Animine an corporis affectiones sint peiores 

(Tlorepov rd rrjs ifrvxys rj rd rod oajpuaros rrddrj 

Xetpova) ....... 500b 

De garrulitate (Ilept dSoXeoxlas) . . . 502b 

De curiositate (Ilept 7roXv7rpayp,oovvr)s) . . 515b 

VII. De cupiditate divitiarum (Ilept ^iXorrXovrlas) . 523c 
De vitioso pudore (Ilept Svocorrlas) . . 528c 

De invidia et odio (Ilept <j>96vov /cat puioovs) . 536e 
De se ipsum citra invidiam laudando (Ilept rod 

eavrov erraivelv dvem^Oovcos) . . . 539a 

De sera numinis vindicta (Ilept ra>v vtto rod 

Oelov fipahecos ripLajpovpuevcov) . . . 548a 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 

PAGE 

De fato (Ilepl elfiap/juev-qs) .... 568b 
De genio Socratis (Ilepl tov T,ojKpdrovs haipioviov) 575a 
De exilio (Uepl <j>vyrjs) .... 599a 

Consolatio ad uxorem (Uapap.v9rjTiKos npos rrjv 

yvvaiKa) ...... 608a 

VIII. Quaestionum convivalium libri vi (2i^7rocria- 

kcjv TTpofiXiqtLaTayv j3ij3Aia S*') . . . 612c 

I, 612c; II, 629b; III, 644e ; IV, 659e ; V, 

672d ; VI, 686a 
IX. Quaestionum convivalium libri iii (Su^oo-ia- 

ko)v TTpofiXyiLarajv /3i/3Aia y') . . . 697c 

VII, 697c ; VIII, 716d ; IX, 736c 
Amatorius fEpam/co's) .... 748e 

X. Amatoriae narrationes ('Epam/ccu haqyrjoeis) . 77 1e 
Maxime cum principibus philosopho esse dis- 

serendum (Ilepl tov otl pudXtoTa tols rjyefjLoai 

Set rov <f>iX6oo(f)ov hiaXiyeoO at) . . . 776a 

Ad principem ineruditum (IIpos r)ye\xova dirai- 

hevTov) ....... 779c 

An seni respublica gerenda sit (Et Trpeofivrepcp 

7ToAlT€VTeOv) ...... 783a 

Praecepta gerendae reipublicae (UoXltlko. 

irapayyiXiiara) . . . . .798a 

De unius in republica dominatione, populari 
statu, et paucorum imperio (Ilepl pLovapxias 
Kal hrjixoKparias Kal oXiyapxtas) . . . 826a 

De vitando aere alieno (ILepl tov firj Setv Savel- 
£eodai) . . . . . f . . 827d 

Vitae decern oratorum (Uepl tcjv Se/ca p-qro- 

pojv) . . . . . . . 832b 

Comparationis Aristophanis et Menandri com- 
pendium (TiVyKpioeojs ' Apioro<f>dvovs Kal Wlev- 
dvSpov eTnTopbrj) ..... 853a 

XI. De Herodoti malignitate (Ilepl rrjs 'HpoSoTou 

KdKorjdeias) ...... 854e 

* De placitis philosophorum, libri v (Uepl rajv 

dpeoKovrcov tols (f>iXoGO<f)OLS , j8tj3Ata e') . . 874d 

Quaestiones naturales (Ain'ot <f>vou<aL) . . 911c 

XII. De facie quae in orbe lunae apparet (Ilepl tov 
ejx^>aivop.evov rrpOGCOTrov to> kvkXco ttjs creXrj- 
vrjs) . . . . . 920a 

* To be added to this edition later. 

XV 



THE TRADITIONAL ORDER 

PAGE 

De primo frigido (Ilept rod 7Tpu)ra)s tpvxpov) . 945e 
Aquane an ignis sit utilior (Ilept rod rrorepov 

vSojp 77 7Tvp xp^o-ipLCjrepov) .... 955d 
Terrestriane an aquatilia animalia sint caliidi- 

ora (Horepa rcov £,<x)cov (fypovipLwrepa rd xepaata 

77 rd evvSpa) ...... 959 a 

Bruta animalia ratione uti, sive Gryllus (Ilept 

rod rd dXoya Xoycp ^p^o^at) . . . 985d 

De esu carnium orationes ii (Ilept oapKo<j>ayLas 

Xoyoifi') 993a 

XIII. Platonicae quaestiones (HXarcoviKa t^r-qpuara) 999c 
De animae procreatione in Timaeo (Ilept rrjs eV 

TtpLatcp i/jvxoyovias) . . . . .1012a 

Compendium libri de animae procreatione in 

Timaeo ('Etuto/zt) rod 7rept rrjs eV rep Tt puaicp 

i/jvxoyovtas) ...... 1030d 

De Stoicorum repugnantiis (Ilept Htcjikcjv ivav- 

rLOJixdrcov) ...... 1033 a 

Compendium argumenti Stoicos absurdiora 

poetis dicere (Hvvoi/jis rod on 7rapa§o£6r€pa ot 

UrcjiKol rcov rroit]rGiv Xiyovoi) . . . 1057c 

De communibus notitiis adversus Stoicos (Ilept 

rcov kolvcov evvoicov rrpos rovs ^rcoiKovs) . 1058e 

XIV. Non posse suaviter vivi secundum Epicurum 

("Ort ouSe JtJv iariv rjbecos Kar 'Em/coupon) . 1086c 
Adversus Colotem (IIpos KcoXcorrjv vnep rcov 

dXXcov cjuXooocbcov) ..... 1107d 
An recte dictum sit latenter esse vivendum (Et 

KaXcos €Lprjrai ro XdOe fiicboas) . . . 1128a 

De musica (Ilept pLovaiKrjs) .... 1131a 
XV. Fragments and Index 



xvi 



THAT EPICURUS 

ACTUALLY MAKES A 

PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

(NON POSSE SUAVITER VIVI 
SECUNDUM EPICURUM) 



VOL. XIV 



INTRODUCTION 

As a Platonist Plutarch often polemizes against both 
the Stoics and the Epicureans. In nine titles he 
mentions Chrysippus or the Stoics by name, in eight 
Epicurus or the Epicureans, and to the eight we may 
add the Reply to Colotes and the discussion of the 
precept " Live Unknown." a One title, Selections and 
Refutations of the Stoics and Epicureans (No. 148 in the 
Catalogue of Lamprias), has a place on both lists. 
Three of the anti-Epicurean works bear titles parallel 
to those of anti-Stoic works : 

On the Contradictions of the Epicureans (No. 129) 

On the Contradictions of the Stoics 

That the Epicureans Speak More Paradoxically than 
the Poets (No. 143) 

That the Stoics Speak More Paradoxically than the 
Poets (No. 79) 

On Free Will in Reply to Epicurus (No. 133) 

On Free Will in Reply to the Stoics (No. 154). 
The titles of the remaining lost anti-Epicurean 
writings are A Reply to Epicurus' Lecturers) On the Gods 
(No. 80), On Superstition in Reply to Epicurus (No. 155), 
and On Lives in Reply to Epicurus (No. 15ff). b 

Most of the polemical essays were no doubt written 

a Cf.K. Ziegler in Pauly-Wissowa, s. v. " Plutarchos," vol. 
xxi. 1 (1951), coll. 704. 65-705. 15. 

b Epicurus wrote a work in four books On Lives (Diogenes 
Laert. x. 28). 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

after Plutarch had set up his school. The Reply to 
Colotes in Defence of the Other Philosophers is the report 
of a lecture by Plutarch in the school, while the essay 
on the impossibility of a pleasant life reports a discus- 
sion that took place after the lecture. 

The two essays are widely separated in the two 
mss., E and B, that contain them both, and in the 
Aldine and Basle editions. a Ferron first brought 
them together in his translation (Lyons, 1555) ; but 
failing to notice that the essay on the pleasant life 
refers to the Reply to Colotes at 1086 c-d, & he retained 
the order of the Basle edition, merely omitting the 
essays that intervene. This arrangement was taken 
over by R. Estienne (1572), and passed from his 
edition to all subsequent editions, including the 
present. 

In the first work Plutarch is the principal speaker, 
in the second he yields to Aristodemus and Theon. 
The first is dedicated to Saturninus, the second has 
no dedication, which is natural enough, as the dis- 
cussion in the second is carried on by Theon and 
Aristodemus. The tone of the first is noticeably 
sharper. In the second it has become a good deal 
milder, no doubt in deference to certain criticisms 
(for which see 1086 e and 1096 e with the note). 
There is a strong hint that the end of the second 
essay (1 104 c — 1 107 c) is taken from a previous lecture 
of Plutarch's. 

° Thirty essays intervene in E, fourteen in B, and forty- 
eight in the Aldine and its copy, the Basle edition. 

6 It is noted by Gassendi, who cites the Reply to Colotes 
(1119 f) as " the first of the two books against Colotes " 
(priore in Coloten libro) in his Animadversiones in Decimum 
Librum Diogenis Laertii, Qui est de Vita, Moribus, Placitisque 
Epicuri (Lyons, 1649), p. 116. 

3 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

The scene of the dialogue is a gymnasium (1086 d) 
near Plutarch's school, presumably at Chaeronea. 

The speakers are Aristodemus and The on, and a 
few words are spoken by Zeuxippus and by Plutarch 
himself. Theon is represented as reluctant to speak 
(1104 a ; cf. 1087 b)^; Aristodemus is an enthusiast. 
We may suppose that some of the students are also 
present, ready to intervene if Theon's memory should 
fail (1104 a). 

It will be convenient to state the Epicurean position 
first, and then observe how Plutarch attacks it. 

Pleasure, aocording to the Epicureans, is the highest 
good ; it is the ultimate aim of all our activities past, 
present, and future. It is of two kinds, pleasure of 
a settled state, and pleasure in motion. The settled 
pleasure is the same as the absence of pain ; indeed 
only those pleasures in movement are chosen that 
are incidental to the riddance of pain. 

Such are the pleasures of the body. Pleasure of 
the mind is a reflection of these. Absence of pertur- 
bation (ataraxia) corresponds to the settled pleasures 
of the body, and animation (euphrosyne) at the antici- 
pation or remembrance of a pleasure in movement 
of the body is a pleasure in movement of the mind. 
Because it is not limited to the present but draws 
also on past and future, pleasure of the mind admits 
of greater stability and permanence than pleasure of 
the body ; it is thus the proper object of the philo- 
sophical life. 

After a short introduction (chapters i-ii) the essay 
on the pleasant life falls into two main sections, 
divided by the dramatic interruption at the beginning 
of chapter xx. 

I. The first section has three parts, corresponding 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

to Plato's threefold division of the soul and Aristotle's 
three kinds of lives (Eth. Nic. i. 5 [1095 b 17-19]). 

A. (chapters iii-viii). The life of pleasure, as the Epi- 
cureans proclaim it, is dedicated to those pleasures 
that originate in the body and have meaning only 
by reference to the body. Such pleasure is of little 
consequence ; it is more limited, both spatially and 
temporally, than pain, and it has no existence apart 
from pain, as the removal of pain is its upper limit 
(chapter iii). The pleasures of the mind, which on 
this view consist solely of the memory and expecta- 
tion of physical pleasures, must be even less substan- 
tial than the bodily sensations from which they rise 
(chapters iv-v) ; nor does such a precarious good 
free the mind from the fears and anxieties which on 
the Epicurean view form the chief obstacle to the 
pleasant life (chapter vi). This narrow concept of the 
good destroys the more exalted features of human 
life and reduces men to the level of, or even below, 
the animals (chapters vii-viii). 

B. (chapters ix-xiv). The contemplative life, which 
the Epicureans reject, affords pleasures that are free 
from any admixture of pain and are truly congenial 
to the mind. These include the pleasures of art, 
literature, history (chapters ix-x), and mathematics 
(chapter xi), which are far more substantial than the 
recollection of physical pleasures (chapter xii) ; here 
belongs also musical theory, which " makes even the 
lover forget " (chapter xiii). The intellectual plea- 
sures give due recognition to the higher aspects of 
man's nature and the ascendancy of mind over body 
(chapter xiv). 

C. (chapters xv-xix). Finally, the active life, which 
confers benefits that lead to public recognition and 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

gratitude, brings far greater pleasures than the trivial 
activities of the Epicureans in their garden. Even 
ordinary persons, as well as the very greatest, show 
by their conduct a preference for glory over self- 
indulgence (chapters xv-xvii). The memory of glori- 
ous actions is also more pleasant than that of physical 
pleasures (chapter xviii). Nor was Epicurus himself 
insensitive to the pleasures of fame, and his failure 
to obtain them by legitimate means must have been 
a source of pain to him (chapter xix). 

II. The discussion now turns to the dismal prospect 
presented by the Epicurean attitude toward (A) the 
gods and (B) the afterlife. The argument is not that 
the Platonic or Stoic views are true ; it is that the 
Platonic or Stoic view yields greater pleasure than 
the Epicurean. 

A. Aristodemus (chapters xx-xxiii) points out 
that the Epicureans, in their effort to remove the 
anxiety caused by superstitious fear of the gods, 
replace fear by insensibility and so destroy also the 
pleasure attendant on a belief in divine benevolence 
(chapter xx). For evil persons religious belief acts 
as a restraint and so makes their lives more peaceful ; 
for ordinary persons the pleasure derived from re- 
ligious belief outweighs the fear ; whereas to Epi- 
curus, who goes through the motions of worship 
through fear of public censure and has no compensat- 
ing hopes, religion is a painful constraint (chapter 
xxi). For truly good men the belief that the gods 
love and reward virtue is a source of indescribable 
joy (chapter xxii). But the Epicureans, who look 
to nothing evil or good from the gods, can offer no 
recourse in misfortune except complete annihilation 
(chapter xxiii). 

6 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

B. This last point leads to the discussion of the 
afterlife (chapters xxv-xxx), and Theon replaces 
Aristodemus as speaker. Recalling that for Epicurus 
the fear of punishment is the only deterrent of vice, 
Theon argues that on this premise it would be advan- 
tageous for the wicked to fear punishment after 
death (chapter xxv) ; in ordinary persons the childish 
fear of the afterlife is overwhelmed by the pleasure 
they derive from the thought that existence does not 
come to an end in death, while they are indeed made 
anxious by the fear that death may mean extinction 
(chapter xxvi) — an anxiety which Epicurus intensifies 
by his teaching (chapter xxvii). Epicurus thus robs 
life of one of its greatest pleasures, the expectation 
of a better life to come (chapter xxviii) ; an expecta- 
tion which is equally pleasant whether one's life in 
this world has been happy or wretched, whereas the 
contrary Epicurean view brings hopelessness to the 
miserable and despair to the fortunate (chapter xxix). 
For if death is annihilation it is indeed a fearful pro- 
spect (chapter xxx). Such then are the pleasures, of 
continued existence, of divine benevolence, of learn- 
ing, of ambition, which Epicurus excludes when he 
ties the soul to the body and limits good to the escape 
from evil (chapter xxxi). 

The essay illuminates the relation of Epicurus' 
hedonism to the thought of Plato and Aristotle. Plato 
in the Philebus (53 c 5) had placed pleasure under 
" becoming " rather than " being," and had argued 
(53 e — 54 d) that as " becoming " is always for some 
end (heneka tou), it cannot be the hou he?ieka, the 
highest good. Aristotle did not accept this Platonic 
position, asserting that not all pleasures are " be- 
comings," but some are activities (eiiergeiai) and 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

therefore ends (Eth. Nic. vii. 12 [1153 a 9-10]). a To be 
sure, Aristotle does not admit pleasure as the highest 
end, but he recognizes that it accompanies that virtu- 
ous activity which he identifies with happiness. Epi- 
curus holds that the highest pleasure is not a " be- 
coming " : it is not a " settling down " (katastasis ; 
cf. Philebus, 42 d 6), as Plato had described it, but the 
" settled condition " (katastema ; Mor. 1089 d) that 
constitutes the final limit of the removal of all causes 
of disturbance. The Magna Mor alia (ii. 7 [1205 b 
20-24]) takes a similar position. 

The " settled condition " of the physical organism 
presupposes that the " necessary " desires, primarily 
those for food and drink, are satisfied ; hence the 
prominence of the " pleasures of the belly " in Epi- 
curean thought. But that the " motions " by which 
these needs are satisfied should themselves be plea- 
sant is an unnecessary elaboration, for the body does 
not require expensive fare ; such pleasures of motion, 
however, are acceptable, so long as they do not 
exceed the limits of nature. 5 

The " settled condition of the flesh " is a state of 
peace and tranquillity c ; the pleasure it affords is 
not a source of disquietude, as Plato had said of 
pleasure (tarattousdi, Philebus, 63 d 6). With Aristotle 
(Eth. Nic. vii. 14 [1154 b 27-28]), Epicurus held that 
pleasure is more to be found in rest than in motion. 
Pleasure is not limitless (Philebus, 27 e, 28 a), nor is 
it characterized by that madness (Philebus, 63 d 6), 
brutishness, and violence which in Plato's view 

° Cf. Magna Mor. ii. 7 (1204 b 6-7, 19-23, 1205 b 34-37). 

5 See V. Brochard, Etudes de philosophie ancienne et 
philosophie moderne (Paris, 1912), p. 273. 

c Cf. Brochard {op. cit. pp. 258-260), who contrasts the 
Cyrenaic view, that pleasures require motion. 

8 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

(Philebus, 67 b) set it at odds with reason and intellect ; 
it is rather the ultimate end of virtue and wisdom, 
without which it cannot be realized. For it is by 
imposing limits on the desires that the mind, with 
the aid of philosophy, brings about the tranquillity 
on which the pleasant life depends. a 

It is of course all-important for Epicurus to estab- 
lish the role of the mind in the pursuit of pleasure. 
Plato had already set up in the Philebus (36 c) a cor- 
relation between false opinions and false pleasures ; 
and whereas Epicurus would doubtless (with Theo- 
phrastus) b deny that a pleasure can be " false," he 
most emphatically affirms that a pleasant life can be 
secured only if one's opinions about the gods, the 
physical world, the soul, and good and evil are true, 
since false opinions are the principal cause of fear 
and anxiety. 

Another important contribution of the mind to the 
pursuit of pleasure lies in the role of memory and 
anticipation. Plato had stated (Philebus, 32 b-c, 33 c — 
36 b, 47 d 1-2) that desire is attended by a memory 
of past satisfactions and a corresponding hope for 
the future ; and Plato set up the opposition of 
memory and desire as one of soul and body. Epicurus 
sees in this opposition a means of escaping from 
bondage to the feelings of the moment (Mor. 1088 b), 
such as characterizes the life of brutes and slaves. 
For the mind has at its command both past and 
future, and by dwelling on pleasures remembered 
and anticipated it may achieve a high measure of 
independence from the hazards of the present. 

° See Brochard, op. cit. p. 280. 

6 Frag. 85 (ed. Wimmer), from Damascius, Lectures on 
the Philebus, §§ 167-168 (ed. Westerink, p. 81). 
e Cf. Brochard, op. cit. p. 284. 

9 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Thus Epicurus, without relinquishing bodily sensa- 
tion as the basis of all pleasure , a established his claim 
that pleasure is (in the terms with which Aristotle 
describes happiness) the highest in the hierarchy of 
ends (akrotaton, Eth. Nic. i. 4 [1095 a 16] ; cf. Mor. 
1089 d)j that it is something to be prized (timion, Eth. 
Nic. i. 12 [1102 a 1, 4) ; cf. Mor. 1088 e), divine (theion, 
Etk. Nic. i. 12 [1 102 a 4]), lasting (monimos, Eth. Nic. i. 10 
[1 100 b 2]), secure (bebaiotes, Eth. Nic. i. 10 [1 100 b 13] ; 
cf. Mor. 1097 e), complete (teleios, Eth. Nic. i. 7 
[1097 a 29] ; cf Mor. 1088 e), needing nothing 
further (autarkes, Eth. Nic. i. 7 [1097 b 8] ; cf the 
Letter to Menoeceus, 130), not easily altered (medamos 
eumetabolon, Eth. Nic. i. 10 [1100 b 2-3]), and requiring 
the cultivation of man's highest faculties (Eth. Nic. i. 
7 [1098 a 3-18] ; cf. the Letter to Menoeceus, 132). 

Plutarch's answer to Epicurus rests on a combina- 
tion of the Platonic position that the pleasure atten- 
dant on the removal of pain is impure, slavish, and 
insignificant, with the Aristotelian view that the high- 
est activities of the soul are attended by the highest 
pleasures. He is especially critical of the role Epicurus 
assigns to the mind, arguing that memory and anti- 
cipation cannot remedy the instability of physical plea- 
sure, that the opinions about things which the Epi- 
cureans accept as true are less able to dispel mental 
anguish than certain of those they reject as false, and 
that the reference of all activities of the mind back 
to the body destroys the whole upper level of human 
life. 

a It should of course be remembered that pleasures of the 
body are not limited to taste and touch, but include all the 
senses. Thus, conversations with his friends (that is, philo- 
sophical discussions) were among the pleasures that Epicurus 
remembered on his deathbed. 
10 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

Twenty-one mss. of the essay are known to us : X a 
nBrAy7rtrKtT^QK8E g cd. In X the first part of the 
essay (slightly less than half, through ?} yap 1096 c at 
the bottom of folio 307 v ) is by the earlier hand (loss 
of a double leaf of four pages has carried away -vwv 
ehou, — o-ocfroKkeovs 1091 e — 1093 d). The missing end 
has been supplied on supplementary leaves by X s 
(which we do not cite) from a derivative of a. Q 
breaks off at 1103 f, after koi Set ; g in the middle 
of a line, after e8o£as (1104 a) ; c after <f)66vo$ (1102 
d) ; d after KareXdelv (1097 c), d s supplying the rest 
from k. A passage of some five lines (o Savaros — 
acjmtpeLTat 1106 b) is found in ms. 429 of the national 
library at Munich, an anthology of the 14th century. 
It contains no significant variants. 

The mss. are related as shown on the following 
page. a 

a Our present view of the relation of X a gc — the better 
readings of gc being due to corruption and conjecture, and 
not to tradition — was reached when it was too late to change 
the order and spacing of the sigla, which should have been 
a X gc. The second hand of jS has taken readings from a ms. 
closely connected with g ; we therefore cite /3 2 . X s presents 
a scholar's text with wilful changes. X s begins at 1096 c ; 
c ends at 1102 d, g at 1104 a. In these passages agreement 
of X s with c or g is very slight. At 1098 c dfi^eOrjKe X sac gc 
have dvTedrjKe ; at 1098 c X s gc (and jS E 1 ) have r} 9 the rest 77 ; 
at 1103 c X s g (and ayr 2 ) have StooKopovs, the rest hiooKovpovs ; 
at 1 103 f X s g have rwv, but g alone has Xoycov against Xoyov 
of X s and the rest. Conceivably X s derives from a connexion 
of g into which readings from a Planudean ms. were imported 
wholesale. Thus X s has orav at 1100 c for o gc and on the 
rest. It would have been easier to misread t as the compen- 
dium for av if -rt had been superscribed or squeezed in after o. 

In the present essay y is the principal and perhaps the 
only source of k ; and the same holds in the De Latenter 
Vivendo, the De Musica, and the following essays contained 
in vol. vii : De Cupiditate Divitiarum, De Invidia et Odio, 

11 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 





U \ T d 



o ... 
d 



Aldine 
I 
Q X 

We regularly cite the readings of X a gc. 
The following renderings can be mentioned : 

Arnoldus Ferronus, Plutarcki Liber Contra Coloten* 
Quo id suscipitur probandum, Ne uiuere quidem 
iucunde quenquam qui sectam sequatur Epicuri. 
Lyons, 1555. 

William Baxter, " That it is not possible to live 
pleasurably according to the Doctrine of Epi- 
curus." In Plutarch's Morals, vol. ii, Fifth 
Edition, London, 1718. We cite a number of 
conjectures from " The Translator 's Emendations 
and Remarks " (ibid., pp. 193-216). 

Be Laude Ipsius, Be Fato, and Be Exilio. In the Be Sera 
Numinis Vindicta k derives from A but not through y ; in 
the Be Cupiditate Divitiarum and in the Consolatio ad Uxo- 
rem there is a connexion between k and y, but k also shows 
the influence of another Planudean, perhaps A. Our stemma 
of the Be Invidia et Odio (Class. Philol. vol. liii, p. 223) 
should be corrected to show k as a descendant of y. 

12 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

L'abbe Lambert, " Examen du systeme d'fipicure." 
In Nouvelle traduction de divers morceaux des 
(Euvres morales de Plutarque, Paris, 1763. 

Marcello Adriani, " Che non si pu6 viver lietamente 
secondo la dottrina di Epicure' ' In Opuscoli di 
Plutarco, vol. vi, Milan, 1829, pp. 123-175. 

J. J. Hartman, " Het betoog dat de Leer van Epi- 
curus zelfs het levensgenot opheft." In De 
Avondzon des Heidendoms 2 , part 2, Leiden, 1912, 
pp. 235-291. 

Otto Apelt, " Beweis, dass man nach Epikur iiber- 
haupt nicht vergniigt leben kann." In Plutarch, 
Moralische Schriften, Erstes Biindchen, Leipzig, 
1926, pp. 56-110. 

B. Snell, " Man kann nach Epikurs Grundsatzen 

nicht gliicklich werden. ,J In Plutarch, Von der 

Ruhe des Gemutes und andere philosophische Schrif- 

ten, Zurich, 1948, pp. 52-74. 

The dialogue is No. 82 in the Catalogue of Lamprias. 



13 



1086 C OTI OYAE ZHN ESTIN 

HAEQS* KAT' EniKOTPON 

1. KcoAoOTT^ 2 6 ']&7TLKOVpOV GVV7]9r]S /3t/3AtW €%€- 

8o)K€v eTTiypaijjas " on Kara ra 3 rcov dXXwv (j)tXo- 
D o6<f>ojv Soyfiara ov&e t^rjv eoTiv."* ooa tolvvv tj/jllv 

€7Trj\6eV €L1T€LP TTpOS aVTOV VTTCp TCJV (f)lXoOO(j)aJV 

eypd(j)rj rrporepov. irrel oe Kal rrjs oxoXrjs StaAv- 
6eiG7]S iyevovro Xoyot 5 irrXeLoves 6 ev rep TrepiTrarcp 
Trpos rrjv alpeaiVy eSo£e /zot Kal tovtovs avaXafielv , 
el Kal hi dXXo parjOev dAA' evoei^eojs eVe/ca rots' 
evdvvovaiv erepovs 1 ore Set tovs Xoyovs eKaarov <Lv 
iXeyXei Kal rd ypd/Jipbara fir] napepyajs SteXOelv, 
firjSe (j>ojvds aXXa^oOev aAAa? aTTOdTTCovra 8 Kal prj- 
fxaatv avev irpaytiarcov €7tltiu€[jl€VOV rrapaKpove- 
oOat 11 tovs drreipovs. 

2. YlpoeXOovrajv yap rjfxcov els to yvp.vdoiov 
d!)oiT€p elojOeifjiev e/c ttjs 12 SiaTpifirjs, Z>€v£l7T7TOS, 

1 ouSe t,rjv ioTiv rj$ea)s a and Catalogue of Lamprias : ovde 
rjSecos tyfjv X ; ovhe rjhecos (g 1 omits Se rj-) £,rjv ion g 2 C. 

2 KO)\(x)rrjs X g c (and so throughout) : koXcjttjs a (and so 
throughout). 

3 ret X 3 a g c : X 1 omits. 

4 ioriv (-lv X x )a g C : earlv rjSecos X 3 . 

6 Xoyou added here by Meziriacus, after TTepnrarcp by Aid. 2 . 

6 TrXeioves Xa g : nXelovs C. 

7 irepovs a : -cos X g c. 

8 aTTOOTr&vra X c a g c : -at X ac . 

14 



THAT EPICURUS ACTUALLY MAKES 
A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE 

1. Epicurus' disciple Colotes brought out a book en- 
titled " That Conformity to the Doctrines of the 
Other Philosophers Actually makes Life Impossible." 
What I was prompted to reply to him in defence of 
the philosophers has already been put in writing. 
But since after the session was over a number of 
further arguments were brought against the sect b 
in the course of the promenade, I determined to 
record them like the rest, if for no other reason, at 
least to show persons who undertake to set others 
right that they must each study with care the argu- 
ments and books of the men they impugn, and must 
not mislead the inexperienced by detaching expres- 
sions from different contexts c and attacking mere 
words apart from the things to which they refer. 

2. When we had gone on to the gymnasium, as 
was our custom after the lecture, Zeuxippus said : 

a 1107 d— 1127 e, infra. 

6 The Epicureans. 

Cf. 1108 d, infra, and Mor. 548 c. 

9 TTpay^arojv ct 2ss {nulla re subiecta Ferronus) : ypa/z/xaVa>v 
Xa g c. 

10 €7HTi0e/Aevov Xa c : -ot g. 

11 7rapaKpov€odcu Xylander : airoKpoveaOaL Xa g c. 

12 rrjs X g c j8 2 : a omits. 

15 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(1086) „,,,„„„ 

jg " 6/XOt l^eV," €^7), " 8oK€L TToAv 1 TTfS TTpOGrjKOVOTjS 

6 Aoyos elprjoOai 7TapprjGias fiaXaKcorepov airLaoi 
S' 2 rjpuv iyKaXovvres oi rrepl 'JlpaKAelSrjv (bs* rod 
*Y*7TiKovpov Kal rod M.7]TpoSa)pov* fjbrjSev alricov 
ovtojv Opaavrepov Ka9aifjap,€vocs." 5 Kal 6 Qetov, 
" etra ovk eAeyes,'" elrrev, " on tols eKelvwv 6 
KouAcott^ TrapafiaAAopuevos evc^rjpLoraros 6 avSpcov 
(fraiverai; ra yap iv avOpcoirois aloyiGra prjfjba- 
ra — ficopLoAoxtas, ArjKvdiGpbovs, aAa^oveias , irai- 
prjG€LS, avopo(f>ovias, fiapvorovovs , iroAvcfrOopovs, 
papv€yK€(/)dAovs — avvayayovreg * ApiororiAovs Kal 
HajKpdrovs Kal Ylvdayopov Kal Upajrayopov Kal 
F ®€oc/)pd(jTov Kal 'UpaKAelSov Kal 'InTrapxias 7 Kal 
tivos ydp ovyl tCov liri^avCdv KareaKeSaaav, cjare 
el Kal rdAAa irdvra Gocf>tos elx ev avrois, 8 id ras 
j8Aaa</>^/xta9 ravras Kal KaKrjyopias 8 rroppajraroj 
oo(f)ias dv elpyeoOai' ' (f>66vo? yap e£aj deiov xopov ' 
Kal tpr)AoTV7ria oC daOevetav diroKpyifjaL pLrj 8vva- 

1 ttoXv X 2 a g C : 77oAAot X 1 . 

2 dm'acri S' XA 2 E g C : diriaoiv aA 1 . 

3 d>s added by Stegmann. 

4 After MrjTpoSwpov Diibner omits rjfjL&v. 

5 KaOaipafievoLS X 1 g c j8 2 : -dfxevoi X 2 a. 

6 €V(f>7]ix6raTOS Xa c(-ott) : ev^rjfjLOTTjs g. 

7 LTT7Tapx(o.s X g C : LTnrdpxov a. 
8 KaKrjyopias Aid. 2 : Karrjyopias Xa g C. 

a Otherwise unknown. 

6 Theon was probably Plutarch's assistant in the school : 
cf 1087 a, infra, and Pohlenz' note (p. 123). 

c Epicurus, Frag. 237 (ed. Usener). 

d There are eight insults and seven eminent names. So- 
crates was the charlatan {cf. 1117 d, infra), Hipparchia 
doubtless the prostitute, and Aristotle (possibly with Theo- 
phrastus) among the " heroes of many misadventures," as 

16 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1086 

"I, for one, think that the statement of the argument 
fell far short of the plain speech that was required. 
Yet Heracleides a has gone off charging us with undue 
vehemence in our attack on the unoffending Epicurus 
and Metrodorus. ,, Here Theon & put in : "And you 
didn't reply that by their standard c Colotes looks 
like a paragon of measured speech ? For they made 
a collection of the most disgraceful terms to be found 
anywhere — ' buffoonery,' ' hollow booming,' ' char- 
latanism,' ' prostitution,' ' assassin,' * groaner,' ' hero 
of many a misadventure,' ' nincompoop,' d — and show 
ered it e on Aristotle, Socrates, Pythagoras, Protago- 
ras, Theophrastus, Heracleides, Hipparchia — indeed 
what eminent name have they spared ? Thus, even 
if they had done wisely in everything else, this abu- 
sive and defamatory language would have put a great 
distance between them and wisdom, since ' envy has 
no place in the choir divine ' f nor jealousy so feeble 
that it is powerless to conceal its mortification." 

Epicurus called the dialecticians (Diogenes Laert. x. 8). 
Heracleides of Aenus, a pupil of Plato, murdered Cotys 
(1126 c, infra). " Hollow booming" was suited to tragic 
declamation (cf. Pearson on Sophocles, Frag. 1063), and 
thus might have been assigned to Pythagoras. Perhaps 
Hipparchia the Cynic was the buffoon. Epicurus used 
barystonoi (" deep groaners," a derisive term applied to 
tragic actors) in Frag. 1 14 (ed. Usener) of persons who would 
take him for a pupil of Nausiphanes. Of the persons in the 
list who were then alive or could have been (the fragment 
comes from a letter to his friends in Mytilene, and would be 
dated 310 or later) Hipparchia was not a lecturer and Hera- 
cleides was inactive ; thus Theophrastus is the only person 
to whom the term could refer. This leaves " nincompoop " 
for Protagoras. 

• Plutarch has in mind an hedlokrasia, a collection of 
leavings which at rowdy banquets was dumped on guests 
who had fallen asleep. 

f Plato, Phaedrus, 247 a. 

17 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1086) jjievrj 1 to dAyovv." viroAaftojv ovv 6 'AotoToS^/xos', 2 
'YlpaKAelSrjS ovv," e$r\ y tl ypapLpuaTiKos tbv dvrl 

1087 TTJS ' TTOirjTLKTJS TVpfirjS ' COS €K€lvOL Z AeyOVOiV KOI 

tcov ' ^Ofiripov jJbojpoAoyrjiJLaTQjv ' olttot Lvef tclvtols 
^JLiriKovpa) ^dpiras rj 6 tl 5 M.rjTp68a)pos ev ypdpL- 

jJLOLOL TOOOVTOLS TCpl TTOLTjrfj AeAo tS 6 prj K€V . CtAA' 
€K€LVOVS [JbeV €(A)[JL€V, O) 7j€v£l7T7T€' TO §6 €V dpxfj T ^ v 

Aoycov prjdev irpos tovs dvSpos, ws ovk eariv ev 7 
tfiv Kar avTovs, tl ov s pidAAov, err el KeKfjLrjKev 9 
ovtos, 10 clvtol hi avrcov 11 Trepalvopiev 12 d'/za kcll 
Qecova TrapaAafiovTes ; " kcll 6 Qecov rrpos clvtov, 
" dAA' ' ovtos p<ev,' " e(/>r) } " 6 d9Aos ' eTepois ' eK- 
TeTeAeoTai ' 7700 13 rjfjbcov* 

vvv aure 14 gkottov d'AAoy 

el SoKel OejJievoL ToiavTT) tlvl 8lkt] jjLeTicojJLev virep 
B Ttjov cf)iAoa6(f)OJv tovs dvSpas' dirohei^ai yap, dvnep 
fj Svvcltov, eTTixeiprjGcojJbev 15 otl pir)8e tfr\v rjSecos 
ZotIv /car' avTovs" " ttclttcu," 16 elirov 11 eycoye ye- 
Adoas, 18 " els ttjv yaoTepa tols dvSpdoiv eoiKas 19 

1 £,r)\oTVTTia . . . hwafxivq X 2 (-^9 X 1 )A 2 E g c : ^Xorvirias 
. . . 8vvafj,€V7)S aA 1 . 

2 apiOToBrjiAOS g C : dpLOToreXrjs Xa. 

3 iKelvoi (-€t- X 2 )a g c : itceivois X 1 . 

4 drroTLvei Xa r C : -retVet a ar g. 

5 on nos : on Xa g c. 6 tu> added by Emperius. 
7 ev added by Wilamowitz. 8 ov a : ov X ; ooi g c. 

9 67761 K€KpL7]K€V a : €TTIK€K(X7)K€V X g c. 

10 ovros Xa g : avrovs C. 

11 avrtov a (av- X) : iavTwv g c. 

12 TTepaLvofjL^v Xa g : -wpuev c. 

13 7Tpo {rrpo X)a r g C : 7rpos" a ar . 

14 adre (-rat X 1 ?)a g C : atf rov X 3 . 

15 €7TLX^l'P ll ] (jaj l JL€V X X a g : -Ofl€V X 2 ? C. 

16 TTaiTal Usener (77a7rat X g c) : iravoai a. 
18 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1086-1087 

Aristodemus interposed : " Heracleides then, a stu- 
dent of literature, is repaying his debt to Epicurus a 
for such favours of theirs as ' rabble of poets ' and 
* Homer's idiocies ' and the variety of abuse that 
Metrodorus b has in so many writings heaped upon 
the poet. But enough, Zeuxippus, of Heracleides 
and his set. Why do we not instead take the point 
made against these gentlemen c at the outset of the 
discussion , d that they make a good life impossible, 
and since our friend here e is spent, develop it by our- 
selves, enlisting Theon to help us ? " To this Theon 
said : " But ' This task has been accomplished ' by 
others before us f ; now another mark ' g let us set 
up, if you agree, and avenge the philosophers by 
visiting on these gentlemen the punishment I pro- 
ceed to describe : let us set out to prove, if proved 
it can be, that they actually make a pleasurable life 
impossible." " Oho ! " I said laughing. " It looks as 
if you are going to hop on their * belly ' h and make 

a Epicurus, Frag. 228 (ed. Usener). 

6 Metrodorus, Frag. 24 (ed. Korte). 

c The Epicureans. 

d Reply to Colotes, 1108 c, infra. 

e Plutarch, who had just delivered the Reply to Colotes. 

f The " others " are no doubt Plutarch, and the reference 
may be to the lost work On Lives in Reply to Epicurus. 

9 Homer, Od. xxii. 5-6. After stringing the bow and 
sending the arrow through the axes, Odysseus says to the 
suitors 

" This task has been accomplished harmlessly ; 
Now at another mark, not hit before, 
I try my hand " 
and proceeds to shoot them. 

h A proverb : cf. Life of Lucullus, chap. xi. 2 (498 c). 

17 €l7tov age: -€V X. 

18 ycXdaas X*a g c : iyyeXdaas X 2?m (now erased ?). 

19 eoiKdS Xa g : -ev C. 

19 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1087) evaXelodai 1 kcu tov 2 rrepl 3 tcov Kpecov end^eiv, 
dcfyatpovpievog rjSovrjv dvOpcorrajv fiocbvTajv 

ov yap TTvy\iaypi L elpuev 5 dpLVfioves 

ovSe pTjropes ov8e Trpoardrai SrjfJLOJV ov8e apxovres, 

del S' rjpuv Sacs re (f>lXrj 

kcu TT&oa Std oapKos e7TiTep7rr)s Kivrjois i<p rjSovrjv 

TLVa KCLL X a P^ v IpVxfjS dvaTTeflTropbevrj . 6 8oK€LS ovv 

fJLOt [XT] to eap 7 etjaipelv, 8 aW <j>aoiv, dXXa to ^rjv 
d<f)aipelo6ai tovs av8pas el to l,fjv r)8ea)s firj a7?o- 
Aeiifjeis olvtols. tl ovv, enrev o wetov, eu 

SoKLfJbd^eis tov Xoyov, clvtos ov XPTJ 10 Trapov; " n 
* XPV ao l Jiai •> " € ^ 7rov > 12 " dKpocbfJLevos KCU aTTOKpiVO- 
p,evos, lz dv Serjode* ttjv 8e ryye\iovlav vfuv 14, rrapa- 
SiScojju." fJLLKpd 8rj TTpo<\>aoioa\ievov tov Qecovos 
'AptcrToS^jLCOS", " cos ovvTOfJLov," ecfyrj , " kcCl Xeiav 
excov 686v drreTdcfrpevaas rjpuv 77/069 tov Xoyov, ovk 
eduas rrepl 15 tov kolXov rrpoTepov evOvvas viroox&v 
TTjv cdpeoiv. dvdpdmovs yap r)8ovrjv VTroTiQepievovs 
TeXos ovk eoTtv etjeXdoai 16 tov r)8ecos t,rjv pd8iov 

1 ivaXetad at XaC: ivSiaXetadai g. 

2 tov a c : raV Xa ac ; ttjv gc. 3 7T€pl XaC: napa g. 

4 7rvyfxdxoi Xgc: rrvyfiaxoi a. 

5 €LfJL€v X 1 ?(or elfiev) g c : €ijjl€v X 2 a 2 ; fjfxev a 1 . 

6 dva7refjL7TOfi€vr) A 3 and Reiske : -ys Xa g c. 

7 lap Xgc: rjSv a. 

8 itjaipelv Bern. : e£alp€iv Xa g C. 

9 a7ro\€ii/j€is X 2 A 2 : -tjs X*a g C. 

10 °v XPV ° 2 an( i Amyot : ov XPV Xa g c ; ou^t A 2 ; od 
Xpeiafi 2 ^ 

11 Trapov Pohlenz : trapovTi Xa ; Trap oiv ti g C. 

12 €t7TOV g C : €LTT€V Xa. 

20 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1087 

them run for their ' flesh ' a when you take pleasure 
away from people who shout 

No manly boxers we 

or orators or champions of the commonwealth or 
magistrates ; 

We ever hold the table dear instead b 

and * every agreeable stirring of the flesh that is 
transmitted upward to give some pleasure and delight 
to the mind/ c So I think you are not ' removing the 
springtime from their year/ d as the saying goes, but 
depriving these men of life, if you are not going 
to leave them the possibility of living pleasurably." 
" Then why," said Theon, " if you approve the sub- 
ject, do you not follow it up yourself, now that the 
opportunity offers ? " "I will follow it up," I 
answered, " by being a listener, and, if you desire it, 
by answering questions ; but I leave the conduct of 
the discussion to you and the rest." After Theon 
had made a few excuses, Aristodemus exclaimed : 
11 What a short and easy approach to the topic you 
had ! Yet you barred us from it when you forbade e 
us to examine first their view of the good life. For it 
is not easy to dislodge from a pleasant life men who 
hold the position that pleasure is the highest good ; 

° A proverb : cf. Mor. 555 c, note. 
& Homer, Od. viii. 246, 248. 
c Epicurus, Frag. 433, 552 (ed. Usener). 
d Proverbial : cf. Herodotus, vii. 162. 1 and Aristotle, 
Rhetoric, i. 7 (1365 a 33). e 1087 a, supra. 

13 a7TOKpivoiJL€vos g C : -dfievos Xa. 

14 vfjLcv Xa c : T)fxlv g. 15 irepl Xa : virkp g C. 

16 ejeAaaai Aid. 2 : efcraaai X x a g C ; i^erdaavras X 2 ? 
(erased ?). 

21 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1087) rod Se KaXcos eKireoovres 1 dp? aV 2 /cat rod rjSecos 

GVVe^eTTlTTTOVy €7T€L 3 TO TjSeOJS tfiv aV€V TOV KaXcOS 

dvvTrapKTOV iartv, cos avrol Xeyovoiv." 

. J\at o vyecur, aAAa tovto aev, eirrev, av 

D 86£r], rod Xoyov TTpo'CovTos dvadrjaoaeOa' vvv* Se 

XprjocoueOa 5 toIs StSb/xeVots' vtt 9 avTcov. otoyrat Se 

7T€pl yaoTepa Tayadov elvai koX tovs aXXovs iropovs 

ttjs aapKos a,7TavTas St' cov rjSovrj /cat purj dXyrjScov 

€7T€LG€p)(€TaL' /Cat TTOVTa TO, 6 KaXd KOX GO(f)d €^€Vprj- 

Plcltcl ttjs TTepl yaoTepa rjSovrjs eVe/ca 7 yeyovevat /cat 
T7)S V7T€p tclvttjs eArn'Sos* dyadrjs , cos 6 crowds etprjKe 
WlrjTpoSojpos. avTodev puev ovv, to erat/oe, <f>aivovTai 
yXio^pov tl /cat aadpov 8 /cat ov fiefiaiov aiTiov tov 
dyadov Xap,fidvovT€S , aAAa tols Tropois tovtols St' 
cov rjSovas eireiodyovTCLi /cat irpos dXyrjSovas opuoicos 
E KaTaT€Tprjfji€Vov, 9 fjL&XXov Se rjSovrjv puev oXlyois dX- 
yrjSova Se iraoi rots* puoplots Se^o/xeyov. ttoot) 10 yap 
rjSovr) TTepl dpdpa /cat vevpa /cat noSas /cat ^elpas, 
ols eVoi/ct£eTat 7rd9rj Setva, 11 /cat a^eVAta, irohaypiKa 
/cat pevjJuaTLKa 12 /cat tfrayeSatVLKa /cat hiafipcbozis /cat 
a7roG7]ip€LS ; oojjlcov Se /cat yvucov Ta rjStaTa Trpocr- 

1 iK7T€GOVT€S a g C I -OS X. 

2 a/x' av Bern. : a/xa Xa g c. 

3 eVet Xa c : eVet 8c g. 

4 vvv Xa g : aura) c. 

5 XP 7 ) ^^^ - X g c c : -oficda a g ac . 

6 Ta added by Bern. 

7 €V€KOL a : 6VOIKCL X g C. 

8 aadpov Dohner : oairpov Xa g C. 

9 Karar€Tpr]fx€vov g C : /caraTerptu/xcVov Xa. 

10 77-0077 nos (7roi'a Kronenberg ; ttcos Schellens) : 7rdoaXagc. 

11 irdOj] Beivd Meziriacus : to. irddy] Seuvd Xa ; rd Seivd 
nadr] g C. 

12 7TohaypiKd /cat p€V[xariKd g C : TrohaypLKol koli pcvfiara X : 
TTOoaypiKCi. pcvpiara a. 

22 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1087 

whereas once we had driven them out of the posses- 
sion of a good life, they would at the same time be 
driven from that of a pleasant one, since, as they say 
themselves, a a pleasant life has no existence apart 
from a good one." 

3. To this Theon said : " Well, if we so decide, we 
shall reverse that decision as the discussion proceeds ; 
for the present, let us make the most of what they 
offer us. They believe that the good is found in the 
belly b and all other passages of the flesh through 
which pleasure and non-pain c make their entrance, 
and that all the notable and brilliant inventions of 
civilization were devised for this belly-centred pleasure 
and for the good d expectation of this pleasure, as the 
sage Metrodorus e has said. So it is at once evident, 
my friend, that they take as their foundation of good 
a thing narrow, flimsy, and unstable/ one that by 
these passages through which they let pleasures in 
is equally open to pains as well ; or rather, one that 
receives pleasure in few of its parts, but pain in all. 
For what degree of pleasure is found in the joints, 
the tendons, the feet and the hands, where lodge 
grievous and cruel afflictions, the gout and rheuma- 
tisms and ulcers that eat thiough the flesh and cause 
it to putrefy and drop off ? Present to the body the 

° Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus, 132 ; Cardinal Tenet v ; 
Cicero, Be Finibus, i. 18 (57). 

6 Epicurus, Frag. 409 (ed. Usener) ; cf. 1125 a, infra. 

c Cf. Diogenes Laert. x. 137. 

d That is, secure or confident : cf. ttlotov lAma/Aci (1089 d, 
infra) and ttlgtls pefiaios {Letter to Pythocles, 85). 

e Frag. 7 (ed. Korte) ; cf. 1 125 b,* infra. 

f The Epicureans contended that their highest good was 
stable and secure : cf. 1089 d, infra. 

23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1087) ayaycov ra> acofiarc 1 puKpov evprjoeis %ojotW iv 
avrtp TTavromaoi to klvovjjl€vov Xeitos /cat Trpoorjvcos, 
rd S' aAAa 7roAAa/cts' Sucr^epatVet /cat ayava/cret. 
77t>ot 8e /cat oihrjpto /cat Srjyfjbari 2 /cat voTpiyloiv 
ov8ev s drrades ov8e dvatodrjTOV dXyy]86vos, aAAa 
/cat KavjJLa /cat plyos eis drravra KaraSvercu /cat 
F TTVperos, at Se ^Sovat KaSairep avpcu 7rpos irepcus* 

€T€pCU 6 TOV GcbfJLCLTOS CLKpCUS €7Tiy€\tQOCU* Sta^COV- 

rat. /cat x/doVos" 7 o ^ v tovtojv ov ttoXvs dXX 
coorrep ol hicyrrovres etjaifjiv dp,a /cat ofSioiv iv rfj 
aapKL AafjbpavovaLV, €K€L oe rov ttovov p^aprvs o 
AloxvXov ^iXoKTrjrrjs lkclvos' 

ov yap SciKcbv 11 (<f>r)crlv) dvfJKev, a,AA' eVco/ctae 12 
Sewrjv gtoixojt6v 1z epu^votv, 1 * ttoSos Xaf5rjv. 15 

1088 ovk oXtadrjpd yap 18 aXyr)8tbv ov8e erepa rocavra 
Kvcoaa 17 /cat yapyaXi^ovua rod otopLCLTOS' aAA' coorrep 
to rrjs fJL7]8iKrjs orreppia TroXvKapares /cat oKaXrjvov 16 
ipLcfrvercu rfj yfj /cat Siafievei ttoXvv \povov vrro 
rpaxvrrjTOS , ovrtos 6 ttovos dyKtarpa /cat pittas Sta- 
OTTeipcov /cat ovpLTrXeKopbevos 19 rfj crap/a /cat rrapapie- 

1 tw Gcofxart Xa g : rd aco/xara C. 

2 SrjyfjLaTi Xa C : ooyfxari g. 

3 ouSei/] ot; jjlovov ovbev Post. 

4 irepais age: iripovs X. 

5 Ircpat X 2 a g C : eratpe X ac ; traipas X c . 

6 emycAtuaat a : -(Laais Xgc. 

7 XP° V °S X g c : o xpovos a. 

8 e/c€t nos (eK€iva)v Pohlenz ; €ts Bern.) : e/c Xa* g c : o a 3m . 

9 fxdpTvs age: fidvrts X. 10 o a : X g c omit. 

11 oa/aov Hirschig : o opaKcov Xa g C. 

12 €VO)KLO€ a : ivd)K7](J€ Xgc. 

13 arofjLcorov G. Hermann : arofjudrcov Xa g C. 

14 €fjL<f>vaiv Xgc: €K(f>vmv a. 

15 Aa/^v Amyot : Aa/kiv Xa g c(-€v). 

24 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1087-1088 

most delightful odours and savours and you will find 
that the area which experiences a ' smooth and gentle 
motion ' a is extremely small, whereas the effect on the 
rest is often disagreeable and irritating ; but no area is 
immune to fire, a stab, a sting, or the lash of a whip, 
or insensible to pain : indeed heat too and cold pene- 
trate everywhere, as does fever, while the pleasures, 
like breezes, as they refresh the heights of the body, 
now one and now another, are dissipated. And the 
duration of these is not long, but like shooting stars 
they are no sooner kindled in the flesh than they 
expire ; whereas the pain that is found in those other 
regions is sufficiently attested by the Philoctetes of 
Aeschylus b : 

Once it had struck, the snake 
Did not release its hold, but lodged in me 
Its fangs of tempered steel, that grip my foot. 

For there is nothing smooth and gliding in pain, nor 
does its scratching and tickling propagate an answer- 
ing smoothness in the body. No, just as the seed of 
lucerne, which is jagged and irregular, is so rough 
that it lodges in the soil and remains there a long 
time, so pain broadcasts its hooks and roots and en- 
tangles itself in the flesh, lasting not only for the 

a Epicurus, Frag. 411 (ed. Usener). 

h From the Philoctetes of Aeschylus, Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Aesch. 252 ; H. J. Mette, Die Frag. d. Aisch. (Berlin, 
1959), no. 396. The example of Philoctetes is also cited 
against the Epicureans by Cicero, De Fin. ii. 29 (94) and Tusc. 
Disput. ii. 7 (19). 

16 ovk oXioB'qpa yap nos (ov yap 6Xiodr]p6v tj Emperius) : 
oXladr) X ; oXiadelr} a ; oXiaB-q and a blank of 5 letters g c. 

17 Kvtbcra nos : Ktvovaa Xa g C. 

18 GKaXrjvov Xa : okXtjpov g C. 

19 avfiTrXcKOfJievos a g C : ovvepurX^Koyievos X. 

25 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1088) vcov ovx rjfJbepag ovSe vvktcls 1 \xovov aXXa Kal topas 
ircov ivlois 2 /cat 7T€pt68ovs 6Xv[JL7TiaKas 3 p,6Xis vtt* 

dXXaJV TTOVOJV (JL)(J7T€p TjXoJV G(f)oSpOT€pa)V €KKpOVO~ 

pL€Vos drraXXaTTerai. ris yap eVte 4 \povov rooov- 
tov t) ecfrayev ooov h Su/jojglv oi Trvperrovres koll 

B 7T€LVa)GtV OL 7ToAlOpKOVjJb€VOL / 7TOV §€ €OTLV aV€(JLS 
KCLL GVVOVOia /X€T(X <j>iXo)V 6</>' OOOV KoXd^OVOL Kdl 

OTpefiXovou rvpavvoi ; i<al yap tovto 7 ttjs rod 0x6- 
jjuaros (fyavAorrjTOS Kal a<f)vtas rrpos to rjSews t^rjv 

€OTlV, OTl TOVS 7TOVOVS V7TOfJb€V€L /JL&XXoV Tj TOLS 

rjSovas Kal npos 8 eKelvovs k'yei pcbfjirjv Kal ovvapuv, 9 
iv Se ravrais aoOeves eart 10 Kal di/jLKopov. to Se 
rjSeajs ^rjv 11 els rrjv arroviav avaTrrovres 12 rrXeiova 
7repl tovtov Xeyeiv ovk ia)OLV tj/jl&s, ojJboXoyovvres 
avrol 13 puKpbv elvai to rrjs oapKos rjSv, puaXXov Se 
aKapes, €t ye 8rj firj KevoXoyovoi 1 * fJbrjSe aXa^ovevov- 
tcu/ 5 M^rpoScopo? p*ev Xeyojv on ' ttoXXolkls irpoo- 
€7TTvaap,€v rats rod aco/xaro? rjSovaTs,' ' E77 iKOvpos 

1 vvktols Amyot : vvktos Xa g c. 

2 ivlois X g c : iviovs a. 

3 oAu/zma/ca? X 2 (from o-) g c : -a>v a. 

4 erne X 2 (apparently with a superscribed /?, perhaps to 
indicate transposition with tyayev, which however has no 
superscribed a)a g c : hrtmv X 1 ? 

5 ooov Xa c : ootov g. 

6 ovvovaia X r (-at X ar )a : koivwvIcl (klv- g) C. 

7 tovto] tovto TeKfxrjpLov Post. 

8 /cat Trpos Xa g : c omits in a blank of 12 letters. 

9 /cat ovvcl/jllv Xa g : C omits. 

10 eoTi X 2 (c superscribed ; cart Baxter) : rt X*a g c. 

11 /cat aapLKopov — tfiv Xa g : c omits in a blank of 28 letters. 

12 etV tt)v aTTOviav avairTovTes Diano : avaiTTtovTai X ; av aiTTtov- 
rat age. 

13 aurot Xa g : c omits in a blank of 12 letters, 

26 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1088 

space of days and nights, a but in some persons for 
whole seasons and olympiads, and is barely got rid 
of when new pains thrust it out, like nails more 
strongly driven. 5 For who has ever spent the time 
drinking or eating that victims of fever spend in 
thirst c or the people of a beleaguered city spend in 
hunger ? Where can we find a gathering of friends who 
meet for the pleasure of each other's company that 
is prolonged to the length of time to which tyrants 
protract their punishment and torture ? Indeed here 
is another aspect of the body's incapacity and in- 
aptitude for a pleasant life, that it can better sustain 
pain than pleasure and shows strength and endurance 
in confronting the one, but in the midst of pleasures 
is a weakling and soon has had enough. But by 
attaching the pleasurable life to painlessness they 
preclude us from dwelling longer on the point, since 
they admit themselves that the pleasure of the flesh 
is a slight or rather an infinitesimal thing — that is, if 
this is not mere empty and pretentious talk — d Metro- 
dorus e when he says ' I have often spat on the 
pleasures of the body ' and Epicurus / who asserts 

a Epicurus ( Cardinal Tenet iv) had said that extreme pain 
is the briefest, and pain only great enough to outweigh 
pleasure lasts only a few days. To this Cicero (Be Fin, ii. 
29 [94]) makes much the same reply as Plutarch. 

6 Cf. the proverb, " one nail drives out another," Leutsch 
and Schneidewin, Paroem. gr. i, pp. 253, 363, ii, p. 116. 

c Cf. Plato, Philebus, 45 b 6. 

d Cf. 1090 a and 1114 a, infra. The charge was often 
made by the Epicureans themselves : cf Cardinal Tenet 
xxxvii ; Frags. 69 and 511 (ed. Usener) ; and 1124 c, infra. 

e Frag. 62 (ed. Korte). ' Frag. 600 (ed. Usener). 

14 K€vo\oyovGL Xa 2 g C : KaivoXoyovoi a 1 . 

15 fxrjSe dAafo(-cu- X^yeuoyrcu (-covrcu X 1 g) X 2ss a g : C omits 
in a blank of 16 letters, 

27 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1088) X< ' \- A -■■•«!'- - > ' 

p oe Ken yeAav cprjot, rats vrreppoAaiS rov Trepi to 

atofjua voorjixaros ttoXX&kis KafJbvovra 1 rov ao<f>6v. 

ols ovv ol ttovoi 2 rod atbjJLaros ovtojs* elolv iXa</>pol 

KOil pdSiOL 7760 £ €V€OTL Tt* TOLLS TjSoVCUS Ci^loXoyOV ,* 

feat 5 yap el pbrj XP° VC 9 W&e 6 fieyedei tlov ttovojv 
drroSeovoLV, dXXd Trepl ttovovs eyp VOLV > Kai 7re V a? 

OLVTOLLS KOLVOV ^TTlKOVpOS TTjV TTCLVTOS 1 TOV dXyOVV- 

ros vrre^aipeoiv emTeOziKev, ws 8 rfjs cfyvoeojs d\pi 
rov Xvaai to dXyeivov av£ovor)s 9 to rjSv, TrepaiTepoj 
§e TrpoeXdecv ovk eojorjs 10 /caret 11 pbeyeOos, dXXd 

TTOlKlXpLOVS TIVCLS OVK aVOLyKCLlOVS OTCLV €V 12 Tip p,r) 

TTOvelv yevrjTOu 13 Se^o/xeV^s" r) Se inl tovto jiter' 

ope^ecos Tropela, jxeTpov rjSovfjs 1 * ovoa, KOfxihr] fipa- 

D xeta koX ovvtojjlos . 15 oOev alo96[JL€V0L 16 ttjs ivTavda 

yXiOXpOTTjTOS 0)07T€p €K ^CO/HOU XviTpOV™ TOV OOJ" 
JJLOLTOS fJL€Ta(/)€pOVOL 18 TO TeXoS™ €LS TTJV \\iV\T]V y COS" 20 

€K€L vojjbds 21 kcll XeL/jLtbvas 22 a7x</>tAa</>ei9 23 i)8ovcov 

«> 24 

e^ovTes, 

ev oe LvaKT] out ap opofioi evpees ovtc 

1 KdfjLvovTa Xa g : /cot and a blank of 8 letters c. 

2 ols ovv (av for ovv g) ol ttovoi Xa g : a blank of 12 letters 
and ttovojv c. 3 ovtojs Xa g : tva c. 

4 €V€otl rig C: eVeart X ; ay cart rt a. 5 /cat Xa g : d C. 

6 XP "^ f"7§€ (/cat for firjSe g) Xa g : c omits in a blank of 
13 letters. 

7 KCUTrepas — ttclvtos Xa g( aureus for aurats) : c omits in a 
blank of 58 letters. 

8 ws Xa g : c omits. 9 av^ovorjs Xa g : ol^lovotjs c. 

10 TTpoeXOelv ovk iojorjg Xa : ^77 iojorjs TrpocXdclv g C. 

11 /caret a (/ca rd X c from /cat rd) : /caret rd g c. 

12 e >j, ^ac an( j Amyot : ov/c eV Xa g c. 

13 yeV^rat Xa c : g omits. 

14 rjSovijs Xa g : r)8o and a blank of 5 letters c. 

15 ovvtojjlos age: ovvrovos X. 

16 alodofievoL Xa : alodofievos g C. 

28 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1088 

that in illness the sage often actually laughs at the 
paroxysms of the disease. a Then how can men for 
whom the pains of the body are so slight and easy 
to bear find anything appreciable in its pleasures ? 
Indeed, even supposing that the pleasures do not fall 
short of the pains either in duration or in magnitude, 
they are nevertheless bound up with pains, and Epi- 
curus b has imposed on them a limit that applies to 
all of them alike : the removal of all pain. For he 
believes that our nature adds to pleasure only up to 
the point where pain is abolished and does not allow 
it any further increase in magnitude (although the 
pleasure, when the state of painlessness is reached, 
admits of certain unessential variations c ). But to 
proceed to this point, accompanied by desire, is our 
stint of pleasure, and the journey is indeed short and 
quick. Hence it is that becoming aware of the poverty 
here they transfer their final good from the body, as 
from an unproductive piece of land, to the soul, per- 
suaded that there they will find pastures and meadows 
lush with pleasures ; 

Whereas in Ithaca no coursing grounds 
Are there, nor yet d 

a See 1090 a, infra. 

6 Frag. 417 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Cardinal Tenet iii and 1091 
a, infra. 

c Cf. Epicurus, Cardinal Tenet xviii. 
d Homer, Od. iv. 605. 

17 e/c x<*>pl° v Xvirpov Xa g : c omits in a blank of 20 letters. 

18 fA€TOL(j>€pOV(Jl Xa g : n€Ta<f)€povaa C. 

19 to rdXos X g c : rod reXovs a. 20 cbs Xa : g c omit. 

21 €K€i vofias Xylander : e/ccivo rjiids Xa g c 

22 XeijjLQjvas Xa g : Xcljjlwvcs C. 

23 afifaXafets Xa : a blank of 5 letters and <f>€is g ; a blank 
of 21 letters and e<f? c. 

24 Z£ovt€S Reiske : cgovras X g c : de^ovras a. 

29 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1088) ' Xelrj n 7Tepl to oapKihiov rj drroXavoLg dXXd rpa- 
^eta, fJL€[jLiyiJb€vr) irpos ttoXv 2 to dXXorpcov /cat 
otftvypiCLTLohzs" 

4. 'YttoXclPojv ovv 6 TjevtjiTTTTos, " etra ov /ca- 
Xcos," £(f>r],* " Sokovgl uol iroielv ol dvSpes, dpxo- 

fJLEVOL JJbeV OLTTO TOV CTOJLICLTOS , €V (L TTptOTOV €<f)dvr] 

yevecns, errl Se 4 rrjv i/jvx'tjv ws ^e^aiorepav /cat to 
E rrdv ev avTrj TeXeiovcrav 16vt€S ; " 5 " /caAa>9 vrj 

Aid," €<p7) ®€tOV* " KCLL KOLT(i tfrvtJlV, €t tC Kp€lTTOV 

ivTCLvOa 8 ijl€tl6vt€S /cat TeXetOTepov 9 dXrjOeos dvevpl- 
okovolv 10 ojoirep ol 9etopy)TiKol /cat ttoXltlkol tcov 
dvSpcov. el Se aKoveis clvtlov puapTvpopbevcov 11 /cat 

ftotOVTOJV COS" 677-' OvSeVL ^JVX^J TCOV OVTOJV 7T€(f)VK€ 

Xalpeiv /cat yaXrjvL^eiv rrXrjv errl oa)p,CLTOS tjSovclls 
TTCLpovoais rj TTpocrSoKCOLLevous y /cat TOVTO avTrjs TO 
dyaOov Iotiv, dpa ov Sokovgl ool StepdjJLaTL 12 tov 
otopLCLTOS -)(prjo8 ai ttj ipvxfjy ^at 13 KaOdnep olvov e/c 
TTOvrjpov 1 * /cat litj OTeyovTos dyyelov ttjv rjSovrjv ota- 
X^ovTes ivTCLvOa /cat 7tclXcllovvt€s o'UaBai 15 oepbvo- 
Tepov tl Troielv /cat TiLiiwTtpov ; /catrot ye olvov 

1 eV Se IddfCT) ov yap (ovt ap Victorius) 8p6fi0L evpees ovre 
Xclr] Xa : eV 8 (a blank of 2 letters) a/07 ( a blank of 4 letters) 
SpofioL evpees ovr€ Xzlt) g ; a blank of 39 letters and tj c. 

2 npos 7toXv Xa : tl (a blank of 2 letters) 7toXv g ; /cara- 
noXv c. 

3 kclXcos €(f>r) Xa g : k and a blank of 8 letters c. 

4 eVi ok a : eVl X g c (etr* lovres eVt Bern. ; rjoovrjs, etra 
jj,€ra(f)€povT€s rr)v eopav a\>Tr\s iirl Pohlenz). 

5 avTrj TcXciovoav lovrcs nos : ravrr] (avrrj a) tcXclovvtcs Xa 
g c. 

6 €<f>r) ®€tov Patzig : e^rjv iy<h Xa g c. 

7 el tl Xylander : ert Xa g c. 

8 ivTavOa Xa g : ivTevdev c. 

9 TcXtLOTepov Xa : reAetdr^Ta g ; reAetdraTOV c(-ott). 
10 avevpioKovoLV Xa C : zvpioKOvoLv g. 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1088 

anything ' smooth ' a in the path of fruition in our 
little piece of flesh : it is * rugged,' b with a goodly ad- 
mixture of aches and pains." 

4. Here Zeuxippus interposed : " Why, do you not 
hold that the gentlemen c do well to begin with the 
body, where pleasure first appears, and then pass to 
the soul as having more stability and bringing every- 
thing to perfection within itself ? " " They do well 
indeed," said Theon, " and follow the natural course, 
if in passing to the soul they really discover there 
something better and more final, as do those men who 
follow the intellectual and active lives. But when 
you hear their d loud protest that the soul is so con- 
stituted as to find joy and tranquillity in nothing in 
the world but pleasures of the body either present 
or anticipated, and that this is its good, do they not 
appear to you to be using the soul as a decanter of 
the body, and to imagine that by decanting pleasure, 
like wine, from a worthless and leaky vessel e and 
leaving it to age in its new container, they are turning 
it into something more respectable and precious ? 

° Hesiod, Works and Days, 288. 

b Used of Ithaca in Homer, Od. ix. 27. 

c Epicurus, Frag. 417 (ed. Usener). Cf. Seneca, Be Otio, 
7. 2 : " nee ille tertius [that is, Epicurus] . . . voluptatem 
inertem probat, sed earn quam ratione efficit firmam sibi." 

d Frag. 429 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Frag. 425. 

* Cf. 1089 d, infra. The Epicureans had themselves used 
the comparison of the leaky vessel : Lucretius, iii. 936, 1009, 
vi. 20 f. See also Mor. 473 d, Life of Marius, chap. xlvi. 3 
(433 b), and Seneca, Ep. 99. 5. 

11 fxapTvpofxevcov XA 2 E g c : fxaprvpovfjidvcov aA 1 . 

12 8tepa/x,art g c (8t€pa/xart X) : Stepa/xa ri a. 

13 /cat added by Wyttenbach. 

14 OLVOV €K 7TOV7)pOV Xa g : €K 7TOV7]pOV olvOV C 

15 oUod ai X 2 a g C : oUaOc X 1 . 

31 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1088) 

-p [lev XP® VCj 9 8taXv6evra riqpeZ Kal avvrj8vv€i } rrjs Se 
fjSovfjs rj fax'?] rrapaXafSovoa ttjv jjbvrjfjbrjv tooTrzp 
oafirjv dXXo Se ovSev cfyvXaoaei* £e'cracra yap em 
oapKL KaraofievvvTai , Kal to pbvrjpbovevopbevov avrrjs 
dpuavpov ion kcli KVivatSes, woirep icoXcov 1 a>v ns 
1089 ecfxiyev r) eVtev 2 aTronOepievov 3 Kal rapuevovros iiri- 
volols* £v avrcp 5 Kal xpcofievov SrjXovon Tavrais 
rrpoacfxxrcov 6 pbrj Trapovrajv . Spa Se ooto pLerpicorepov 
oi KvprjvacKOL, Kalirep e/c puds olvo)(6r)S 'ErrtKovpco 
tt€7tcl>k6t€S, ov8e SfuXeTv a^pohioiois oiovrai Selv 
pLerd (f)a)Tos dAAa okotos irpoOepiivovs, otto)S pirj rd 
ei'ScoAa rrjs irpd^eoos dvaXapu^dvovoa Sta rrjs oipeojs 
ivapycos 1 rj hidvoia 7roXXaKis avaKalrjTai* rrjv ope- 
£iv. ol Se tovto) fidXtara rov oo<f>6v rjyovpbevoi 
Stacfrepeiv, rco 9 pLvrjpioveveLV ivapy&s Kal owe^e^ 
iv avrcp 10 rd 11 rrepl rds rjSovds (f)dopbara Kal Trddrj 

B f<al Kivrjoeis, el ixev ovdev 12 a^iov aortas rrapey- 
yvcooiv, oHJTTep iv aocorojv 13 olklcl rfj ifjvxfj rod 
ao(f)od rd rrjs rjSovrjs e/c/cAucr/xara 14 pLevetv 15 icbvres, 
pirj Xeyajpuev on Se 16 ovk eonv aird tovtcov rjSecus 

1 id)Xcov a : ooXcov Xgc. 

2 €(j>ay€v rj €7tlcv X (-te a) : emcv rj €<j>aye g C. 

3 a.7TOTid€iA€vov Reiske : Ti0e/zeVou. 

4 imvoias Reiske : hnvoiais, 

5 avroj X 2 a (avTa> X 1 ) : iavrco g C. 

6 rrpoo<j>drojv a : irpos <j>tXojv Xgc. 

7 ivapya>s Xgc: ivapyws iv avrij a 1 (av- a 2 ). 

8 dvaKatrjTaL X (-KarjTai g) C : dvaKalr) a. 

' tw a g c : to X 1 ; to fir) X 2 (now erased). 

10 avro) a 2 (av- X 1 a 1 ) : iavrco X 2 (now erased) g c. 

11 rd Xa C : rds g. 

12 ovSev Xgc: ovSev a. 

13 iv dacoTOjv Castiglioni (docorajv iv Michael) : acopidrcov 
Xagc. 

32 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1088-1089 

Yet there is a difference : the new vessel preserves 
the wine that has settled a in the course of time and 
improves its flavour, whereas in the case of pleasure 
the soul takes over and preserves the memory of it, 
as it were the bouquet, and nothing else ; for the 
pleasure effervesces in the flesh and then goes flat, 
and what is left of it in recollection is faint and greasy, 
as though a man were to lay away and store up in him- 
self the thoughts of yesterday's stale food and drink, 
resorting to these, we must suppose, when nothing 
fresh is at hand. Observe the greater moderation of 
the Cyrenaics, though they have tippled from the 
same jug as Epicurus b : they even think it wrong to 
indulge in sexual commerce when there is a light, 
and instead provide for a cover of darkness, so that 
the mind may not, by receiving the images of the 
act in full clarity through the sense of sight, re- 
peatedly rekindle the desire. 6 Whether the other 
set d who hold that the superiority of the sage lies 
above all in this, in vividly remembering and keeping 
intact in himself the sights and feelings and move- 
ments associated with pleasure, are thus recommend- 
ing a practice unworthy the name of wisdom by 
allowing the slops of pleasure to remain in the soul 
of the sage as in the house of a wastrel, let us not say ; 
but that this sort of thing cannot sustain a pleasurable 

° The wine separates into liquid and sediment. 

b Usener, Epicurea, p. 293 ; perhaps an echo of Aristo- 
phanes, Knights, 1289. Cf. also Kock, Com. Att. Frag, iii, 
Adesp. 465. 

c Cf. Mor. 654 d, 705 a-b (as emended by Dohner). 

d Epicurus, Frag. 579 (ed. Usener). 

14 €KKXv(Jfjbara X x a g c : iKKvAvofiara X 3 . 

15 fidveiv Xa g : c omits. 

16 Se XA 2 E g c : aA 1 omit. 

vol. xiv c 33 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1089) l^fjv avrodev npoSrjAov. 1 ov ydp glkos 2 elvai /xe'ya 3 
rfjs r)8ovrjs to fjuvrjixovevofievov el puKpov y' eSd/cct 4 
to 7rapov, ov8e ols ovvecfrepeTo 5 /xeTptco? 6 yivop,evois 
virepxaipew 1 yevopuevcov, orrov y' 8 ov8e tols €/c7re- 
7rXrjyfjb€VOL9 to\ acofJLCLTLKa /cat davjxd^ovoiv efJLjJLevei 
to yaipeiv TTavaafievois , 9 dAAa a/cta tis vnoXeLTreTai 

KOLl OVap €V Tfj IfJVXJ] TTjS TjOOVTJS a7T07TTOL[JL€V7)S , OLOV 
V7T€KKaVfJLa TWV €7Tl6v[Altbv, a)G7T€p €V VTTVOIS 11 St- 

ifjtiovTos r) ip&vTos 12 OLTeAeis rjboval /cat a7roAavo€t,s 
C SptfiVTepov eyeipovoi 13 to a/coAaorov. ovt€ 8rj tov- 
tocs €7TLT€pTrr]s rj \Lvr\psf) tcjv a7roAeAat>cr/xeVa>v, 14 aAA' 
e£ VTroAeLjjLfjbaTOS 15 rjSovrjs dfivSpov /cat 8l<lk€VOV ttoAv 
to oiGTpcobes /cat vvttov ivapyovs 16 ava</>€povaa ttjs 
ope^ews, ovt€ tovs pteTpiovs /cat oaxfrpovas glkos 
evhicLTplfieiv Tfj imvota tcov tolovtojv ov8e airep 
eaKOJTTTe tov 'FiTTLKOvpov 17 KapveaS^? 18 irpoLTTOVTas 19 
otov iij i(f)r)iJL€pL8a>v avaAeyeodcu ' ttooolkis 2,0 f Ho€ta 
/cat AeovTLW avvrjAuov; 77 ttov yyaatov eiriov; rj 

1 7Tp6Br)Xov a : to 7Tp6hrjXov Xgc. 

2 cIkos Reiske : laov Xgc: lows a. 

3 fieya Reiske : fiera Xa g C. 

4 y iooK€t Bern. (cod/cci Wyttenbach) : tc ookci Xa g c. 

5 GW€<f>€p€To g c : GW€<j>€p€ (-v X) to Xa ; avve^€<f)4p€TO Poh- 
lenz. 6 fierpLws Wyttenbach : fierptois Xa g c. 

7 vTTtpxaipeiv XAWpyPEW (v7To X aLp€iv jS 2 ^ [vtto super- 
scribed]) g : viroxcopelv a ; virepegaipeiv c. 

8 y added by Stegmann. 

9 to. uojji. — navaafievoLS XA 2m Egc: aA 1 omit. 

10 rrjs r}oovr}s Xa : rrj and a blank of 9 letters in g, 12 in c. 

11 vttvois Xgc: vttvo) a. 

12 hajjcovros rj ipwvros Victorius in Q : oiiptovTes rj opcovrcs 
Xgc; oufi(x>vT€S rj ipwvTes a. 

13 iyetpovat, Xa : iyttpovoai g C. 

14 aTToAeXavofiivcov Xa g : aTroXeXavfievajv C. 

15 ££ V7ToX€LfjLpiaTos (-f u- X)a : i£ iXXelfxaros g ; e'f cAAcifi/xaros C. 

16 ivapyovs a : ivapycos Xgc. 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1089 

life is immediately evident. For it is unlikely that 
what is remembered of the pleasure should be great 
when what was present of it was considered small, or 
that a man who took a passing interest in the thing 
when it occurred should experience rapture when it 
was over. Why even in persons who are enthralled 
by the works of the body and whole-heartedly admire 
them, the delight does not last when the experience 
is over, but only a sort of shadow or dream a is left 
behind in the soul after the pleasure has fled — 
embers, as it were, to kindle desire, just as in the 
dreams of sleep the unconsummated pleasures and 
fruitions of thirst or love serve to arouse the more 
sharply our lusting for fulfilment. Not only, then, do 
these men get no joy from the memory of their in- 
dulgences, which brings them instead from a faint 
and unsubstantial remnant of pleasure the great 
heat and prodding of a vividly conceived lust ; it is 
also quite unlikely that persons of moderation and 
temperance should dwell on such thoughts and do 
the sort of thing with which Carneades twitted Epi- 
curus h — gather as from an official journal statistics 
about * how often I had a meeting with Hedeia or 
Leontion,' c or ' where I drank Thasian wine or * on 

° Cf Mor. 565 e. 

6 Cf Epicurus, Frag. 436 (ed. Usener). 

c On the women in Epicurus' school see 1097 d-e, 1129 b, 
infra ; Diogenes Laert. x. 4, 7, 23 ; Sbordone, Philodemi 
Adversus [Sophistas], pp. 89, 137-139. 

17 'EmKovpov added by Bern. 

18 Kapvcd&rjs Wyttenbach : KapvcdSrjv X 2 g ; KopvidSrjv X x a ; 
Kapvea c. 

19 rrpdrrovras Pohlenz : irpdrrovra Xa g c (Wilamowitz 
would omit). 20 irooaKis Basle ed. of 1542 : ttoX\6.kls Xa gc. 

21 7) ttov a : rj ttov X ; rj ttov g C 

22 rj added by Usener : a blank of one letter X ; a g c omit. 

35 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1089) ' rroias et/caoos 1 iSeirrvrjoa 2 tto XvreXiorara ; ' 8et- 

vr)v yap £p,<j)aiv€i /cat 6rjpid)8rj 7repl ra yivopbeva /cat 

TrpoaSoKcopbeva rrjs r)8ovrjs epya rapaxr)v /cat Xvo- 

oav r) rooavrrj npos dvafjuvrjoeis fS&Ky^evois avrrjs 

D rrjs fax^S /cat irp6orr)i;is. 

' "Odev avroi fioi Sokovglv tovtojv alaOopbevoi 

TCOV drOTTLCOV 3 €t? TTJV OL7TOVLOLV /Cat T7JV €VOrd0€iaV 

VTToSevyeiv rrjs crapKos, <hs iv rep ravrr\v imvoziv 
7repL Tivas* ioopLevrjv /cat yeyevrjfjbevrjv rod rjoecos tffjv 
bvros • to yap evoraOes oapKos 6 Kardorrjpia /cat to 
7T€pi ravrrjg ttlgtov eXmop^a rrjv aKpordrrjv ^apav 
/cat j3ef3aiordrr]v ex^iv 7 rots CTTiXoyi^eoOai Svvapbe- 
vols. (5.) 6'pa 8r) rrpcorov puev ota ttoiovgi, rrjv etre 
r)8ovr)v ravrrrv etre diroviav rf evordOetav 9 dvco /cat 
Karco puerepojvres e/c rov owfiaros ets rrjv yvx?}v> 
etra irdXiv €/c ravrrjg els €K€lvo rep fir) oreyeiv 
E drroppeovaav /cat TrepioXioddvovoav 11 dvayKa^opuevoi 
rfj dpxfj ovvdirreiv , /cat ' ro p,ev r)86pu€Vov ' a>s <f)7]OL 
1 rrjs oapKos rep ^atporrt rrjs ^X 7 )^ ' V7T€pei8ovres , 
avdis S 5 e/c 12 rov ^atpovTOS' els ro r)86jJL€vov rfj 
oWtSt reXevrcovres . /cat 77009 otov re rrjs jSaaeto? 

1 cIkolSos Bern. : ei/caSa? X c (from 17/caSas) ; ci/caSa? age. 

2 iheiTrvqaa a : iSetwrjaav Xgc. 

3 dT07uan> Xa : dro7T7]pLdrajv g c. 

4 rtvaj a : rtvos Xgc (rjfju&s Emperius). 

5 ovtos X r a g c : -cos X ar . 

6 oapKos Xa g : ttJ? oapKos C. 

7 e^eiv Xgc: e^et a. 

8 77 Xa g : /cat C. 

9 evarddeiav K and Xylander : €V7rd0€iav Xa g c. 

10 iJLerepojvres Dtibner : pLcralpovres Xa g c. 

11 TTepioXioddvovoav X*a (-atV- X 2 ) : SioAtaflaiVouo-av g C. 

36 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1089 

what twentieth of the month I had the most sump- 
tuous dinner.' a For it betrays a grave and brutish un- 
settling and derangement of spirit about the actual 
business of pleasure, present and prospective, when 
the mind by itself revels with such passionate attach- 
ment in the business of recollection. 

" It is this, I believe, that has driven them, 5 seeing 
for themselves the absurdities to which they were 
reduced, to take refuge in the * painlessness ' and the 
'stable condition of the flesh,' supposing that the 
pleasurable life is found in thinking of this state as 
about to occur in people or as being achieved ; for 
the ' stable and settled condition of the flesh ' and 
the * trustworthy expectation ' of this condition con- 
tain, they say, the highest and the most assured 
delight for men who are able to reflect. (5.) Now 
first observe their conduct here, how they c keep de- 
canting this ' pleasure ' or ' painlessness ' or * stable 
condition ' of theirs back and forth, from body to 
mind and then once more from mind to body, com- 
pelled, since pleasure is not retained in the mind 
but leaks and slips away/ to attach it to its source, 
shoring up ' the pleasure of the body with the delight 
of the soul,' as Epicurus puts it, but in the end passing 
once more by anticipation from the delight to the 
pleasure. And how is it possible, when the founda- 

° A dinner was held on the twentieth of each month in 
honour of Metrodorus, and after Epicurus' death, in his own 
honour as well : Diogenes Laert. x. 18. 0/. Festugiere, 
Epicurus and his Gods (trans. Chilton), p. 23. 

6 Epicurus, Frag. 68 (ed. Usener). 

c Epicurus, Frag. 431 (ed. Usener). 

d Cf. Plato, Gorgias, 493 a— 494 b, and the note on 1088 
e, supra. 

12 8' 4k Reiske : Se Xa g c. 

37 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1089) rtvarrofjbevrjs fJirj ovvrivdrreadai 1 to iirov 2 rj ]8e- 
jSatov oWt'Sa /cat ^apav aaaAeuTov elvou irepl irpd- 
yjjLdTos crdXov exovros roaovrov /cat [AerafioAds* oaat 
cr</>aAAot;crt 4 to ow/acl, 7roAAat9 ju,ev e£to9ev vttok€l- 
fievov dvdy /cat? /cat 7rA7fyals, iv avrco 8e £yov dpyas 
kclkcov as ovk airoTp€7T€L AoyiGjJLos ; ouSe yap av 5 
7rpoG€7TL7TT€v dvSpdcn vovv exovcn orpayyovpiKa 
F 7ra#77 /cat Suae^Tept/ca, /cat 6 cf>dlo€is /cat vSpames, cov 
toIs fiev clvtos 'Em'/coupo? ovvrjvexOrj, tols Se 
noAuatvos 1 , 7 to, Se Neo/cAea /cat 'AyaOofiovAov e£- 
rjyayev. /cat ravra ovk oVetSt£op,ev, elSores /cat 
Oepe/cvo?^ 8 /cat 'Hpa/cAetTov eV vooois x a ^ e7Ta ^ 
yevopuevovs, dAA' d^tovfiev avrovs et 9 Tot? irdOeoi 
1090 fiovAovrai toZs iavTcov opboXoyelv /cat /X17 /cevat? 
(jycovaZs dpaavvofJuevoL /cat Srjfiayajyovvres aAa£o- 
vetav Trpoao(f)XiGKdv€LV , rj firj Aap,j3dv€LV papas' dpxty 
airaor]S rrjv rrjs aapKos evorauetav r) firj <pavat 
^atpetv /cat vfipl^eLV tovs iv novois imepfidAAovcn 
/cat vdoots* yivop,€Vovs. lx KardorrjiJba puev yap evora- 
des oap/co? yiverat 7roAAa/ct9, eXmopLa Se ttiotov 
vrrep aapKos /cat j3e'/3atov ou/c eaTtv eV t/^X?? vow 

1 TivaTTOixevrjS fir) awTLvdrr eadai a : -00- fir) -tt- X ; -00- 
firj -era- g C. 

2 cVov van Herwerden : ivov X r a (e/tov X ar ) ; fialvov g c. 

3 fi€Taf3o\as Xag: -ate C. 

4 ocrat G<t>dXKovoi Wyttenbach : ooais (oaat a) ^uAarrouat Xa 
g ; ooais exovat c. 

5 av a : Xgc omit ; Pohlenz places it before avopdoi. 

6 ovG€VT€piKa /cat Xa 2 A g C : a 1 omits. 

7 TroAuatvos' Xa : TroXvfiios g C. 

8 <f>€p€KVOT)V Xa : <f)€V€KvSr)V g c. 

9 et Xa c A 2 E g c : eV o^A 1 . 

10 T17V rijs Usener : tt}? Xa g c. 

11 yivojxivovs Xa 2 g C : yevofJLCvovs a 1 . 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1089-1090 

tion totters, that the superstructure should not totter 
as well, or that there should be either firm expectation 
or unfluctuating delight over a thing exposed to all the 
tossing and changes that bring down the body, which 
is not only subject to many external compulsions and 
impacts, but also contains in itself sources of evil 
that no reasoning can avert ? Could reason avert 
them, reasonable men would never be afflicted with 
strangury, dysentery, consumption and the dropsy, 
with some of which Epicurus a himself had to contend, 
Polyaenus with others, while others were fatal to 
Neocles and Agathobulus. 6 I am not flinging this in 
their teeth, since I know that both Pherecydes and 
Heracleitus were visited with terrible diseases, 6 but 
my judgement is that if they d would take a tone 
more in keeping with their own bitter experience 
and not incur in addition the odium of ranting, by 
courting applause with a bold display of hollow words, 
they ought either to refrain from taking the posi- 
tion e that the ' stable condition of the flesh ' is the 
source of all delight, or from asserting that persons 
in the throes of an excruciating disease feel delight 
and treat the affliction with insolent contempt. For 
whereas a * stable condition of the flesh ' f occurs 
frequently enough, no certain and firm expectation 
where the flesh is concerned can arise in a reasonable 

° Strangury and dysentery : cf. Frag. 138 (ed. Usener). 

6 Probably a slip of Plutarch's for Aristobulus, a brother 
of Epicurus (see Usener's index, s.v.). Usener supposes 
Polyaenus died of consumption, Neocles and Aristobulus of 
the dropsy. 

c Heracleitus died of the dropsy, Pherecydes from an out- 
growth of lice : cf. Mor. 1064 a. 

d Epicurus, Frag. 600 (ed. Usener). 

* Epicurus, Frag. 424 (ed. Usener). 

f Epicurus, Frag. 68 (ed. Usener). 

39 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1090) ixovar) yeveoOar aXX cooTrep iv daXdrrrj 1 /car' 
Ala-xyXov 

(hhlva TLKT€L 2 vv£ KV^€pVrjTrf O0(f>0) 

/cat yaXiqvrf (to yap jxeXXov dSrjXov), ovtoos iv 
B ocLfJLdTi i/jvx^v evaradovvri /cat rals rrepl acopbaros 
iXirLoi rayadov depbevrjv 5 qvk eortv dcfrofSov /cat 
CLKvpbova* 8ie^ayayelv . ov ydp e^coOev pbovov, cooTTtp 
rj ddXaaaa, 7 xeipuwvas loyei /cat KarouyicrpLovs to 
acopua, irXeiovas 8e rapa^as" it; iavrov /cat puei^ova? 
ava8l8coow ev8iav 8e ^etjLt€ptv7]v pbdXXov dv Tt? rj 
aapKos djSAajSetav eXrrLGeiev avTtp irapapieveZv* j8e- 
jSataJS". to yap ic/yrjpbepa rd ^/xerepa 9 KaXelv /cat 
djSejSata /cat doTa8p J r)Ta (f>vXXois re yivopuevois €tovs 
topa /cat <f)9lvovoiv eiKd^eiv t6v j8toi> tl Trapeax^Kev 
aAAo rots' TTOirjrais 7] to ttjs aapKos €7TLK7]pov /cat 
TToXvftXafies /cat voaojSes', rjs Srj 11 /cat rd aKpov dya- 
C #dr SeoteVat /cat KoXoveiv irapeyyvcocnv ' o^aXepov 
yap rj iv aKpov eveijla,' 12 (/trjolv 'iTTTTOKpaTTjs, 

6 d° d'prt OdXXajv aap/ct 13 8lo7T€T7j£ ottojs 

' ^ J / O 14 

avTTjp arreapr] 
KaTa tov Kvpi7Tt8r]V' vtto 8e fiaoKavias /cat cfydovov 

1 daXdrrrj XgC: OaXdcrar} a. 

2 tootva tlkt€l Victorius in Q : c5 (a> X j8 2 ) Setm (aA 1 have 
ojSivd) rfj 7roAet Xa gc. 3 Kv^epvrjrr) age: KvpepvTJrrjs X. 

4 yaXrjvq XgC: yaA^yi? a ; yaXrjvr) Reiske. 

5 0€fjL€vr)v Xa C : Tid^p,ivr]v g. 

6 aKVfjLova Cobet : clkv(aov Xa g c. 

7 OdXacrua ^a g : OdXarra C. 

8 7TapafjL€V€lv Hartman : napa\xiv€iv Xa g c. 

9 6rjfji€T€pa added by Kronenberg. 

10 7) Xa g : /cat c. n St) X 2 a g C : 8c X 1 . 

12 t) (r) X) cV aVpov (eVa/cpov X 1 ) ei)e|ta Xa (c/. ikfor. 682 e): 
at ets aKpov eue^tat g c (at eV aKpov eue^tat Hippocrates). 

40 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1090 

mind, but as at sea, to quote Aeschylus, a 

Night brings forth travail for a practised skipper 

— and so too does a calm, the future being uncertain — 
so the mind that has stowed the ultimate good in a 
body that is in a stable condition and in expectations 
for the body b cannot continue to the end without 
fear and the prospect of high weather. For the body, 
unlike the sea, suffers not only from storms and claps 
of wind that assail it from without, but brings forth 
from itself a greater number of more serious distur- 
bances ; and you could better count on a winter spell 
of fair weather to be lasting than an immunity of the 
flesh from harm. For what else has led poets to call 
our condition ephemeral and uncertain and incalcu- 
lable c and to compare our life to the leaves that are 
put forth in the spring and perish d than the frailty, 
vulnerability, and morbidity of the flesh ? Indeed, 
we are warned to dread and curtail even its greatest 
good, for Hippocrates e asserts that ' extreme excel- 
lence of the constitution is precarious ' and Euripides f 
says 

He who but now 

Flourished in health, has like a shooting star 

Vanished. 

And men suppose that the young and handsome are 

The Suppliant Women, 770 ; quoted also in Mor. 619 e. 
b Epicurus, Frag. 413 (ed. Usener). 
c Euripides, Orestes, 981. 

d Homer, II. vi. 146 ; quoted also in Mor. 560 c. 
e Aphorisms, i. 3 ; quoted also in Mor. 682 e. 
f Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 971 ; quoted also in 
Mor. 416 d. 



13 crap /a Xa g c : adpKa Mor. 416 d. 

14 &7T€(JpT] agCt aTT€GT7j X. 



41 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1090) fiXaTTTeodai rrpooopajpLevovs 1 olovrai tovs koAovs, 
otl rayiGTa to d/c/xa£oy tercet p.eTa^oArjv tov oo)- 
/xaTo? St' dodeveiav. 

6. " "On Se oAcos* /xo^^pa 2 rd TrpdypuaTa /cat 3 
TTpos jSt'ov oXvttov eoTiv- avToZs , <jk6tt€l /cat d<£' wv 
npos erepovs 4, Aeyovoiv. tovs yap aSiKovvras /cat 
TrapavopLovvTas 5 ddAtws 6 (prjoV /cat TrepLcfrofiajs tfqv 
tov TTOLvra ypovov on /caV 8 AadeZv Svvouvtcll 9 ttlgtlv 
D TTepl rod Aadelv AafteZv ahvvarov eoTiv 66 ev o 10 tov 
pueAAovTOS del 11 <f)6fios eyKetp,evos ovk id xaipecv 
ov8e 6appeZv errl toZs rrapovoLV. 12 raura Se Kal 
npos iavTovs elprjKOTes 1 * AeArjdaoiv evoTadeZv p,ev 
yap eort 14 /cat vyiaiveiv Tip oxo/xart ttoAAolkis, ttlotiv 
Se AafieZv irepl tov Stapueveiv 15 dpurjX avov ' avay/07 16 
8rj TapaTT€o9ai /cat (hhiveiv del TTpos to pueAAov 
virep 11 tov G(jjp,aTOS y rjv 1 * nepip^evovoiv eAm'Sa 7tiott)v 
dV 19 avTov 20 /cat jSe'jSatov 21 ouSeVa> 22 KTTjoaodai Suva- 
fievovs. to be pLTjoev aoiKeiv ovoev ecrrt npos to 
6appeZv ov yap to St/cata;? rradelv dAAd to TradeZv 

I o ' > £ x «■» * >^s<^/ 24 5 '25 

(popepov, ovoe ovveivai [Lev avTov aot/ctat? avtapov, 

1 7Tpoaopcx)ixivovs Xylander : Trpoopoupuivovs Xa g c. 

2 oXcos fjuoxd-qpa Xa g : c omits in a blank of 18 letters. 

3 Kal X 1 g c : Kal ouX 2 ; a omits. 

4 irepovs Xa g : tols C. 

5 7rapavofjLOvvras Xa g : 7rapaovpovvras C. 

6 ddXlojs Xa c : dOMovs g. 

7 ^ffl XaA 1 : <f>aal A 2 £ 2 E g c. 

8 -<f>6f$ojs (-<j>6povs g) — /caV Xa g : c omits in a blank of 26 
letters. 9 hvvojvrai Xa : hvvaivro g C. 

10 o0ev o Xa c (a ac omits o) : a blank of 7 letters and <bs g ; 
r) c. u aet Xa g : a C. 

12 rot? irapovoi (-lv X) a g : rr\s rrapovolas C. 

13 elprjKores Xa g : iorrjKores C. 

14 ecrrt Xa g : c omits. 

15 oia/xeWiv Xa g c : hiapbevelv Usener (but cf. 1090 C-d). 

16 dvayKT) Xa g : c omits in a blank of IT letters. 

42 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1090 

injured when they are gazed on, because of the evil 
eye of envy, a since whatever is at its peak in the 
body is the more quickly apt to change, owing to the 
body's weakness. 

6. " That their general prospects are poor even 
for a life without mental anguish you may also judge 
in the light of the remarks they address to others. 
Criminals and transgressors of the laws, says Epi- 
curus, 6 pass their entire lives in misery and appre- 
hension, since even though they may succeed in 
escaping detection, they can have no assurance of 
doing so ; in consequence fear for the next moment 
lies heavy on them and precludes any delight or con- 
fidence in their present situation. In these words 
without knowing it they c have also replied to them- 
selves : we can often enjoy in the body a ' stable 
condition,' that is, health, but there is no way to 
acquire any assurance that it will last. Hence they 
cannot but suffer constant dismay and anguish for 
the body in facing the future, since it has never 
yet provided them with that ' secure and steadfast 
hope ' that they keep waiting for. To do no wrong 
does nothing to bring assurance ; it is not suffering de- 
servedly, but suffering at all that is dreaded, and that 

a Cf. Theocritus, Idyll vi. 39, with Gow's note. 
6 Cardinal Tenets xxxiv and xxxv ; cf. Frag. 532, 582 (ed. 
Usener). c Epicurus, Frag. 68 (ed. Usener). 

17 vTrep XA 2 E g c : V7TO 0A 1 . 

18 fjv Wyttenbach : rj tl X 2 (tj tL X x )a g c. 

19 aV Xa g c : rr€pl Post. 

20 avrov Xa g : a blank of 19 letters and ov c. 

21 pefiaiov Xa (cf. Letter to Pythocles, 85) : pefiaiav g c. 

22 ovhetTO) Xa g c : ovSenore Bern. ; ov8e tto)s ? Post. 

23 hvvap.4vovs X x a : hvvd^voi X 2 c ; hia^ivoi g 1 (hivap,£voi g 2 ). 

24 dSi/a'ats Xa g : c omits in a blank of 1 1 letters. 

25 dviapov Xa g : dviapd C 

43 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1090) 

thi Trepmeoelv Se raZs dXXa)v ov xaAe7roV aAA' el pur) 

[leZ^ov, ovk eXarrov ye to 1 kclkov rjv 'AdrjvatoLS rf 

Aaxdpovs 3 kcu HvpaKOGLOLS* rj Atovvacov x^Xerrorrjs 

rjrrep avroZs eKeivois • rapdrrovres yap erapdrrovro 

kolI ireioeodai kclkoos rrptyaeSoKcov £k rod rrpoaSiKeZv 

Kal 7TpoXvjJbatveadai G tovs evrvyyavovras • 6yAu>v 

Se OvfAovs Kal Xyorcov wpLOTrjras Kal KXrjpovopiajv 

dSiKtas, en Se XoifJbovs depwv Kal OaXdaarjs dpu- 

7to)tlv, 8 xxj)* rjs 9 'JLrrtKovpos oXiyov eSerjae Kara- 

TToOrjvai rrXeajv els AdpuifjaKov /° d)s ypdcftei, tl dv 

Xeyoi tls ; dpKeZ yap rj <f>vais rrjs oapKos, vXrjv 

F e\ovGa vooojv 11 ev eavrfj Kal tovto Srj to rrai^opievov 

1 eK rod fioos tovs IfxavTas ' Xapifidvovoa ras dXyrj- 

Sovas eK rod oajfjbaros, ojjloiojs rots 12 re cfravXois Kal 

roZs eirieiKeoi rov fiiov ernocfraXrj 13 rroieZv 1 * Kal (f>o- 

fiepov, dvrrep errl aapKi Kal rfj rrepl odpKa eXrriSi 

1091 fjbddojOLV, dXXco Se p,rj9evl 15 xaipetv Kal OappeZv, (bs 

'EiTiKovpos ev re 16 dXXocs rroXXoZs yeypa<f>e Kal rov- 

tols a eon rrepl reXovs. 

1 to] tot€ ? 2 r) X c a (r) X ac ) : rj g c. 

3 Aaxapovs a : Aa^apou Xgc. 

4 TivpaKoaioLS Bern. : ovppaKovoiois X c ; ovpaKovolois a ; 
ovpaKovaoiois g. 

5 r\TT£p (so a ; rj nap* X g) avrols eKeivois Xa g : C omits. 

6 rr poAvfJLaiv eodai Reiske : KVfiaiveoOai Xa g C (AvpLaiveodaL 
A 2 E). 

7 evTvyxdvovras B : rrpoevrvyxdvovTas Xa g ; Trpoorvyxdvov- 
ras C. 

8 daAdocrrjs afjarajTiv nos : ddAaooav evfipayKrjv X(0. evfipdy- 
K-qv a; 6. evKpdyKrjv jS 2 ; d. evpdyKrjv /3 2ss ) g C (0aAao-aai> Eu/?ol- 
Krjv Post). 9 rjs B : als Xa g C. 

10 AdfjLipaKOv Xa g 2 : AdipaKov g 1 C. 

11 vogojv X 2 a g C : vooov X 1 . 

12 rots' Xa : g c omit. 

13 emo^aArj X 2 a g C : -el X 1 . 

11 rroielv a A 1 g 2 : novel XA 2 E g 1 c. 

44 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1090-1091 

it is misery to live with your own crimes on your head 
does not mean that there is no hardship in exposure 
to the crimes of others. Indeed for the Athenians 
the savagery of Lachares, and for the Syracusans 
that of Dionysius, if it was not a greater, was certainly 
no less an evil than it was for Lachares and Dionysius 
themselves ; for these felt disquiet because they 
caused it, and their anticipations of being made to 
suffer sprang from previous crimes and outrages per- 
petrated on those who had come within their reach. 
And what need to mention the fury of mobs, a the 
savagery of bandits, the crimes of inheritors, 5 and 
again the pestilences of the air and the reflux of the 
sea that came near to engulfing Epicurus c on his 
voyage to Lampsacus, as he writes ? For the nature 
of the flesh possesses in itself the raw material of 
diseases, and as in the jesting proverb we speak of 
getting the whip from the ox's hide, d so it gets the 
pains of the body from the body, and suffices to make 
life precarious and full of fears for criminals and 
honest men alike, once they have been taught to 
let their delight and trust depend on the body and 
on expectation for the body and on nothing else, as 
Epicurus e teaches in his treatise On the Highest Good 
and in many other passages as well. 

a Bignone {U Aristotele perduto, vol. ii, pp. 143-147) sup- 
poses that Epicurus was threatened by a mob at Mytilene. 

6 The Athenian cleruchs at Samos, including Epicurus' 
family, were dispossessed in favour of the displaced Samians 
and their heirs in 322. c Frag. 189 (ed. Usener). 

d Cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr., vol. i, p. 
402 and vol. ii, p. 162 ; see also Kock, Com. Att. Frag., vol. 
iii, p. 496 and Marx on Lucilius, 326. 

e Frag. 68 (ed. Usener). 

15 fjLTjdevl XA 2 E : ^8evt g c. 
16 odpKa — ev T€ XA 2 E g c : aA 1 omit. 

45 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1091) 7. " Ov [jlovov tolvvv amoTOV /cat d/?£j8atov dp- 
Xrjv Xa/Jifldvovcn rod rjSecos Xjqv dXXd /cat rravrd- 
iraoiv €VKaracf)p6vr]Tov /cat fjbiKpdv, etrrep avrols 
kclklov ancxfivyr) 1 to \apTov eart /cat to dyadov, 
dXXo Se ovSev oiavoelodai <f>aoiv y ovSe oXojs rrjv 
(pvoiv €X €lv 07T0L t/rjoerac to ayatfov et p,r) puovov 
odev i^eXavverat to kolkov avrrjs, co? (f>rjoi M^rpo- 
Soopos ev toZs npos tovs oo<f>ioTas- ' toure tovto 
avro to dyadov 5 eon, to (f>vyelv to kclkov evda 
yap TedrjoeTaL Tayadov ovk eVrtv orav p,y]dev eVt 
B vire^iyf fjbrjTe dXyeivov pjrpre XvTrrjpov.' opLota Se 

/Cat T(X 'ETTLKOVpOV XlyOVTOS T7JV TOV dyadov (f)VOLV 

i£ avTrjs ttjs <f>vyrjs tov /ca/cou /cat Tr\s fjLvrjpLrjs /cat 
imXoyLoeoJS /cat ^dpiTos otl tovto 7 ovfJb^e^rjKev 
avTa> s yevvaoOai' ' to yap ttoiovv,'* (f>rjoLV, ' dvvrrep- 
fiXrjTov yfjdos to Trap* avTO 10 7T€(j)vyp,ivov jxeya 
/ca/coV* /cat avTrj <f>vois dyadov, dv tls 6pda)s eVt- 
fidXr) 11 eVetra OTaOfj /cat firj Kevcos irepiuaTfj rrepl 
dyadov dpvXajv.' (f>€v ttjs jJLeydXrjs rjSovfjs tcov 
dvSpcbv /cat /JuaKapLOTrjTos rjv KaprrovvTai yaipovTZS 
cm tco pur} KaKOTradelv jJirjSe Xvirelod at fjbrjSe dXyelv. 

1 a7ro(f)vyr) X 2 a g : anoc/yvyr) X 1 c. 

2 €X^iv age: l^ei X. 

3 07TOL (o-X 1 ) Xa C : 07rr) g. 

4 drjoerai, X g c : Tcfl^aerat a. 

5 TayaOov Usener : dyadov. 

6 V7T€£[r) X 2 a : V7T€^€L7] X 1 g C. 

7 tovto X g c : tovto) a. 

8 avTcb age: a\)TO X. 9 ttoiovv Xa g : ttoiov c. 

10 map avTO a : Trap* avTQV X ; irap avrd)v g C (irdpavTa 
Usener ; irapd Xoyov Pohlenz). 

11 impdAr) X g C : impdXXrj a (4mf3a\d>v ? Post). 

46 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1091 

7. " To pursue : not only is the basis that they 
assume for the pleasurable life untrustworthy and 
insecure, it is quite trivial and paltry as well, inas- 
much as their ' thing delighted in ' a — their Good — 
is an escape from ills, and they say that they can 
conceive of no other, and indeed that our nature has 
no place at all in which to put its good except the 
place left when its evil is expelled, as Metrodorus b 
asserts in his Reply to the Sophists : ' Hence this very 
thing is the Good, escape from the evil ; for there is 
nowhere for the Good to be put when nothing painful 
to the body or distressing to the mind is any longer 
making way for it.' Epicurus c too makes a similar 
statement to the effect that the Good is a thing 
that arises out of your very escape from evil and 
from your memory and reflexion and gratitude d 
that this has happened to you. His words are these : 
* For what produces a jubilation unsurpassed is the 
contrast of the great evil escaped ; and this is the 
nature of good, if you apply your mind rightly and 
then stand firm and do not stroll about e prating 
meaninglessly about good.' Oh the great pleasure 
and blessed state this company f enjoy, as they revel 
in suffering no hardship or anxiety or pain ! Is this 

For the word cf. Epicurus, On Nature, Frag. 31. 18. 4, 
p. 329 (ed. Arrighetti). 

6 Frag. 28 (ed. Korte). 

c Frag. 423 (ed. Usener). 

d Epicurus uses charis (gratitude) in the sense of " grateful 
recollection " in the Letter to Menoeceus, 122 ; Gnom. Vat. 
17 (where see the note in Bailey's Epicurus, p. 378) ; for the 
thought see also Cicero, Be Fin. i. 17 (57), 19 (62). 

• A jibe at the Peripatetics. 

' Frag. 419 (ed. Usener). The Epicureans used the term 
makarios (" blessed ") of the gods and of themselves. They 
may, like Aristotle (Eth. Nic. vii. 11 [1152 b 7 f.]), have 
associated the word with chair ein (" to delight "). 

47 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1091) ap' ovk a£iov icrriv errl tovtois /cat cfrpovelv /cat 
C Xiyeiv a Xeyovotv, d(f)ddpTovg /cat loodeovs airoKa- 
Xovvres clvtovs /cat hi vrrep^oXds /cat a/cpoTryTas" 
dyaOtbv 1 els fipopuovs kclI oXoXvypbovs eK^aK^evovres 
v(j)' 2 rjSovrjs on rcov aXXtov irepi<f>povovvT€S e^evprj- 
/cacrt pLovot delov dyaOov /cat pbeya, 3 to fArjdev* eyeiv 

KCLKOV; 0)0T€ pbTjT€ 5 OVCOV a7ToX€L7T€O0OU pJ)T€ TTpO- 

pdrajv evScupuovla, 6 to rfj crap/ct /cat rfj iftvxfj rrept 7 
rfjs aap kqs iKav&s eye.iv pbatcdpiov Tidepbevovs? 
€7ret rots ye Kopufjorepots /cat yXacfyvpcorepois rcov 
^cpojv ovk eon <j>vyrf kclkov reXos, 10 dXXd /cat rrpos 
tp&ds otto 11 Kopov rpeVerat /cat vr]^eoi ^atpet /cat 
TTTrioeoi /cat dTTopupLeXoO at 12 77at£oPTa 13 <f)Ojvds re 
D rravTooarrds /cat ifr6(f)ovs v<j> rjSovrjs /cat yavporrjros 
errt^etpet 14 /cat TTpos dXXrjXa xprJTCLL tfriXocfrpoovvcus 
/cat OKiprrjoeoiv, otclv eK^vyrj to /ca/cov rdyaOdv 15 
Tre^VKora t,rjT€iv y pbdXXov Se oXcos 16 rrdv to dXyetvov 

/Cat TO dXXoTpiOV OJS ipLTTo8d)V OVTOL TTj StCO^et TOV 

oiKelov /cat KpeiTTOvos e£a)9ovvTa Trjs <f>voecos. 

lo yap avayKaiov ovk ayavov eoTiv aAA 

€7T€K€IVCL T7JS <j)VyrjS TCOV KOLKOJV K€LTCLl TO €(f)€TOV 

/cat to alpeTOV /cat vrj Ata to 17 rj8v /cat oiKelov, d>s 

1 ayaBojv Xa C : iraOcov g. 

2 u<j£' Xa : vtto (ol7t6 c) tiJ? gc. 3 fieya g C : /tera Xa, 

4 to (rov X ar ) firjdev Xa 1 (tol» fjurjOkv a 2 A) : to (jlt]$€v g C. 

5 jm}t€ XA 2 E g c : [Mr) aA 1 . 

6 evSaifxovLa Reiske : evSaifiovtav Xa g c. 

7 7rept Xa : irapa g c. 

8 fxaKOLpiov ridefievovs XA g C : /za/capioV rt Oefjuevovs a (but 
the second acute may be later). 

9 (j>vyrj /x 2 and Victorius ((frvaei <j>vyr) Xylander) : <j>vo<zi Xa r 
(from cf>vG€'C) g c. 10 reXos X r g c j8 r : rdXovs X ar a. 

11 aVo Kronenberg : vtto Xa g c. 

12 d7rofJLLjX€iadai Xa : aTro/ufietTai g C. 

13 7ratfoyTa a : Trai^ovras X g C. 

48 



. A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1091 

not a thing to make them proud and use the language 
they do, a when they style themselves ' imperishable ' h 
and ' equal to the gods ' c and from excess and pre- 
eminence of blessings explode in their pleasure into 
wild cries of rapture and ecstasy because they alone, 
scorning all other blessings, have discovered one as 
great as it is godlike, to wit, not to suffer any ill ? 
Therefore in felicity they are no whit inferior to 
swine or sheep, since they count it blessedness for 
everything to go well with the flesh and with the 
mind in its concern for the flesh. Actually for the 
cleverer and more graceful animals the escape from 
evil is not the highest end ; rather, when they have 
had their fill they turn to song, or revel in swimming 
or in flight, or for pure joy and high spirits take up a 
playful imitation of words and sounds of every kind, 
and greet one another with caresses and gambols, 
since once they have escaped- evil they instinctively 
seek out the good, or better, let us say that they 
expel from their nature everything painful or alien to 
it as an impediment to the pursuit of what belongs 
to that nature and is a higher good. 

8. " For what is imposed by necessity is not good ; 
the object of our aspiration and choice lies beyond 
the escape from ills ; yes, and so too does what is 
pleasant and in harmony with our nature, as Plato d 

a Cf Metrodorus, Frag. 38 (ed. Korte) and Epicurus, 
Frag. 141, note (ed. Usener). 

h Cf. Epicurus' letter to his mother (Frag. 65. 1. 23-40, 
ed. Arrighetti), translated in note b on p. 250, infra. 

e Cf Epicurus, Frag. 165 (ed. Usener). 

d Republic, ix, 584 b— 585 a, 586 a. 

14 yavporrjros imxeipei Xa : yavpoT' (-ttjtcls g) cVtreAet g C. 

15 to kclkov rdyaOov a : rdyaOov to kclkov Xgc, 
16 oXcos Xa g : ioriv <hs C. 17 to Xa g : /cat c. 

49 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1091) YiXdrcov eXeye, /cat omryyopeoev ras Xvttcov /cat 
ttovojv aTTaXXayas rjSovas purj vofJLL^eiv, dAA' olov 
tlvol oKiaypa^iav 1 rj jjlX^lv olk€lov /cat aXXorpiov, 
Kaddrrep XevKov /cat fieXavos, 2 oltto rod kqjtco irpds 

E to jjueaov dvacfre po pbevoov , a7T€ipiq 8k rod dva> 3 /cat 
dyvoia to fxeoov aKpov r)yov puevojv 4 elvai /cat rrepas' 
woTrep 'Em'/coupo? rjyelrai /cat M.rjTp68ajpos, ovoiav 
rdyaOov 5 /cat dKporrjra rrjv rod /ca/cou (f>vyr)v tl0€- 
puevoL /cat ^atpovres' dv8pa7r68a>v rivd ^apav r) Se- 
ojjllojv e£ elpypiov XvdevTcov, dopievajs dXe li/j apuevajv 
/cat diToXovoapievajv p,er at/etas' /cat 6 fxdoTLyas , 
iXevdepas 8e /cat KaOapds /cat dpuyovs /cat dp,ojXa)- 
ttlotov 1 x a P^ dyevorcov /cat ddedrcuv. 6 ov yap et 
to ifjojpidv tt)v odpKa /cat XrjpLav top o^daXfiov 
dXXoTpiov 7]8tj /cat to Kvdodai /cat to 9 dnopidTTeod at 

F davpbdoiov ouS' et to dXyelv /cat <£o/3etcr#at ra Seta 
/cat TapaTTeoOai tols iv "Ai8ov kclkov rj tovtojv 
aTrocjyvyr) puaKaptov /cat ^rjXojTov. dXXd piiKpov Tiva 
tottov /cat yXloxpov diro^aivovoi ttjs X a P^ s * v 4* 
OTpecfreTcu, /cat /cuAiyoetrat, p>€XP L ro ^ f^V TapaTre- 
cr#at tols iv "Al8ov kolkoZs r) tovtojv 10 rrapd ras" 
Kevds So^as rrpo'Covaa /cat tovto 7TOiovfJb€vrj ttjs 
1092 aortas TeXos o 86^€iev dv 11 avTodev virdpxtw tols 

1 oKiaypa(j>iav XA 2 E g c : oklo- aA 1 . 

2 After iiiXavos Dohner supposes a lacuna, which Pohlenz 
would fill somewhat as follows : rovs Se to /u,r) aXyetv rjBovrjv 
vofML^ovras ouSev Sia^epetv rwv. 

3 dva> Victorius in Q : koltoj Xagc. 

4 TjyoujLteVcuv] -vcov through ILo^oKXiovs (1093 d) is wanting 
in X through the loss of two leaves (eight pages). 

5 rdyadov a g : dyaOov C. 

6 fji€T* olIkicls kolI a c A : /Lter' dot/a'a? koli a ac : /Ltera ras olSlkicls 
kclI ras g C. 

7 afia)Aa)7riaTov Bern. : djrovXwriGTOv age. 

8 dOedrcuv a g : ddefxiTCDv c. 9 to g c : a omits. 

50 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1091-1092 

said, who forbade us to regard riddance from pain 
and discomfort as pleasure, but as instead some trick 
of perspective as it were or blend of what is in har- 
mony with our nature with what is alien to it, like a 
blend of white and black, which occurs when people 
ascend from a lower to a middle region, and suppose, 
in their lack of any experience or knowledge of the 
higher region, that the middle is the summit and the 
end. So Epicurus a supposes and Metrodorus b too, 
when they take the position that escape from ill is 
the reality and upper limit of the good; and thus 
their delight is that of slaves or prisoners released 
from confinement, overjoyed to be anointed and 
bathed after the cruel usage and the flogging, but 
knowing neither the taste nor the vision of a free 
man's delight, pure, untainted, and bearing no welts 
from the lash. For it does not follow that if an itching 
of the skin or a rheumy flux in the eye is foreign to 
our nature, scratching the skin and wiping the eye 
are on that account a glorious experience ; nor does 
it follow that if pain, fear of the supernatural and 
terror about the hereafter are evil, escape from them 
is godlike and bliss beyond compare. No ; these 
men coop up their delight in quarters that are small 
and cramped, and there it circles about and wallows, 
advancing no farther, this delight of theirs, than to 
escape the anxiety about the ills of the hereafter that 
comes from false notions, and taking as the final goal 
of wisdom a state with which, it would appear, the 

Frag. 423 (ed. Usener). 

6 Frag. 28 (ed. Korte). 

c Epicurus, Frag. 384 (ed. Usener). 

10 V (v S c ) tovtcov age: Wyttenbach would omit. 
11 av added by Bern. 

51 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1092) dXoyois. el yap 7Tpos rrjv airovtav 1 rod owfiaros 
ov hia<f)epei rrorepov St' avrov 2 rj (frvoec rov iroveiv 
€ktos eoriv, ovSe irpos rrjv drapa^lav 3 jjbel^ov eon 
to St' avrov* rj Kara (frvoiv ovrojs 5 eye iv chore pur] 
rapdrreodai. kclLtoi (f>r)oeiev dv ns ovk dXoyws 
eppojpbeveorepav elvai oidOeoiv rrjv c/)voet pur) Se^o- 
pbevrjv to rapdrrov rj rrjv eiripLeXeia /cat Xoyco Sta- 
(frevyovoav. eoroj oe eyeiv erriorjs' /cat yap ovtojs 
(fravovvrai rd>v OrjpLajv rrXeov ovoev e^ovres ev rto 
p,rj rapdrreodai rols ev "AtSov /cat rols Q rrepl 6eojv 
Xeyofievois {irjSe rrpooSoK&v Xvrras pbrjoe dXyrjoovas 
B opov ovk exovoos. avros yovv ^YmiKovpos elrrcbv 
ojs ' €t 8 parjSev rjpi&s at virep rcov puereojpojv viroijjiai 
rjvwxXovv en re 9 rd rrepl davdrov /cat dXyr}86vo)v, 
ovk dv rrore irpooeoeop^eOa (j>voioXoyias ' els rovro 10 
dyeiv rjpbds olerai rov Xoyov ev cS rd Orjpia <f>voei 
KadeorrjKev 11, ovre yap vrroi/jias eyjei cf>avXas rrepl 
dewv ovre oo^ais Kevals 12 evoyXelrai rrepl rcov jLtera 13 
ddvarov ovSe oXcos emvoel ri oeivov ev rovrois ovSe 
otSe. /catrot el puev ev rfj rrpoXrji/jei rov 6eov rrjv 
irpovoiav drreXirrov e^aivovro dv eXnioi xprjoraZs 

1 dnovlav a 2 A g c : dirovoiav a 1 . 

2 avrov C : avrov g ; avro a 2 (from avro), 

3 arapa£tav g C : drapa^lav rrjs ipvxfjs a. 

4 avrov c : avrov g ; avro a (avrrjv Bern. ; avrrjv Reiske). 

5 ovrws g C : a)S ovtcds a. 

6 rots added by Pohlenz. 

7 ovk added by Reiske (exitum non habentes Ferronus). 

8 €i g c j8 2 : a omits. 

9 t€ g c : a omits. 

10 rovro a g ac C : rovrov g css . 

11 ayew — KadcarrjKcv g c : a omits. 

52 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1092 

brutes begin. For if it makes no difference in the 
freedom of the body from pain whether it has got 
free by your own efforts or by a natural process, so 
too in peace of mind the unperturbed condition 
achieved by your own efforts has no advantage over 
the condition when it is that of nature. Indeed it 
might be urged with some reason that there is greater 
strength in the condition that is naturally imperturb- 
able than in one that escapes disturbing influences 
by exercising care and taking thought. But let us 
grant that the two states are equally unperturbed, 
since even so these gentlemen will be seen to be no 
better off than the brutes in this matter of not being 
disturbed by the hereafter and by tales about the gods 
and of not anticipating endless anxiety and pain. 
Thus Epicurus a himself, when he says ' If we were not 
troubled with misgivings about celestial phenomena 
and again about death and pain, we should never have 
stood in need of natural philosophy,' & imagines that 
his system leads us to the state in which the brutes 
are permanently placed by nature. For the brutes 
have no wrong-headed misgivings about the gods and 
are not troubled with baseless notions about what 
awaits them after death ; indeed they have no idea 
or knowledge whatever of anything to fear on either 
score. Yet if the Epicureans had left room for provi- 
dence in their conception of God men of intelligence 
would then be seen to be better equipped for a 

Cardinal Tenet xi. 

b The Epicureans described their system as physiologia 
(" natural philosophy ") and called themselves physiologoi 
(" natural philosophers ") : cf. 1098 d, 1100 a, 1117 b, infra ; 
Cicero, Be Nat. Deor. i. 8 (20) with Pease's note. 

12 botjais K€vcus Madvig : oo£as als a ; Sofas iv ah g C 
rrept ra>v fiera Reiske : ra>v /xera g c : /xera, tov a. 

53 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1092) rrXeov exovres oi cfrpovi/JLOi ra>v drjplcov Trpos to 
rjSetos ^rjv irrel 8e TeXos r\v tov irepl decov Xoyov 
to jjurj (frojielodai deov aAAa rravoaodai raparro- 
C puevovs, PefiouoTepov ofytat tovto vrrapx^iv rols oXa>s 
pur) voovoi deov r) rols vdelv p,r) ^Xdrrrovra /jLepLadrj- 
kooiv. ov yap aV^AAa/crat SetatSai/xovt'as' aAA' 

Ol>8e 7T€pL7T€lTTa)K€V, Ov8e OLTTOTeOeLTaL 1 T7JV TOLpOLT- 

rovoav evvoiav Trepl Oewv 2 aAA' ov8' e'lXrjcfre. ro\ 8e 
avra /cat 3 Trepl rwv ev "AtSou Ae/creov to* puev yap 
iXrri^eLV xprjGTOv 5 air* €K€lvcov ovSerepois* vjrdpx^, 
tov 1 S' V7T07TT€vecv Kal </>oj8eta#at ra 8 puerd 9 ddvarov 
rjrrov pLereonv ols ov ytVerat 10 Oavdrov TrpoXrji/jLS 
r) rols TrpoXap,f}dvovoLV ws ovSev irpos rjpbds 6 ddva- 
tos. rrpos fJi€V ye tovtovs €gtlv, €</>' ooov Trepl 
avrov 11 8iaXoylt > ovTai 12 /cat okottovoi, ra 8e 8Xa>s 
D a777yAAa/CTat rov (fypovru^eiv tcov ov rrpos eavrd, 
TrXrjyds 8e (frevyovra /cat rpavpuara /cat <f>6vovs lz 
tovto tov OavaTOV SeSoLKev o /cat tovtois <f>ofiep6v 
eoTiv. 

9- " *A pbkv ovv Xeyovocv aurot? 14 vtto oo<f>Las 
7Tap€OK€vaop,€va TOiavTa ioTiv wv 8e avToi>s 15 a</>at- 
povvTai /cat aTreAavvovoiv 77077 OKOTrojpLev. Tag p,ev 
yap VTrep crap/cos* /cat inl oapKos 11 evTradeia tt)s 

1 aTTorid^irai a : VTroriQeiTai gc. 2 0€a>v a : tcjv Oe&v g C. 

3 /cat a : g C omit. 4 to a c (Sio a ac ?) C : tovto g. 

5 XP r l OT0V a £ c : Tl XP 7 i OT0V Meziriacus. 

6 ovhcTepois ex 2 and Aid. 2 : ovStTepov age. 7 tov gc: to a. 

8 tol added by Meziriacus. 9 fi€Ta g c : ftera tov a. 

10 ov yiv€Tcu] ov& iyyiveTai Castiglioni. 

11 €</>' ooov 7T€pl avTOv a : €(f>6aov g c. 

12 SiaAoyi£ovT<u a : -at tl g C. 13 <f>6vovs g C : <f>06vovs a. 

14 avTols Aid. 2 (avTOts g c) : glvtovs a. 

15 Se avTOVs a : S* iavTovs g C. 

16 a7r€Aawoucrtv a : d7roAauoi»crtv g C. 

54 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1092 

pleasurable life than the brutes because they could 
hope ; since, however, the aim of their theology a is 
to have no fear of God, but instead to be rid of our 
anxieties, I should think that this condition is more 
securely in the possession of creatures that have no 
faintest notion of God than of those who have been 
taught to think of him as injuring no one. Of these 
the former have not been delivered from superstition, 
since they have never even been its victims ; nor have 
they put aside the notion about the gods that is dis- 
turbing, but have never even adopted it. The same 
is to be said of the hereafter : neither creature expects 
any good of it, but misgiving and dread of what comes 
after death is less the portion of those who have no 
conception of death than of those who conceive that 
death is no concern of ours. 5 Death is a concern of 
these men to the extent that they reason about it 
and subject it to inquiry c ; but the brutes are re- 
lieved of any concern whatever for what is nothing to 
them, and when they avoid blows and wounds and 
being killed they fear that in death which the Epi- 
cureans fear as well. 

9. " Such then are the improvements upon nature 
with which they say wisdom has provided d them. 
Let us now consider what they deprive themselves of 
and banish themselves from. As for the melting 
away of the mind that occurs in the expectation or 

° Frag. 384 (ed. Usener). 

6 For this famous Epicurean phrase see the Letter to 
Menoeceus, 124, 125, Cardinal Tenet ii, and Lucretius, iii. 
830. c Cf 1106 e, infra. 

d For the phrase cf Cardinal Tenet xxvii : <3v -q <jo<j>ia -napa- 

GK€Vat ) €Tai. 

17 V7T€p OapKQS KCLl eVt OdpKOS nOS (ilTL OGLpKL KOI GdpKOS ViC" 

torius) : em aapKOs /cat aapKos a ; im aapKOS g C 

55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1092) i/jvxfjs StaxvoeLS, edv cScrt pberptat, purjdev 1 exovaas 
pueya 2 firjSe dtjioAoyov, av z Se VTrepfidXAcooi, 4, irpos 
rep K€vcp /cat dpeftaito cfyopriKas (fraivopbevas /cat 
Opaaeias, ovSe i/a^t/cds" dv tis ovSe papas'/ dAAd 
ocop^ariKas rjSovas /cat 6 - olov empieihidoeis /cat avv- 

E €7TldpVl/j€lS 7TpOG€LTT0l TTjS fax^S - &S §€ d£lOV Kdl 

Slkcllov €V(j)poGvvas /cat x a pds vopbl^eoOat 7 KaOapal* 
[Jbev eloi rod ivavrlov /cat ocfrvypbov 9 ovSeva /ce/cpa- 
puevov ovSe SrjypLOV ov8e puerdvoiav ex ovoiv > OLKetov 
Se rfj ipvxfj Kai */*vx lK ° v d\r]9a)s /cat yvrjocov /cat 
ovk €7T€ioaKTOv clvtcov rdyadov eoriv ovSe dXoyov 
dAA' evXoywrarov 10 e/c rod dewprjTLKov /cat </>tAo- 
puadovs r) irpaKTiKov 11 /cat (fyiXoKaXov rrjs oiclvolcls 
<f>vopbevov. Sv ooas 12 eKarepov /cat T^At/cas rjSovds 
dvaSiScoatv ovk dv tls dvvoeie SteA#etv TrpoOvpuov- 
fi€VOS' VTTopbvfjoai Se jSpa^ea)? at 13 re loropiai rrdp- 
eioi TroAAds" p>ev eTTiTepirels Siarpifids ex ovaaL > T ° 
F Se iiridvpLovv del rrjs dXrjOelas 1 * di<6peorov /caraAet- 
7TOvaai lb /cat dirXr^oTOV rjSovrjs' St' rjv ovSe to i/jevSos 
dpboipel xdpiroSy dAAd /cat irXdopbaoi /cat Troirjpbaoi 
rov TTLoreveodat purj rrpoaovros eveartv opuos to 

1 fjirjOev a g : firjSev c. 2 pueya a c : g omits. 

3 dv a C : iav g. 4 virepPdAAcooi a g : virtpfiaAaxji C. 

5 x a P<*s Reiske : xa/Hras age. 

6 /cat g c : a omits. 

7 vofAi^eadai a : KOfil^eodat g : etWo^tt^ecrflat C. 

8 Kadapal a g : Kadapa C. 

9 G^vypLov a : o<j>iyp,6v g ; ocfrrjyfjidv c. 

10 euAoycorarov a g : €i)A and a blank of 6 letters and rarov c. 



TTpCLKTlKOV a : TpayiKOv g C 



/92SS 



12 cuv coras a g : c omits in a blank of 12 letters. 

13 Before at Pohlenz would add at re fxaOrjaecs, Reiske 17 re 

7T€tpa. 

14 dXrjOelas a g C : aArjdovs Hartman. 

15 /caraAetTrouaat g c : a7roAet7rouaat a. 

56 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1092 

on the occasion of fleshly enjoyment, this when 
moderate has nothing about it that is great or appre- 
ciable, and when extreme is not only unfounded and 
unstable but strikes us as coarse and immodest ; and 
a man would refuse to term it so much as ' mental ' 
or a ' delight/ but rather a ' physical pleasure of the 
mind ' as it beams, as it were, upon the body and 
humours it. a But what properly deserves to be con- 
sidered ' animation ' b and ' delight ' is pure of any 
taint of its opposite, has no element of aching or 
stabbing pain, and brings with it no regret c ; the 
good in it is proper to the mind and really ' mental ' 
and authentic and not adventitious or irrational but 
rational in the truest sense, since it comes from the 
speculative and philosophical or else the active and 
honourable part of the mind.^ The pleasures yielded 
by each of these two parts are so many and so great 
that with the best will in the world no one could tell 
the whole story. For a brief reminder, however, 
we can appeal first to history, providing as it does 
many hours of agreeable pastime, but yet leaving us 
with our thirst for more and still more truth insatiable 
and unblunted with pleasure ; a pleasure moreover 
which lends to fiction a power to charm, and the 
purest fabrications and poetic inventions, to which 
no belief is accorded, have none the less the winning 

° Frag. 410 (ed. Usener). 

b ' 'Animation " renders euphrosyne, a word for joy that 
owing to its etymology (from phren, " mind ") was often 
applied to the pleasures of the mind : cf Plato, Protagoras, 
337 c. 

c Cf Mor. 476 f. 

d For the Platonist all pleasure is of the mind, none of the 
body ; but the pleasure can be of the highest or philosophical 
part of the mind, of the next part, the spirited and enter- 
prising, or of the lowest part, the desiderative. 

57 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

1093 7T€L0ov. (10.) evvoei yap cos 8aKv6pb€vot tov YlXd- 
tcovos dvayivcooKopiev ' AtAclvtikov /cat to, TeAeurata 
rrjs 'IAlqlSos, olov lepcov /cAeto/xeVaw rj dedrpcov 
eiriTToOovvres tov jjlvOov to Aenropuevcv. avTrjs Se 
ttjs dArjdelas r) pudOrjois ovtcos ipdopuov eort /cat 
iroQeivov cos 1 to ^rjv /cat to elvai Sid to yivcooKeiv 
tov Se OavaTov tcx OKvOpcoiroTaTa Arjdrj /cat ayvoia 
/cat o kotos, fj /cat vr) Ata pbd^ovTai toZs ^deipovui 
tcov airodavovTCOv ttjv aiodrjoiv SAiyov Setv airavTes, 
cos iv puovcp tco alaOavofievcp /cat yivcooKOVTL ttjs 
foxys TiOefievoi to l^rjv /cat to etmt /cat to yaipetv. 
B eaTt yap /cat Tot? dVtojai to /xe#' rjSovrjs twos 
dKoveoOac /cat TaoaTTo/xevot iroAAaKis vtto tcov 
Aeyop,€vcov /cat /cAatovTes" opucos Aeyeiv KeAevopuev* 

C0O7T€p OVTOS' 

— ot/xot TTpos avTco y* elpul tco Seivco Aeyeuv. 
— Kay coy * aKoveiv aAA' opicos 5 aKovoTeov. 

dAAd tovto piev eot/ce ttjs rrepl to irdvTa yivcooKeiv 
rjSovrjs aKpauia tls elvai /cat pvois e/cj3ta£ojU,eV?7 
tov Aoyuopiov . oTav Se pbrjSev e^ouaa fiAafiepov rj 
AvTrrjpov* loTopia /cat hir)y tjols em irpd^eoi KaAals 
/cat pueydAais TrpooAd^rj Adyov eypvTa Svvapav /cat 
ydpiVy cos tov 1 'HpoSoVot; tol 'EAArjviKa /cat Ta 

1 wjgc: els a. 

M e c /S» : U 

3 KeXcvofxev g C : /ceAeiWrcs" a. 

4 /cay coy' a : /cat to ore g C. 

5 aAA' ofioos a : aAAore g c. 

6 fiXafiepov r) Avirrjpov g C : Avirrjpov r) j3Aa/3e/)dv a. 
7 tov a : to> g C. 8 rd g C : a omits. 

58 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1093 

grace of truth. a (10.) Thus reflect how keenly we 
are stirred as we read Plato's tale of Atlantis b and 
the last part of the Iliad ; we regret as much to miss 
the rest of the story as if it were some temple or 
theatre for which the hour of closing had come. But 
to learn the truth itself is a thing as dear to us and 
desirable as to live and be, because it brings us know- 
ledge, and the most dismal part of death is oblivion 
and ignorance and darkness. Indeed it is for this 
that well nigh the whole of mankind are opposed to 
those who deny all awareness to the dead, showing 
in this that they take living and being and the feeling 
of delight to be found only in the part of the soul that 
is aware and knows. For even those who bring us 
painful news are nevertheless listened to with a certain 
pleasure , d and although it often happens that we are 
disturbed by what is said and weep, we nevertheless 
bid them speak on, as in the play e : 

— Ah ! Now I come to what I dread to utter. 
— And I to hear ; yet hear the thing I must. 

Here, however, it appears that somehow the delight 
we take in knowing the whole story gets out of hand 
and a strong current of passion overpowers our 
reason. But when the story and the telling involves 
no harm or pain, and to its theme of splendid and 
great actions it adds the power and charm of elo- 
quence, as when Greek history is told by Herodotus 

° Cf. Pindar, Olympian Odes, i. 1. 30 f. 

b The Critias. 

c Cf. Aristotle, Protrepticus, Frag. 7, p. 37 (ed. Ross) and 
Eudemian Ethics, vii. 12 (1245 a 9-10). 

d Cf. Plato, Philebus, 48 a 5-6 and Aristotle, Poetics, 4 
(1448 b 10-19). 

e Sophocles, Oedipus the King, 1169-1170; quoted also 
in Mot. 522 c. 

59 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1093) YlepGLKOL TOV 1 SevocftoovTos , 

oaoa 2 T€ 3 "OjJLrjpos ideGmGe OioKeXa elo<l>s 

C rj aV UepioSovs 5 EuSo^os" 7} Krlaeis* Kal UoXiTetas 
^ApcGToreXrjS rj 7 BtotT? dvSpwv ' Apioro£;evos e- 
ypaifjev y ov p,6vov \xlya koX ttoXv to evcfrpalvov dXXd 
Kal KaOapov /cat dp.erajJb^Xrjrov eon. ris S' av 
(f)dyoi rreivcov Kal ttloi 8 oiifscov ra 9 <J>cua/ccov r\oiov 
rj 10 SieXOoi rov 'OSucrcrecos' drroXoyov rrjs TrXdvrjs; 
tls 8' av rjoOetT] GwavaTravodpLZVos rfj KaXXiarr) 
yvvaiKi fiaXXov ?} TrpoaaypVTTvrjaas ols yeypacfre 
rrepl TlavOeias 11 ^evocfrajv rj rrepl Tt/xo/cAeias 'A/n- 
OTofiovXos rj Qrjfiiqs 12 ' QeoTToparos; 1 * 

11. " 'AAAa tolvtcls rfjs ^1^779 i^aiOovGLV, 1 * i£w- 

D Oovat 8e Kal ras drro tojv /xa^ry^aTaw. 15 Kairoi 
rats fjbev iGTOpiais drrXovv tl Kal Xeiov £gtlv : cli oe xb 
drro yewfierpLas Kal aGrpoXoyias KaL dppbovLKfjs 
SptjJbv Kal ttolklXov k'^ovGai to 11 oeXeap ovdev ra>v 

1 rov a : tcov g C. 

2 600a Diibner : ocra age. 

3 re g (re c) : oe a. 

4 as Pohlenz : rrjs a ; rds g c /3 2 . 

e 

5 rrepiooovs g c j8 2 : 7r a. 

6 KTioeis a : Krr]oeis g C. 

7 77 a : g C omit. 8 ttloi a : m'rj g C. 
9 ra a : rcDv gc. 10 rj a : et g ; rj el C. 

11 rravQeias a : rravOias g C. 

12 flijjfys g C : drjofiris aA 1 ; flia/fys A 2 E. 

13 deorrofiTros g C : deoTTefiTTros a. 

14 ravras rrjs tpvxrjs e^todovaiv nos (raurasr re rrjs fax^S e^a>- 
0ovcri ras r)8ovas Bern. ; ravras \iev ras rjoovas i£a)9ovaLV odroi 
rrjs i/tvxfjs Westman) : ravra rrjs $vxrjs age. 

15 fxaOrj jjudr a)v a C : Tradrjfidrajv g. 

16 8e a g : yap c. 

17 to jS 2 : /cat a g c. 

60 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1093 

and Persian by Xenophon, a or as with 

The wondrous word inspired Homer sang b 

or Eudoxus' Description of the World, Aristotle's 
Foundations and Constitutions of Cities, d or Aristoxenus* 
Lives, e the joy it gives is not only great and abundant, 
but untainted as well and attended with no regret. 
Who would take greater pleasure in stilling his hunger 
or quenching his thirst with Phaeacian good cheer f 
than in following Odysseus' tale of his wanderings ? 9 
Who would find greater pleasure in going to bed with 
the most beautiful of women than in sitting up with 
Xenophon's story of Pantheia, A Aristobulus' of Timo- 
cleia,* or Theopompus' of Thebe ? ' 

11. " But all these pleasures they banish from the 
mind, and they also banish those that come from 
mathematics. k Yet the attraction in the histories is 
of a uniform and equable nature ; whereas the plea- 
sures of geometry and astronomy and harmonics have 
a pungent and multifarious enticement that gives 

° In the Education of Cyrus. 

6 Unidentified ; Schneider cites it as no. 385 of the Frag- 
menta Anonyma in his Callimachea. 

c Cf. Mor. 353 c. 

d Aristotle is said to have written 158 such constitutions. 
Of these one has been largely recovered, the Constitution of 
Athens ; the fragments of the rest are printed in Rose, pp. 
303-367 (Frags. 472-603). These Constitutions contained 
accounts of historical developments and would naturally in- 
clude the foundations. e Frag. 10a (ed. Wehrli). 

' Cf Homer, Od. ix. 5-11. g Homer, Od. ix-xii. 

h Education of Cyrus, iv. 6. 11, v. 1. 2-18, vi. 1. 31-51, 4. 
2-11, vii. 3. 3-16. 

1 Jacoby, Frag. Gr. Hist. 139 r 2 ; cf Mor. 259 d, Life of 
Alexander, chap, xii (670 e — 671 b). 

> Jacoby, Frag. Gr. Hist. 115 f 337 ; cf Mor. 194 d, 
256 a, and Life of Pelopidas, chaps, xxviii (293 a-c) and 
xxxv (297 d— 298 a). * Cf. Frag. 229 a (ed. Usener). 

61 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1093) ayajyifJLCDv 1 drroSeovaLV, eXKovaat Kaddrrep tvy£i 
tols hiaypan>iLa(Jiv &v 6 yevadfjuevos , dvrrep e/Jbrrei- 
pog fj, rd Ho(J)okX€OV9 jrepieioiv 2 aScov 

fJiovaofxaveL 8e \dc/)6r)v z Sa/ceTo> 4 ttotl SetpdV. 5 

eXOjJLOU S' €K T€ 6 AvpOLS €K T€ VOfJLOJV 

ovs Qapuvpas 7 rreptaAAa 8 /xot>cro7rot€t 

/cat vrj Ata Eu'So^os' /cat ' 'Aptc/rap^o? /cat 'Ap^tjury- 
8r]s. 07TOV yap oi <f>i\oypa<f)ovvT€S ovtojs dyovrai 
E 777 TTidavoT-qTi rcov epywv ware Nt/ctW 9 ypd<f>ovra 
rrjv Ne/cutav 10 ipcordv rroAAaKLS rovs ot/cera? et 
r/pt'arry/cev, 11 II to XejjLCLLOV 12 8e rod jSaatAeaJS e^ry- 
Kovra rdXavra rfjs ypa<j>rjs ovvTeAeodeiarjs 13 tt£\l- 
xfjavros avTto purj AajSetv firjSe drroSoaOai 14, to epyov, 
rivas olofieOa /cat 7TrjAiKas rjSovds drro yeco/JLerpLas 
SpeTreoOcLL /cat dorpoXoyias Eu/cAet'Sryv ypd(j>ovra rd 
8t07TTt/ca 15 /cat OtAt7T7rov 16 diroheiKvuvTa rrepl rod 

1 T(x>v ayojyiixwv Reiske : aywyifiov age. 

2 With TrepUimv X resumes. 

3 Se \a<f>9r)v X ; Se (8e c) Xa^dvv g C ; 8' iXdfufrdrjv a. 

4 h<LK€T<x> Brunck : 8av /cat to (to for to X) X g c ; o' aV koX 
tu> (toj from to) a c . 

6 7TOTt Setpav A 2 E : iroTihtipav X ; TTOTibeipav aA 1 : ttoti- 
Seipav g c. 

6 exo/xat (so Blaydes ; €t>xouat X g ; Zpxoficu a) 8' l/c tc 
Xa g : c omits in a blank of 20 letters. 

7 ous Bafivpas Porson : ov dafiotpas (or ovdafiolpas) X g c ; 
ov dafjLvpas a. 

8 7T€plaXAa X c : ncplaXa g ; 7T€/h aAAa a. 

9 viKiav age: veiKiav X. 

10 NeVuiav Bern. : veKvtav Xa ; verjviav g c. 

11 r]piOT7]K€ (rjp[GTrjK€v X)a : rjplcmqcrc g ; TjpiaT€VO€ C. 

62 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1093 

them all the potency of a love-charm as they draw 
us with the strong compulsion of their theorems. But 
taste of that potion, if you are an adept, and you will 
go about singing the lines of Sophocles a : 

A thing of wildest music at my throat : 
The lyre has rapt me to an ecstasy 
With glorious harmonies of Thamyras 

and of Eudoxus, I will add, and Aristarchus and Archi- 
medes. For if men who love to paint are so taken 
with the seductiveness of a canvas that when Nicias b 
was painting the Visit to the Dead c he frequently 
asked the servants whether he had breakfasted, and 
when the picture was ready and King Ptolemy d sent 
him sixty talents, refused the sum and would not sell 
the work, how exquisite and great must we suppose 
the pleasures were that Euclid reaped from geometry 
and astronomy when he wrote the treatise involving 
the dioptra, e Philip when he demonstrated the shape 

° Nauck, Trag. Graec, Frag., Sophocles, No. 224 ; Frag. 
245 (ed. Pearson). 

6 An Athenian painter of the end of the fourth century, 
mentioned in Mor. 346 a. The anecdote is also told in Mor. 
786 b and by Aelian (Varia Historia, iii. 31). 

c Homer, Od. xi. 

d Ptolemy I became satrap of Egypt in 323 and assumed 
the style of king in 305. Nicias gave the painting to the 
Athenians : Pliny, N.H. xxxv. 132. 

* Presumably the Phaenomena, where the dioptra is used 
in proving the first theorem. Proclus (In Primum Euclidis 
Elementorum Librum [ed. Friedlein, Leipzig, 1873], p. 42. 
4-6) lists dioptikS (so the ms.) as a part of astronomy. 

12 TTToXtixaLov Xa g : a blank of 4 letters and /xcra c. 

13 ovvt. age: ovvr. r\ X. 

14 /Lt^Se airohoodcu. a : flit hoadai X ; /lojSc 86o0cu g C. 

15 8to77Tt/ca Xa g c : 8to7TTpt/ca Xylander. 

16 <t>lXt,7T7TOv Xa g : rov faAnrirov C. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1093) ax^aros rrjs oeXrjvrjs 1 /cat ^Apx^rjSrjv dvevpovra 
rfj yojvia rrjv Sidfjuerpov tov rjXlov ttjXlkovtov 2 tov 
[JieyiGTOV kvkXov jiepos* ovoav tjXlkov rj ycovia twv* 
reaadpcov opdcov, /cat 'AttoXXcovlov /cat ' Kpiarapxov 
F irepcov 5 toiovtoov evperds yevopbevovs, Jjv vvv rj 
dea /cat KaravorjGLS rjSovds re pbeydXas /cat $po- 
vrjfia 6avp,doiov 6/X7rotet rots fiavddvovoiv ; /cat 
ovk d£iov ovSajJbfj tols e/c tcjv 

OTrraviojv 6 /cat pLarpvXeLCov 1 rjSovdg 

1094 e/cetVas* Trapa^dXXovra 8 tclvtolls Karaioxvveiv tov 
'EAt/caiva /cat tcls Mouaas* 

€v9* OVT€ TTOLfJbrjV (X^tOt (f)€p^€LV jSoTCt 

ovS' 9 fjXde ttco atSapos" 10, 
dAA' avrat puev elaiv ojs dXr]9(x)S d/c^parot vop,al tcjv 

fJLeXlTTCOV, 11 €K€LVCL 12 §€ GVOJV /Cat TpdyCOV KV7]ajJbOLS 

€OLK€V, 7Tpoaava7rtiM7rXdvra 13 rrjs ipv)(rjs to TraOrjTL- 

KOJTCLTOV. eOTL fl€V OVV TTOlKlXoV /Cat LTafJbOV TO </)l\- 

1 rod GXVl JLa ' TOS T V S creXrjvTjs Xa g : or^/xaros C. 

2 ttjXlkovtov X g C : ttjXikovto a. 

3 /Ltepos X g C : fiepovs a. 

4 tcov X 3 a 2 g C : to XW (or ra> ?). 

5 ire pew XaC: /cat irepcuv g. 

6 07TTaytojv r : d(o- X 1 )7rTaveia>i> Xa g C. 

7 fjLGLTpvAeiajv Diibner : fxarpuXXlcov Xa 2 (fiavr- a 1 ) g c. 

8 TTapafidXkovra Xa : TrapafiaXXovTas g C. 

9 ou8' Xa g c and Euripides : ovt Orion. 

10 alSapos X g c : atSrjpos a and some mss. of Euripides. 

11 ra>v fieXcrrcov Xa : fxtXiooayv g C. 

12 €K€iva Xa : e/cetvo g c. 

13 TrpoaavampLTrXavra X r (-aW- X ar )a C : -ttltt- g. 

° K. von Fritz (s.v. " Philippos " 42 in Pauly-Wissowa, 
vol. xix. 2 [1938], cols. 2355. 52-2356. 28) credits Philip of 

64 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1093-1094 

of the moon, a and Archimedes when he discovered 
by his quadrant that the diameter of the sun bears 
the same proportion to a celestial great circle as the 
angle intercepted by it on the quadrant bears to four 
right angles, b and Apollonius and Aristarchus when 
they made similar discoveries, the contemplation and 
understanding of which today fills students with the 
greatest of pleasures and a wonderful sense of mas- 
tery ? And in no way may we compare those others, 

The pleasures of the kitchen and the stews, c 

with these and thus dishonour Helicon and the 
Muses — 

No shepherd there makes bold to graze his flock ; 
Nor ever came the cutting edge of iron.* 

No ; while these pleasures are in very truth the 
' inviolate ' haunt of ' bees/ e the others resemble 
the rubbings and scrapings of swine and he-goats/ 
and add further contagion to the most easily dis- 
ordered part of the soul. Our love of pleasure, to be 

Opus with the proof that the moon is spherical, as the shape 
of the dark and illuminated parts from phase to phase can 
only be accounted for on that assumption. 

b Cf. Life of Marcellus, chap. xix. 11 (309 a). J. L. 
Heiberg (Quaestiones Archimedeae [Copenhagen, 1879], p. 
34) compares Arenarius, 10-11. 

From Menander, according to Wilamowitz (Menander, 
Das Schiedsgericht (Epitrepontes) [Berlin, 1925], p. 92). 
d Euripides, Hippolytus, 75-76. 

* Euripides, Hippolytus, 76-77. The bee is a cleanly 
Teature (Aristotle, Hist. Animal, ix. 40 [626 a 24-25]) and 
vas even believed to attack persons who had recently en- 
gaged in intercourse (Mor. 144 d ; cf. also Columella, On 
igriculture, ix. 14. 3; Aelian, Hist. Animal, v. 11 ; and 
reoponica, xv. 2. 19). 
1 Cf. Xenophon, Memorabilia, i. 2. 30. 
VOL. XIV D 65 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1094) rjSovov, ovitcd Se' rts ipcofAevy TrXrjotdaas vtto papas' 
iftovdvrrjoev ouSe rjv^aro tls ifJLTrXrjcrOels oiftcov rj 
TT€.[L\LaT(A)v fSaoiXiKcov evOvs a7Todav€LV EuSo^os Se 1 
B r)vyz.TO Trapaoras rep r)XLtp /cat Karapuadcov to a^r)- 
fia rcov dorpcov 2 /cat to peyeOos kcll to etSos 3 cos 
o Qaedcov KCLTacfrAeyrjvai , /cat Tlvdayopas em tco 
StaypajLt/xart fiovv edvoev, cos (f)r)OLV ' AiroXXoSajpos 4 '' 

rjVLKCL Hvdayoprjs to 77eot/cAee9 evpero ypapLfia, 
/cetv' 5 e</> 5 otoj 6 XafJbTTprjv 7 rjyaye 8 fiovdvoLrjv — 

etre 7T€pl rfjs V7TOT€Lvovorjs cos loov* SwaTat rat? 
7T€pL€Xovoous rrjv opdrjv, etre 7Tp6^Xrjfxa irepl rod 
Xtoptov rrjs TTapafioXrjS . 'Ap^t/x^S^ 10 Se j8ta rcov 
Siaypa/x/zarajv cxttoottcovt^s 11 ovvrjX€t(f)ov 12 ol depd- 
irovres' 6 Se eVt rr\s KoiXias eypa<f>€ rd o^/xara 
C rfj arXeyyiSt, /cat Xovofievos cos (f>aoiv e/c rfjs virep- 
yvoecos evvorioas tt\v rod ore^dvov pLerprjoLV olov 
e/c tlvos Karons rj emirvoias itjrjXaro 13 fiocov ' evprj- 
/ca ' 14 /cat rovro iroXXaKis (frdeyyojAevos ej8aSt£ev. 
ovSevos Se a/07/coa/iev ovre 15 yaorptfjudpyov ne.pi- 

1 ok (8* X 2 ) a g c : X 1 omits. 

2 rcov darpcov Xgc: tou darpov a. 

3 €?8os a : fjdos Xgc. 

4 a7roAAo8a;po9 X c (-cop- in an erasure) g c : dnoXXoooTos a, 

5 K€tv y g c (and Anth. Pal., Diogenes Laertius) : kclvos X 2 
(from K€ivos) ; k€«>o a (kXclvos Athenaeus). 

6 ore? Anth. Pal. and Diogenes Laertius : to Xa g c (and 
Athenaeus). 

7 \afi7rpr)v Xa g c : /cAetv^ Athenaeus, Anth. Pal., and 
Diogenes Laertius. 

8 rjyaye Athenaeus, Anth. Pal., Diogenes Laertius : rjyd- 
yero Xgc; rjy€TO a. 

9 00s loov X 2 a g C : oo//aojv X 1 . 

10 dpxwfi§v) Xa : dpx^^rjv g C. 

11 a7roCT7raWes age: KaraaTTiovTes X. 

66 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1094 

sure, takes many forms and is enterprising enough ; 
but no one has so far upon having his way with the 
woman he loves been so overjoyed that he sacrificed 
an ox, nor has anyone prayed to die on the spot if he 
could only eat his fill of royal meat or cakes ; whereas 
Eudoxus prayed to be consumed in flames like 
Phaethon if he could but stand next to the sun and 
ascertain the shape, size, and composition of the 
planets, and when Pythagoras discovered his theorem 
he sacrificed an ox in honour of the occasion, as Apol- 
lodorus a says : 

When for the famous proof Pythagoras 
Offered an ox in splendid sacrifice — 

whether it was the theorem that the square on the 
hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on 
the sides of the right angle h or a problem about the 
application of a given area. c His servants used to 
drag Archimedes d away from his diagrams by force 
to give him his rubbing down with oil ; and as they 
rubbed him he used to draw the figures on his belly 
with the scraper ; and at the bath, as the story goes, 
when he discovered from the overflow how to measure 
the crown, as if possessed or inspired, he leapt out 
shouting ' I have it ' and went off saying this over 
and over. 6 But of no glutton have we ever heard 

° Cf. Cicero, Be Nat. Beor. iii. 36 (88) with Pease's note. 
6 Euclid, Elements, i. 47. 

c Cf. Mor. 720 a ; Euclid, Elements, i. 44 with Sir T. L. 
Heath's note. 

d Cf. Mor. 786 c and Life of Marcellus, chap, xvii (307 e). 
e Cf. Vitruvius, ix, praef. 10. 

12 (jvvrj\€i<f)0v a c (ovv€iAr)<f>ov Xa ac ) : v7rrjX€L(f>ov g C 

13 i^rjXaro Xag: ef iJAAaro C. 

14 evprjKOL age: €i>pr)KCL)S X. 15 ovrc a : ovbe Xgc. 

67 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1094) ttolOws ovtqj ' fiefipcoKa ' fio&vros ovre ipcoriKov 
1 TT£$i\y\Kal jjbvplcDV plvplolkls olkoXolgtcjov yeyovo- 
tcov Kal ovtojv. 1 dAAd Kal /3Se A vtto pied a tovs 
fjb€fJbvrjfjb€Vovs heiTTVCOv 2 i/JLTradearepov d>s £<f>' rjSovals 
fjbiKpcus Kal fJLTjSevos amicus VTrepaopuevl^ovTas . 
Ei3Sd£a> Se Kal 'Ap^tjit^oet 3 Kal 'iTTTrapxtp avvev- 
Oovoiwpuev, Kal YlXdrajVL 7ret#o/xe0a 4 irepl rwv p,a6rj- 

D fidrajv ws dpueXovpLeva St' dyvoiav Kal direipiav 
1 opLa)s j8ta vtto "%dpiTOS av^dveraiJ 

12. " Tavras jueVrot rds nqXiKavras Kal roaav- 
ras rjoovas tboirep devvdovs 5 €KTpe7TovT€s ovtol Kal 
dirooTpe<f)OVT€S ovk etocrt yeveoQai* tovs TrXrjoLa- 
oavras avrols, dAAd tovs /xev ' eirapapbevovs rd 
d/axTta ' (frevyeiv air* avrcjv KeXevovoi, 1 Tlvdo- 
kXeovs Se 8 iravres Kal iraoai Se'ovrat St' 9 'Em- 
Kovpov Kal dvTifioXovaiv ottojs ov tpqXwoei 10 rrjv 
iXevdeptov KaXovp,£vr)v ircuSeiav 'ATreXXrjv Se' riva 
Oav/JLa^ovres Kal VTT€pao7Ta^6fJL€VOi ypdcfrovotv otl 
tcx)v jita^/xdrcov diroaxopLevos ££ dpx^js Kadapov 
eavrov irr)pr]G€v. 7repl Se rrjs loroplas, tVa rrjv 

E aXAr)v dvrjKoiav idoa), 7rapa8rjoopiat puova rd Mrj- 
rpoSdypov ypdc/)ovros eV rols 7T€pl Trot^/xdrcov 11, ' odev 
fjbrjSe etSe'vat cf)doKa)v /xe#' oirorepajv 12 rjv 6 "E/crco/), 

1 yeyovorwv Kal ovtcov age: yeyove tojv kcliovtiov X. 

2 Seinvajv Xa g : helirvov C. 

3 apxip^hei X c g c : apxiyvq&Q X ac a. 

4 TrXdrcuvi 7T€L06[JL€da Xa C : irXdrcjva ireida>iie9a g. 

5 dewdovs X 2 g c : devdovs X c (from dew before completing 
the word) a. 

6 yeveodai XAE g C : yeveodai a. 

7 KeXevovai a : Kal KeXevovai X(X 2m has orjfAetwoai a^dXfia 
ot/xat) g c. 

8 oe a : Kal X g C. 

9 8i* Xa c : g omits. 

68 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1094 

that he shouted with similar rapture ' I ate it,' and 
of no gallant that he shouted ' I kissed her,' though 
sensualists unnumbered have existed in the past and 
are with us now. We actually have an aversion to 
people who recall in too lively a fashion the meals 
they have had, as over enthusiastic about small and 
trivial pleasures. But we are caught up with the 
rapture of Eudoxus and Archimedes and Hipparchus 
and find that what Plato a says about mathematics is 
true, that although it is neglected because men have 
no knowledge or experience of it, ' it nevertheless 
forces its way on, so strong is its spell.' 

12. " Yet these men divert and alter the course of 
these pleasures, so great and numerous — that never, 
as it were, go dry — and cut off their disciples from 
the taste ; instead they tell some to ' hoist all sail ' h 
to escape from them, while Pythocles is urgently im- 
plored by all, men and women alike, in the person 
of Epicurus, not to set his heart on ' the so-called 
education of free men,' and in admiration and most 
hearty commendation of one Apelles they d write 
that from childhood he held aloof from mathematics 
and kept himself unspotted. As for history, not to 
mention their want of learning in other fields, I shall 
quote no more than the words of Metrodorus, 6 who 
writes in his book On Poems : * So when you say that 
you do not even know on which side Hector fought/ 

a Republic, vii, 528 c. 
b Frag. 163 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Mor. 15 d and 662 c. 

c Frag. 164 (ed. Usener). 

d Frag. 117 (ed. Usener). e Frag. 24 (ed. Korte). 

7 The last line of the Iliad (xxiv. 804) mentions Hector. 

10 f^Aajcrci a(-a)Gi A 1 ) g : t,-q\ajor) XA 2 E C. 

11 7roi7]fidra)v Gomperz : ttoltjtwv Xa c (from -cbv) g C. 

1 /u,e#' oiToripajv X 2 g c : /xe0O7roT€pcov X 1 ; /Ltera 7roT€pa)v a. 

69 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1094) fj tovs TTpajTOVS orlxovs ttjs 'Opirjpov iroLrjaecos, fj 
rraXiv ra ev jxeocp, fjurj Tapj3r)07]s. >1 

1 "Ort Toivvv at tov ocopbaTOS rjSoval Kaddirep oi 
errjoiai pbapaivovrai pbera rrjv aKfjbrjv /cat aTToArj- 
yovaiv ov AeArjde tov H&TrLKovpov Starropet yovv el 
yepcov 6 oo(f)6s tov /cat fir] Svvdfievos TrArjaid^eLV ert 
rais tlov kclAcov d<f>als yalpei /cat ifjrjAatfrrjcreoLV, ov 
rd avrd puev rep 2 2o<^>o/cA€t Scavoovpievos do/JLevcos 
€K(f)vy6vTL ttjv rjSovrjv ravrr]v coGirep dypiov /cat 
F AvTTtovra oeoTTOTiqv . aAA' e'Set ye tovs aTToAavoTi- 
kovs optbvras on 7roXAds d(f>avaivei z tojv rjSovoov 
to yrjpas 

rj re ^A(f>poSiT7] rots' yepovoiv a^^erat 

1095 /car' Eu0t7rt3r/v tclvtols pbdAtOTa avvdyeiv ras* ^So- 
yas', cooirep els rroAiopKiav dorjTTTa crtrta /cat d- 
(f)9apTa TrapaTiOep.evovs , 4 €tra dyeiv d<j)pohLoia tov 
/3lov /cat puedeopTOVs /caAas ev loTopiais /cat TTOirj- 
ixaoiv Starptj8ovra9 5 rj TTpofiArjpbaoi pbovoiKols /cat 
yecofxeTpiKOi?. 6 ov yap dv eirrjAdev olvtols els vovv 
jSaAeaflat ra? TV(f)Ads /cat vcoSds eKeivas iprjAacf)^- 
oeis /cat i7Ti7T7]Srjcr€LS tov aKoAdoTOV jJLepuaOrjKOOLV 
el fJLTjSev dAAo ypd<f>eiv irepl ^/JLrjpov /cat Trepl 
YiVpurihov, cos 'ApiOTOTeArjs /cat 'UpaKAelSrjs /cat 
At/catap^os*. aAA' ot/xat tolovtcov e(f)oSicov purj 

1 TapfSrjoris X 2 a g C : irapa^rjGiqs X 1 . 

2 ^iet> ra) Xa g c : fxevroi Pohlenz (fxevroi ra> Bern.). 

3 a<j>avaiv€L Xa c (from -€lv) : a<£a and a blank of 4-7 letters 
and vet g c. 

4 TTapariOefxivovs XE g c : 7re/H- aA. 

5 SiaTpipovTas age: -os X. 

6 y€<x)[JL€TpiKOLS X c a g C : -tJs- X ac ? 

70 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1094-1095 

or the opening lines of Homer's poem, or again what 
comes between, do not be dismayed/ 

" Now it has not escaped Epicurus a that bodily 
pleasures, like the etesian winds, after reaching their 
full force, slacken and fail ; thus he raises the problem 
whether the sage when old and impotent still delights 
in touching and fingering the fair. In this he is not 
of the same mind as Sophocles, who was glad to 
have got beyond reach of this pleasure as of a savage 
and furious master. 6 What men who like the sensual 
life should do instead, since they see that old age 
makes many pleasures wither away 

And Aphrodite frowns upon the old 

(to quote Euripides c ) is to gather up these other 
pleasures most of all, as if laying in for a siege a stock 
of victuals that will not go bad or perish, and then, 
when the business of their life is done, to celebrate 
the holiday d — followed by good mornings after — by 
passing the hours with history and poetry or questions 
of music and geometry. For then that blind and 
toothless fingering and leaping of lustful appetite of 
which Epicurus e speaks would never have entered 
their heads, if they had learned enough (if nothing 
else) to write about Homer and Euripides, as Aris- 
totle/ Heracleides 9 and Dicaearchus h did. But 
since they were never concerned (I take it) to make 

* Frag. 21 (ed. Usener). 

b Cf. Plato, Republic, i, 329 c and Mor. 525 a with the note. 

c From the Aeolus of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Eur. 23 ; quoted also in Mor. 285 b and 786 a. 

d See p. 89, note c. 

e Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. 343 (addendum to Frag. 21). 

f Aristotle wrote on Problems in Homer : Frags. 142-179 
(ed. Rose). 

9 Frag. 168 (ed. Wehrli). * Frag. 73 (ed. Wehrli). 

71 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1095) 






<j>povTiaavT€S, rrjs S' dXXrjg clvtcjv TTpaypLareLas 
drepnovs /cat £rjpas coorrep clvtol ttjv dperrjv Xe- 
yovGiv ovorjs, rjSeaOai ndvrcos edeXovres, rod Se 
GCjbfJLCLTos dirayopevovros , ala^pd /cat dcopa npdr- 

T€LV OfJLoXoyOVOLV, TCOV T€ TTpOTepCOV TjSoVcdv dvCLfJLL- 

jjLvrjOKovTes eavrovs /cat xpcbpbevoi rals ttclXcliclls 
diropla TTpoacfydrcov tocnrep rerapi-^evpievais y /cat 
veKpds 1 aAAas* 2 rrdXiv /cat redvrjKvias olov ev re<f)pcL 
i/jvxpa Tjj oapKL Kivovvres irapd cf>vcnv /cat dva^co- 
7Tvpovvr€S, are Stj 3 pLrjSev* OLKelov rj8v purjSe 5 %apa9 
d£iov e^ovres ev rfj ^vxfj 7rapeaKevaop,evov . 

13. " KatVot raAAa puev cog rjpuv 6 irrfjXdev et- 

C prfrai' fJLOvaiKrjv Se ooas 1 7)§ovds kcll xdpLTas ota? 

(f>epovaav d7rooTpe<f)ovTCLL kclI (jtevyovoiv kcll* fiovXo- 

/XeVOS OVK CLV TLS €KXd0OLTO, St' aT077tW COV 'Em'- 

Kovpos Ae'yet, <f)iXodecopov 9 p,ev dirocfyaivcov rov go- 
<f)6v ev reus /S.LCLTropicLLs kclI x ai ? OVT(X Trap* ovrivovv 
erepov a/cpoa/zaat /cat Oeapbaat Aiovvoiclkols, irpo- 
fiXrjiJLCLCTL Se fJLOVCTLKols /cat KpLTLKCOV 10 (f)iXoX6yoiS 
tpryrr^iLaaiv ovSe rrapd rrorov SlSovs xebpav, dXXd 
/cat toZs (j>iXofJLovaois rcov ftacnXecov irapaLVcov arpa- 
r^yt/ca 11 SL7]yrjp,arcL /cat (^oprt/ca? /3cojJuoXo)(Las vtto- 
pueveLV fjb&XXov ev rots ovpLTTOoiois fj Xoyovs irepl 

fJLOVGLKCOV /Cat 7TOL7]TLKCOV TTpofiXrHiaTCOV TTepCLlVOjJLe- 

D vovs. tclvtl yap eroXfirjuev 12 ypd(j>eiv ev rco irepl 

1 veKpas Rasmus : veKpous Xagc. 

2 aAAas Xa : aAAas Se g c. 

3 Br) Xa : Se g C. 

4 fjLTjSev a : fxr) Se (fir) Se X) X g c. 

5 [jirjSe X (fxr) Se g c) : /x-era a. 

6 d>s (d)S X) rjfjuv Xa C : rjpuv <I)S g. 

7 Se oaas a : Seicras" X ; S' els ras g C. 

8 /cat added by Bern. 
9 <j>i\odeojpov j3 2 : faXodecopov Xa g c. 

72 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1095 

such provision and everything else in their system is 
as joyless and jejune as they for their part say virtue 
is,° and they want pleasure at all costs, but are 
physically unequal to it, they confess to shameful 
acts that do not become their years as they rehearse 
the memory of past pleasures and for want of fresh 
ones resort to those that are stale, like pickled meat, 
and recall to unnatural life and fan to a flame, in the 
cold ashes as it were of the body, pleasures lifeless 
and quite dead, since they have no store in their 
minds of what brings mental pleasure or is worthy of 
delight. 

13. "So far I have mentioned their views just 
as they happened to occur to me, but no one could 
forget even if he wished their rejection and avoidance 
of music with the great pleasures and exquisite de- 
light it brings ; the absurd discrepancy of Epicurus' b 
statements sees to that. On the one hand he says in 
the Disputed Questions that the sage is a lover of spec- 
tacles and yields to none in the enjoyment of theatri- 
cal recitals c and shows ; but on the other he allows 
no place, even over the wine, for questions about 
music and the enquiries of critics and scholars and 
actually advises a cultivated monarch to put up with 
recitals of stratagems and with vulgar buffooneries at 
his drinking parties sooner than with the discussion 
of problems in music and poetry. For such is the 
actual advice that he d presumed to set down in his 

° Frag. 505 (p. 358, ed. Usener). 

6 Frag. 20 (ed. Usener). 

c Cf. Diogenes Laert. x. 120. d Frag. 5 (ed. Usener). 

10 KpiTiK&v a : -6v X ; -ols g c. 

11 oTparqyiKa Xa g c (cf. Mor. 547 e) : cjTpaTtam/cd Meziri- 
acus. 12 iroAfjurjcrc (-ev X) a g : iroXfirjoav C 

73 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1095) fiaoiXzlas, toanep "LapoavaTraXcp 1 ypd(f)OJv t) Navdpco 
tlo oar pair €voavn Baj8t>Acovos\ ov&e yap r l€pcuv 
y aV ovok "ArTaAo? ovSe 'Ap^eAao? 3 €7T€io0r)oav 
FiVpnriSrjv /cat HifiojViSrjv /cat MeAavtTrmST^ /cat 4 
ixparrjTas /cat Aio86tov$ avaGTrjaavres e/c tcjv 
av/JL7TOGLO)v /caTa/cAtvat KapSa/ca? 5 /cat 'Ayptavas 
/ze#' clvtcov 6 /cat KaAAtW yeAcoTOTrotous /cat 0pa- 
oajvioas rtvd? /cat ©oacruAeWras', dAoAuy/>tous' /cat 

KpOToOopvfioVS 7TOIOVVTOLS. €L §6 ? IlToAe/^atOS' O 

TrpojTos Gvvayaytbv to pbovaeZov tovtols zvervyjev* 
E rots' /caAot? /cat /3aatAt/cot? TTapayye\p,aaiv apa ovk 
av et^ey 

rot? Sa/xtot?, ai Moucra, rt? o <j>66vos ; 

'AOrjvaLOJV ydp ovoevl 7rp€7T€i rals Moucrat? ovtcos 

1 GapSavairdXa) X a 1 A 1 E g C : -AAa> a 2 A 2 . 

2 y' av Xa : yovv g C. 

3 dpx^Xaos a : dpx^XaJv Xgc. 

4 Kal Xa : g c omit. 

5 KaphaKas a : /copoa/ca? Xgc. 

6 aurcov (au- X) Xa : iavrcov g C. 

7 et oe Xa c : €ioc g. 

8 iv&Tvyt Cobet : aweTir^ev X ; ovvirvx* age. 

9 €t7T€v] Madvig punctuates here ; X has no punctuation ; 
age punctuate after o-a/ziW. 

a Cf. Jacoby, Frag. d. gr. Hist., 688 F 1, pp. 442. 19-448. 
14. 

b Cf. Jacoby, Frag. d. gr. Hist., 688 F 6, pp. 450. 31-451. 
4 and 90 F 4, pp. 331. 20-335. 24. 

c Hieron, host of Simonides, was an usurper (cf. Mor. 
551 f) ; so too Archelatis, host of Euripides. Attalus II, who 
may be meant here, was cruel and suspicious (cf. Justin, 
xxxvi. 4. 1-3). Diodotus is unknown ; he was presumably a 

74 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1095 

book On Kingship, as if he were writing to Sarda- 
napalus a or Nanarus b the satrap of Babylon. For he 
could not have persuaded even such kings as Hieron 
or Attalus or Archelaiis c to dismiss Euripides, Si- 
monides, or Melanippides, or yet a Crates or Diodo- 
tus, from their convivial bouts and seat as their guests 
instead a set of mercenary bandits d or Agrianes/ a 
buffoon like Callias/ or the likes of Thrasonides 9 or 
Thrasyleon/ 1 persons apt to break out in ' wild jubila- 
tions ' and ' uproarious applause.' i If Ptolemy, who 
founded the Museum/ had read these high-minded 
and royal recommendations, would he not have said 

Oh Muse, why do the Samians k wish thee ill ? l 

For it ill becomes any Athenian to quarrel with the 

grammarian. Melanippides, the dithyrambic poet, died at 
the court of Perdiccas, predecessor of Archelaiis. 

d " Car daces : not a separate tribe, but barbarians serving 
for hire ; so Theopompus. In general the Persians called 
cardax everyone brave and thievish." So Aelius Dionysius 
(ed. Erbse, s.v.). 

e A Thracian or Macedonian hill tribe who appear in the 
armies of Alexander, Antigonus II, Antiochus III, and 
Philip III. 

/ Not identified. 

9 The braggart soldier in Menander's Rejected Lover. 

h A foolish soldier who gave the title to another of Men- 
ander's plays (Frags. 203-207 ed. Korte-Thierf elder). 

* The expressions are Epicurus' : cf. Frag. 143 (ed. 
Usener) and 1117 a, infra. 

i " Sanctuary of the Muses " ; the name of a group of 
scholars and mathematicians assembled by Ptolemy I. 

k Epicurus was born on Samos of Athenian parentage. 

1 Apparently a citation or parody of a verse otherwise 
unknown. Cf. Zenodotus (Anth. Pal. vii. 117. 5) of Zeno of 
Citium : 

€t Sc 7raTpa Oou'iorcra, Tts o <f>66vos; 

" If of Phoenician stock, why take it ill ? " 

75 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1095) dnexOdveoOai /cat iroAepbelv 

oooa 1 8e [Jb7] 7T€(f)LXr)K€ 7j€VS drv^ovrat 2 /3oav 3 
HiepiSajv atWra. 4 

tL Aeyet?, c3 'Em/coupe; Ki6aptp8a)V /cat avArjrtov 
ecoOev aKpoaao/juevos 5 els to dearpov fiaSil^eis, ev 8e 
avfiTroaLCp Qeocfrpdorov rrepl ovpLcfrajvicov StaAeyo- 
fxevov /cat ' 'Apioro^evov rrepl 6 pbera^oAcov /cat 'Apt- 
ororeAovs 1 rrepl f Op,rjpov 8 rd aira KaraArjiprj 9 rats 
Xepcrt Svaxepaivojv /cat fS8eAvTT6pLevos ; etra ovk 
F epupbeAecrrepop drrocfcaLvovoi rov HkvOtjv 'Areav, 10 os 
^iGfJbrjvLov 11 rod avArjrov 12 Arj^devros alxpuaAcorov /cat 
7rapa rrorov avArjoavros wpuocrev rjScov aKoveiv rod 
IrrrrovexpepLeri^ovros ; ovx ofJioAoyovoi 8e rw KaAcp 
rroAep, Iv rov dorrov8ov /cat aKrjpvKrov rroAefiov el 

> U3 < £ > 14 ' '15 * * Q / 16 

jMrj /cat tjoovt] TTpooeoTt ; tl oepuvov /cat Katfaptov 
1096 dorrd^ovraL /cat dyarrtooiv ; ovk rjv 8e rrpos to 
rjSeoJS £>r}v emeiKeorepov p,vpa /cat OvfJudpLara 8vo- 
Xepalveiv <bs Kavdapoi /cat yvrres r) KpiriKcov /cat 
fjbovoiKcov AaAtdv pSeAvrreoOai /cat (frevyeiv; rrolos 

1 ocraa Victorius : oaa Xa g c. 

2 drt>£oi>Tat age: oltv^ovtcli X. 

3 jSoav X 1 a 2 : jSoav X 2 a g c. 

4 7TL€pL$0)V aiOVTGL fl 2 I 7T€piboV€OVTa Xa g C. 

5 OLKpoaaofievos Xa : di<poaod(jL€vos g C. 

6 7rept a : X g c omit. 

7 ' ApiaroTcAovs Nauck : dpiaro<f>dvris X ; dpioTO<f>dvovs a g C. 

8 6jJLi]pov age: ofirjpov X. 

9 KCLTaXyiff?) age: Ka/raXeuffr) X. 

10 dreav a : drrdav Xgc. 

11 'lofjLrjvlov Victorius : dfuvlov X g e ; dpLeivtov a. 

12 avX-qrov a : X g c omit. 

13 /lit) /cat nos (/rqSe/u'a or ^17 Pohlenz) : /a^ 8e (/LA77 Se X) Xa 
g C. 14 rjSovrj a : 9780^7/ X g C. 

15 rrpooeoTL, ri a (no punctuation X) : TtpoozoTi tl g c. 

16 KaddpLov Xa : KaQdpiov, r\v g C. 

76 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1095-1096 

Muses in this fashion and make war on them ; rather 

All things unloved of Zeus, what time they hear 
The cry of the Pierians, are dismayed." 

What's this, Epicurus ? To hear singers to the cithara 
and performers on the flute you go to the theatre at 
an early hour, but when at a banquet Theophrastus b 
holds forth on concords, Aristoxenus c on modula- 
tions, and Aristotle d on Homer, you will clap your 
hands over your ears in annoyance and disgust ? 
Pshaw ! Do the Epicureans not make the Scyth 
Ate as e look as if he had more music in his soul — 
who swore, when the flute-player Hismenias f was a 
prisoner and performed at a banquet, that he found 
greater pleasure in the whinnying of his horse ? Do 
they 9 not confess that they are waging war without 
truce or herald on all that is beautiful, so long as it 
is not agreeable as well ? What holy and cleanly 
thing do they welcome and cherish ? If your aim is 
the pleasant life, would it not have been more reason- 
able to shrink from perfume and incense, as do dung- 
beetles and vultures, 71 than to loathe and avoid the 
talk of students of literature and music ? For what 

a Pindar, Pythian Odes, i. 13-14 ; quoted also in Mor. 
167 c and 746 b. b Cf. Frag. 89 (ed. Wimmer). 

c Frag. 127 (ed. Wehrli). 

d Frag. 99 (ed. Rose). One would expect a reference to a 
grammarian contemporary with Epicurus. The mss. give 
44 Aristophanes " : but the famous critic was born (257 B.C.?) 
after Epicurus' death (270). 

e A king of the Scythians who fell in battle against Philip 
II of Macedon in 339 b.c, aged over ninety. For the anec- 
dote see also Mor. 174 r and 334 b. 

1 Also mentioned in Mor. 632 c and the Life of Demetrius, 
chap. i. 6 (889 b). ' Frag. 512 (ed. Usener). 

h Cf. Mor. 87 c, 710 e, 1058 a, and Theophrastus, De 
Causis Plantarum, vi. 5. 1. 

77 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1096) ydp dv avXos r] KiOdpa St^p/xoa/xeV^ 1 rrpos obSrjv rj 
ris x°P°$ 

evpvorra KeXahov di<poo6<f)cov dyvvpuevov 2 Sta 
arofjudrcjov 

(jyOeyyopuevog ovtcos ev<j)pav€v z 'Em/coupon /cat M77- 
rpoSoopov <l)s ' ApLGToreXrj /cat Qeo^paarov /cat At- 
Kaiapxov /cat ^epojvvfJLov 4, ol rrepl x°P&> v Xoyot /cat 
StSaoTcaAtcov 5 /cat ra 6 StauAaw 7 Trpo^Xrjp,ara /cat 
pv9p,o)v /cat dpixovicjv ; otov 8 id tl toov lgoov 
avXoov 6 arevorepos o^vrepov 6 8e evpvrepos* fiapv- 
B repov (frOeyyeTou' /cat Sta ri rfjs ovpiyyos dvaaTroo- 
p,€vrjs ttoloiv Several tols (j>66yyois , KXcvofJuevrj? 9 Se 
7raAt^ fiapyverou, 10 /cat avvaxOelg rrpds rov 11 erepov 
fSapvrepov , 12 Sta^^et? 13 8e o^vrepov r)X € ^' KCLL Tt ' ^7" 
rrore toov Oedrpoov dv ayvpa rrjs opxtfcFrpas /cara- 
GKe8dor)s 6 rjx ^ 1 * TVc/>Xovrat y /cat ^aA/cow 'AAe£- 
av8pov iv IleAA^ fiovXopLevov Trocrjcrai to TrpooKTjViov 
ovk etaaev 6 rexvirr^s cbs 8ia(f>depovvra lb toov vtto- 
Kpiroov rrjv (froovrjv /cat ri 8r)7roT€ toov 1 * yevoov Sta^et 

1 hir)pfJLO<JiA€vr) age: birjpfioafxevov X. 

2 dyvvp^evov X gc: ayvvfxivcav a. 

3 evefypavev XgC: 7]v(f>pav€v a. 

4 (hs dp. /cat de6<j>. /cat ot/catap^ov /cat Upcovvfiov X : a»? ap. 
/cat 0eo<£. /cat Upcovvpuov /cat hiKaiapxov a ; /cat Upcovvfiov g C. 

5 Stoacr/caAtcDv XgC: -Atat a. 

6 Ta a g c : t from r X c . 

7 8tauAa>v nos (in this sense the word is not attested, but cf. 
fiovavAcov) : 8t' auAcDv Xa g C (avXcov Pohlenz ; tot' avXcov R. G. 
Bury).^ 

8 6t;vT€pov 6 Se evpvrepos added by Rasmus. 

9 kXlvojx€vt]S age: kXlvov(jl€vols X. 

10 Papvverai Rasmus : fiapvvei X a g C. 

11 rov Xa c : g omits. 

12 papvrepov added by Xylander (gravius Ferronus). 

78 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1096 

flute or cithara attuned to vocal music or what chorus 
sending forth 

A rolling thunder from melodious throats a 

could so have enthralled the mind of Epicurus and 
Metrodorus as the minds of Aristotle and Theophras- 
tus and Dicaearchus h and Hieronymus c were en- 
thralled by discussion of choruses and the production 
of plays and by questions about double flutes and 
rhythms and harmonies ? For example : why of 
flutes of equal length does the narrower have the 
higher pitch, the wider the lower ? And why, when 
the syrinx d is drawn back, are the notes all raised in 
pitch, but when it is released again, they are lowered ? 
And why, when one pipe is brought close to the other, 
does it have a lower tone, but a higher when the pipes 
are drawn apart ? And why, when chaff is spread 
over the orchestra of a theatre, is the resonance 
muffled/ and when Alexander wanted to make the 
proscenium at Pella of bronze, did the architect de- 
mur, as he would thus have spoiled the effect of the 
actors' voices ? And why of the genera does the 

° D. L. Page, Poetae Melici Graeci (Oxford, 1962), Frag. 
1008 (Adesp. 90). 

b Frag. 74 (ed. Wehrli). 

c Frag. 26 (ed. Wehrli). 

d Cf. 1 138 a, infra with the note and Kathleen Schlesinger, 
The Greek Aulos (London, 1939), pp. 62-67. 

• Cf. the Aristotelian Problems, xi. 25 (901 b 30-35). 

13 hiaxQeis (-els X) Xa g : oioaxQeis c. 

14 6 fjx°s Pohlenz (fj x ow > ° VX os Reiske) : -qo x<*os X ; -q 
Xovv 6 kaos a ; koxolos g c. 

15 oia^povvra X ar ?a g c : oia^dep/ '/ '/|to X r . X 3m has aw, 
no doubt a misreading of ev in X 2m (now erased), which was a 
supplement of the blank below. 

16 tcov a : a blank of 2\ + 1 letters X, of 5-6 g c. 

79 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1096) to xP a) f JbaTi Kov, r) Se appuovia avvLcrrrjatv. 1 yjOrj Se 
TToirjTcov Kal 7rAaa/xaTa /cat 2 Scacfropal x a P aKTT ]p 0JV 
C Kal Xvaets drropicov eV rco rrpeirovTi Kal y\a(j>vpcp z 
to oliceiov dfia Kal rnOavov e^ovoai to rod Eevo- 
<j)(i)VTOs €K€lvo p,oi Sokovoi Kal tov eptovTa 4, TTOieiV* 
ernXavddveaOai' tooovtov rjSovfj 6 Kparovoiv? 

14. " 'H? OV fl€T€GTL TOVTOLS OvSe* <f>aGLV 9 OvSe 

fiovXovrai fjuerelvat' Karareivavres Se 10 to deajprj- 
tlkov els to acopua Kal KaTamrdoavTes cooirep jjlo- 
Al^Slgl 11 Tats ttjs oapKos eTridvpisLais ovSev aTroAei- 
7TOVGIV L7T7TOK6[Jl,U)V Tj TTOip,eVO)V yppTov r) KaXdfJbrjv 12 
rj Tiva TToav TTpofiaAXovTOJv , 13 cos raura fiooKeodai 
Kal Tpooyeiv 7Tpoor\Kov avTtbv toZs OpepLfJuaGLV. rj 1 * 
yap oi>x 15 ovtoos d^iovGi ttjv ipvxr)v TaZs tov oa)fj,aTos 
D rjSovals KaTaGvficoTeZv , ooov eArrLoai tl 16 nepl oapKos 
rj iraQeZv rj jJLvr)p,ov€vaaL x a ^P OVGav > otKeZov Se pLrj- 
8ev 17 r)8v purjSe Teprrvov i£ avTrjs 18 Aafifidveiv fJbrjSe 
i^rjTeZv id>VT€S ; KaiTOi tl yevoiT av dAoyooTepov 

r) 19 SvoZv OVTOIV i£ GOV 6 dvdpOJTTOS 7T€(f)VK€, GCOfJLaTOS 

Kal ifjvxfjs, ifjvxfjs Se Ta^iv rjyepboviKOJTepav ixov- 
orjs, ooopuaTos fiev lSlov ti Kal /card (f>vcnv Kal 

1 ovviot7]olv Xa g : ovvlorarai C. 

2 TrXaGfiara Kal Xa C : 7rXaofjidrcov g. 

3 yXexfrvpto a : yXacf>vpa)v Xgc. 

4 ipajvra Reiske : epcora Xa g C. 

5 7TOL€LV a g : 7TL€LV X C. 

6 rjSovrj X g fi 2 : rjhovrjs a C. 

7 Kparovaw X g c j3 2 : Kparovarjs a. 

8 ov$€ (ov$€ X)Xa c : cjs Se g. 

9 <f>aolv Xa : tfrqalv g ; c omits in a blank of 5 letters. 

10 Se Xa c : g omits. 

11 /zoAijSSi'at a c (tj8 from j8t ?) g c : ixoXv^Blot] X. 

12 KaXdfjLrjv AE : KaXdfAOvs X(no accent)a g c. 

13 7rpoPaXX6vTO)v a : rrpofiaXovTcw X g C. 

80 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1096 

chromatic relax the hearer, the enharmonic make 
him tense ? As for the rendering of character in the 
poets and their qualities and different levels of style, 
and the discovery of solutions as specific and convin- 
cing as they are apt and neat to various knotty ques- 
tions, why I think that in Xenophon's a words they 
even make the lover forget his passion, so entrancing 
is the pleasure they bring. 

14. " It is a pleasure in which these people have 
no part and they do not claim or want any part in it 
either. Instead they lay the contemplative part of 
the soul flat in the body and use the appetites of the 
flesh as leaden weights b to hold it down. In this 
they c are no better than stable hands or shepherds, 
who serve their charges with hay or straw or grass of 
one kind or the other as the proper food for them to 
crop and chew. d Do they not in similar fashion play 
swineherd to the soul, feeding it only on this swill e of 
the bodily pleasures, permitting it to delight only in 
the hope or experience or recollection of some carnal 
thing, and forbidding it to take or seek from itself 
any pleasure or gratification of its own ? Yet what 
could be more unaccountable than this : that when 
there are two components of man's nature, body and 
soul, the soul having the greater authority, the body 
should have a good peculiar, natural, and appropriate 

° Cynegetica, v. 33. b Cf. Plato, Republic, vii, 519 b. 

c Frag. 429 (ed. Usener). 

d Cf. 1117 f, infra. 

6 Cf. Homer, Od. x. 241-243. 

15 With ox>x X s begins ; we do not record its readings. 

16 iXirioai ti a : iXirls €tl g C. 

17 [j.r}8ev a : fir) Se g C. 

18 avrrjs Victorius : avrov (av- a) g c. 

19 r) g c : fj el aAE. 

81 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1096) olk€lov dyadov elvat, ipvxfjs Se firjOev, 1 dXXd ra> 2 
ad){jLaTL KaOfjaOou rrpoofiXeTrovoav* avrrjv /cat tois 
/lev* rod crco/xaros' Trddeoiv emiieihichoav /cat gvvtj- 
8ojjl€V7]v /cat auyvatpx>fcrav, avrr)v S' d/ctV^rov e£ 
a>PXys KCLl dnaOrj /cat p,r)8ev alperov eypvoav jjurjSe 
E opeKTOv oXojs fJirjSe yaprov; 7} yap dnXcbs diro- 
KaXvifjapLevovs ehei oapKOTTOielv b rov dvdpcoirov 6Xov> 

<x)G7T€p eVLOl TTOIOVGI TTjV TTJS fax^S* OVOICLV dvdl- 

povvres, rj ovo (fyvoeis ev r^pXv Siacfropovs diroXnTov- 
ras loiov ol7toXl7T€lv eKarepas /cat dyadov /cat 
/ca/cov /cat ot/cetov /cat aXXorpiov ojoirep dfieXei /cat 
Tcov alo6r)G€a>v eKaorrf irpos t'StoV tl necfrvKev at- 
adrjrov, el 8 /cat rrdvv avpLrraOovoLV 9 dAA^Aats. eart 
8e rrjs i/jvxtJs lSiov atGdrjTTJpLOV 6 vovs, a> 10 purjOev 

OLKeloV V7TOK€Lo6ai, fJLTJ Oea/JLCl (JL7J KLVTj/JLa jJLT) 7T(idoS 

ovyyeves ov rvyxdvovaa x a ^P €lv ?re<j)VKe y rrdvrajv 
dXoywrarov iartv el parj tl vtj Ata AeA^aatv eVtot 
ovKcxfravTovvTes 11 tovs dvSpas." 
F 15. Kdyco 77/009 avrov, " ovx rjpuv ye /c^trafe/' 
e(f)r)v, " dXXd Trdarjs d^elaai rrjs ernqpeiaSy ware 
dappwv rd AotTrd rod Xoyov irepaive!' " 77x09 ; " 

1 fiTjddv a C : fjLrjSev g. 

2 tw a c : g omits. 

3 7Tpoop\e7TOV(jav a 2 g C : irpofiXlTrovoav a 1 . 

4 /Ltev g c : a omits. 

5 aapK07TOL€iv a g : oapKOTro with a blank of 2 letters c. 

6 rrjs (rrjs from g c ) */w;rfs g c : *pvxi>Kr)v a c (probably 
from ijjvxrjv)* 

7 /cat, tcov alodrjaeajv inaGTr) a : iKaarq raw alodyoecov g C. 

8 €t g c : a omits. 

9 avfiTradovaiv j8 2 : ipbiradovoLV age. 

10 (5 a g : cuv C. 

11 AeA^aatv eVtot ovkcxJmxvtovvtzs a : XeXrjOas ovv€TnovKO(f>av- 
tcov g c (XeXr)9a ovveiriovKcxfravTiov Bern.). 

82 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1096 

to itself, the soul none ; that the soul instead should 
sit idly by, looking to the body and greeting with 
smiles a the body's experiences and joining in its plea- 
sure and delight, but should never itself initiate a 
movement or response nor possess an object of choice 
or of desire or delight at all ? They should either have 
thrown all concealment aside and made man in his en- 
tirety a mere thing of flesh, as some b do who abolish 
the substantial character of the soul, or else, leaving in 
us two different natures, they should also have left 
to each its good and evil, what is its own and what is 
alien to it. This, for example, is the case with the 
senses . each is so constituted as to be directed 
toward a sense-object peculiar to it, c even though they 
respond together. Now the peculiar sense-organ of 
the soul is the mind ; and that the mind should have 
no object of its own, no spectacle or movement or 
experience of a kindred nature at the attainment of 
which the soul is constituted to feel delight, is the 
very height of unreason — that is, if this is not an 
unfair charge that some persons, d unaware of its 
falsity, bring against these men." 

15. " Not if you make me the judge,' ' I answered. 
" You are declared not guilty of any kind of slander ; 
therefore proceed with the rest of the argument un- 
deterred." " How so ? " he said ; " is not Aristo- 

° Frag. 410, note (ed. Usener) ; cf. also Mor. 672 d, and 
1087 f and 1092 d, supra. 

6 As those who describe the soul as the harmony (Sim- 
mias, Dicaearchus) or mixture (Heracleides) of the body. 
Cf. 1112 e, 1119 a, infra, and De Libid. et Aegrit., chap. v. 

e Cf. Lucretius, iv. 489-495 ; Aristotle, Be Anima, iii. 1 
(425 a 19 f.). 

d Perhaps this is an answer to some objection raised against 
the Reply to Colotes {cf. 1086 e, supra) and " some persons " 
refers to Plutarch himself (cf. 1118 d-e, infra). 

83 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1096) elrrev " ov yap 'ApLGToSrjfjLos rjpbas, 1 et ov TTavTaira- 

1097 oiv airriyopevKaSy StaSe'^erat ; " " irdvv puev ovv/' 

etnev 6 ' Apiorohrmos , " orav dTroKdjjLrjs tacnrep ov- 

ros' ert Se aKfJidCcjov, & jica/capte, xpfjaac aeavrco 

lirf SoKTJs aTTOjJLaAOaKL^ecjdaL." 

ftat fJbrjv, o iyecov €L7T€V, iravv paoiov eart 
to Xenropbevov' AetVeTai Se to rrpaKTiKov ooas 
rjSovas e^et SteA#etr. clvtoI Se Stjttov Xeyovoiv 

COS TO €V 7TOL€LV 7]8iOV €OTl TOV TTaO^lV . €V Se 

TTOielv eoTi fjuev dpueXzi /cat Sta Aoycov, to Se 7rAet- 
otov iv irpd^ec /cat fieyioTov, cos tovvojjlol ttjs ez)- 
epyeoias vcfrrjyeiTai /cat p,apTvpovaiv olvtol. 3 fUKpco 
yap epbirpoudev rjKovofiev," €<jyr)* " tovtov XeyovTos 
ocas <f)covds dc/)fJK€v 'Em'/coupo?, ota 5 Se ypapifiaTa 

B TOLS (f>i\oLS G €7T€pufj€V, VfJLVUJV Kal fJL€yaAvVWV M.T]Tp6- 

hcopov, cos €v re /cat veaviKcos e£ dcTecos 7 em 
ddXaooav 8 €^rj 9 Wiidpfj 10 tco ^vpco ftorjdrjocov, /cat 
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Tivas ovv olofjbeda /cat TrrjXiKas rjSovas elvai Tag 
UXaTco vos oTrrjVLKa Alcov oppaqoas oV avTov /car- 
eXvae Atovvatov /cat Si/ceAtW rjXevdepcooev; Ttvas 
Se ' ApiOTOTeXovs ot€ ttjv 12 uaTpiha KetpLevrjv eV 

1 rjfjids a c : g omits. 

2 Before /xt) Stegmann omits /cat. 

3 avroL a : avrols g C. 

4 tyr) a : g c omit. 

5 ofa a : otas g C. 

6 ypd/x/zara rots (J>lAois a : ypa/x/xarcov <f>CAa)v g C. 

7 acrreco? Wyttenbach and £* : darcos age. 

8 em QdXaooav nos : dAAa age (dAa Victorius [reading 
KdTzpr)] or etV tt)^ ddXaaaav ; €tV Ilctpata Xylander ; dAaSe 
Wyttenbach ; ets 'AAds Apelt). 

9 c/fy Apelt : atW/fy age (/carcj?^ Xylander, Wyttenbach ; 
avyKarefir) Reiske). 

10 Mi0p?7 Usener (MlOprj Victorius in Q) : pLOpo) age. 

84 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1096-1097 

demus to take up where I leave off, supposing that 
you are too spent to go on ? " " That I will do," said 
Aristodemus, " when you are quite exhausted like our 
friend here. But you are still going strong, bless your 
heart ; exert your powers if you don't want to be 
taken for a quitter." 

" Indeed," said Theon, " the rest is quite easy — 
to recount the many pleasures of the active part of 
the soul. Why, the Epicureans a themselves assert 
that it is more pleasant to confer a benefit than to 
receive one. Now to be sure you may also convey a 
benefit by means of words, but you convey most and 
the most important by action, as the very name of 
1 benefaction ' b suggests and as they testify them- 
selves. Thus a short while ago," he said, " we heard 
our friend here c describe the expressions Epicurus d 
gave vent to and the letters he sent to his friends as 
he extolled and magnified Metrodorus, telling how 
nobly and manfully he went from town to the coast e 
to help Mithres f the Syrian, and this although Metro- 
dorus accomplished nothing on that occasion. Then 
how high and full must have been the pleasure Plato g 
knew when Dion, setting out from his company, over- 
threw Dionysius and set Sicily free ? Or Aristotle, 71 
when he raised again his native city, levelled to the 

° Frag. 544 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Mor. 778 c. 
b Euergesia (benefit) contains ergon (deed). 
c Plutarch ; the reference is to 1126 e-f of the Reply to 
Colotes. 

d Frag. 194 (ed. Usener). 

e From Athens to the Piraeus. 

1 On Mithres see 1126 e, note, infra. 

9 Cf. 1126 b-c, infra. h Cf. 1126 f, infra. 

T 

11 7rpd£avTos ovQkv a g : irpa^av and a blank of 10 letters c. 
12 ore tvv a : ttjv g ; c omits in a blank of 10 letters. 

85 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1097) i8d(f)€L ttolXlv dveorrjoe /cat Karrjyaye rovs ttoAltols; 

tivcls Se Qeocfrpdorov /cat Qaviov 1 rovs rrjs TrarptSos 

€KKoifjdvrojv rvpdvvovs ; tSta p,ev yap oools efiorj- 

C drjaav dvSpdoiV, 2 ov Trvpovs* hiaTTepLTTOVTes ov8e 

d\(/)LTQ)V pbeSiflVOV, d)S ^YiTTlKOVpOS CVLOLS €7T€fJLlfj€V, 

dXXd (f)€vyovras &iaiTpai;dp,€Voi KareXdetv /cat SeSe- 
puevovs Xvdrjvai /cat tIkvcl /cat yvvaiKas ioreprjjjbe- 
vovs aTToXafieiVy ri dv Aeyot 4 tls vplv d/cptjSa)? 
eioooiv ; aAAa ttjv aroTnav ovoe povAofievov eari 
rov dvdpcoTTOV TTapeXdelv, rds 6 puev QepaoroKXeovs 
/cat MtATtaSou Trpd^eis vito ttoools 1 rcdepbevov /cat 
KarevTeXL^ovTOS , virkp avrov* Se ravrl rots <f>iXois 
ypdcfrovTOS' ' SaifiovLCOs 9 re /cat pb€yaXo7Tp€7ra)s ine- 
jjLeXtfdrjre rjpudjv rd Trepl rrjv rov gltov KopaSrjv /cat 
D ovpavofJLrjKT) orjpbela evSeoetxOe rrjs rrpos e/xe ev- 
volasJ a)OT€ et tls e^etAe to oirdpiov €/c rrjs €7tl- 
oroXrjs rov (f)iXoo6(/)ov 86£av dv Trapaorrjoai rd 
prjljuara rrjs ^a^tro? d>s vnep rrjs 'EAAdoos 1 oXr)s rj 
rod Srjfjbov rcov 'Adrjvaicov eXevdepojOevros rj ooj- 
Oevros ypa(j)OfJb€vy]s. 

16. " "On puev ovv /cat irpds rds rod ocopuaros 
rjSovds r) (f>vois Setrat -^opriyias iroXvreXovs /cat 
ovk eoriv ev fJid^rj /cat <j>aKrj 1Q to 7]8iarov y aAA' oifja 

1 rivas 8e (nvas g) Oecxfrpdorov kcll <j>€ihiov (<f>€iviov g ; <$>aviov 
Rasmus) a g : c omits in a blank of 25 letters. 

2 ifiorfOrjaav dvBpdoiv a : €^orjdr)aav dSpaaros g ; ifiorjdei and 
a blank of 9 letters c. 

3 nvpovs a : TTVp g c. 

4 Aeyot a C : Xeyrj g. 

6 aKpip&s elboaiv a g : a blank of 1 1 letters and 8oW c. 
6 rds a : rov gc. 7 7r68as a : Troha g C. 

86 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1097 

ground, and restored it to his countrymen ? Or 
Theophrastus a and Phanias, 6 who cleared away the 
tyrants from their city ? In private life what need is 
there to tell you, who know it well, of the many they 
helped — not sending them wheat or a bushel of meal, 
as Epicurus c did to a few, but obtaining remission of 
banishment, release from prison, and restoration of 
wives and children that had been taken from them ? 
But even if one wished one could not pass over the 
man's absurd inconsistency : he treads under foot 
and belittles the actions of Themistocles and Mil- 
tiades d and yet writes e this to his friends about 
himself : 

The way in which you have provided for me in the matter 
of sending the grain was godlike and munificent, and you 
have given tokens of your regard for me that reach to high 
heaven. 

So if someone had taken that corn ration of his bread- 
stuff from our philosopher's letter, the expressions of 
gratitude would have conveyed the impression that 
it was written in thanksgiving for the freedom or 
deliverance of the whole Greek nation or of the 
Athenian state. 

16. " Now the point f that even for the pleasures 
of the body our nature requires costly provision, and 
that the most pleasant enjoyment is not to be found 
in barley-cake and lentil soup, but that the appetite 
of the sensualist demands succulent viands and Tha- 

a Cf. 1126 p, hifra. b Cf. Frag. 7 (ed. Wehrli). 

c Frag. 184 a (ed. Usener). d Frag. 559 (ed. Usener). 

e Frag. 183 (ed. Usener). ' Frag. 467 (ed. Usener). 

8 avrov E (avrov a) : iavrov g C. 

9 BaLixovlcos Usener : oatws a ; Scucos" g ; haiov c. 

10 <j)aKfj a : (f>vyrj g C. 

87 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(1097) /cat ©acrta /cat fivpa 

/cat TT€7TTa /cat Kporrjra rrjs ^ovOorrrepov 
ireXavtp /JbeXtaarjs 1 acf)96va)s oeoevpieva 

fyrovaiv at tcjv drroXavGriKcov ope^eis, /cat 7r/)6V 
y€ tovtols €V7Tp€7T€is /cat veas yvvaiKas y ota 2 AeoV- 
E rtov 3 /cat BotStov 4 /cat 'HSeta /cat Nt/ctotov 5 ivepbovro 
irepl tov K7J7TOV, d(/>top,€v. rats /xeWot rrjs iffvxfjs* 
Xapcus ofJLoXoyovfJLevcos pueyeOos viroKelodai Set 
7rpd^€ajv /cat KaXXos epycov d^ioXoycov , et pceXXovGL 
firj SiOiKevoc pLrj&e dyevvels /cat KopaaccoSeis aAA' 
e/zjS/otflet? eoeoOai /cat jSe'jSatot /cat pb€yaXo7rp€7T€ig . 
to Se e/c TTepirrov 1 Trpos €VTTadeias % eVatpea&it vav- 
tcov 9 SiKTjv 'A^/oo8tota ayoVraw /cat /xe'ya cf>pov€tv 

OTt VOGOJV VOGOV aGKLT7)V TIVCLS €GTiaG€lS (plACOV 

Gvvrjye /cat ou/c i<f)96v€L rrjs 7rpoGaycoyrjs rod vypov 

Tip vopcaiTi /cat raw eG^drcov Neo/cAe'ovs- Aoyaw 

F p,€p,vr)p,€Vos irrjKero rfj puerd SaKpvajv loiorpoircp 

1 7reAavaj (7reAava) Liddell-Scott-Jones) fjLcXtcrorjs g c : 7reAa- 
voficXiGGrjs a. 

2 ola a g c : ota jS 2 (oiai Baxter). 

3 Xeovnov a g : AcoVreiov C. 
* fioihiov a g : j8oi8tov c. 

6 Ni/a'8ioi> Xylander : viKrjbeiov a ; kvlBlov g c. 

6 ttJs" *pvxfjs a g : rats i/jvxcus C. 

7 e/c nepLTTov nos (ttc/httcDs Kronenberg, omitting 7r/)os-) : 
7T€pl rod age. 

8 €V7Ta0€ias a : eviradrj g c. 

9 vavrcbv a : avraiv g C. 

10 voaa>v voaov doKLT-qv rivas (Victorius had already proposed 
aoKirrj) Bern. : voao> voocov dcr/cct rivas a ; voocov ooov olokci 
rivas (-€S c) g C. 
88 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1097 

sian wine a and perfumes 

And cakes and jumbles richly moist 
With the oblation of the whirring bee b 

and not only this, but young and attractive women, 
like Leontion, Boidion, Hedeia, and Nicidion, who 
ranged at will c in the Garden — this point let us waive. 
Admittedly however the delights of the soul must rest 
on actions of some consequence and notable accom- 
plishments of some lustre, if they are not to be empty 
or vulgar and childish, but solid, abiding and impres- 
sive. But d for a man to go out of his way to work up an 
excitement about small comforts, like sailors celebrat- 
ing a feast of Aphrodite, 6 and to be proud because 
1 when suffering from the dropsy f he invited friends 
to a number of common meals and in spite of the 
disease did not refuse to take liquid, and was softened, 
recalling Neocles' 9 last words, by the curious pleasure 

° Cf. 1089 c, supra. 

6 From the Cretan Women of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. 
Graec. Frag., Eur. 467. 

c Boidion means " little heifer," Leontion " little lioness." 

d Frag. 190 (ed. Usener). 

e The word Aphrodisia(" feast of Aphrodite ") is used of 
any festivity celebrating the successful outcome of an enter- 
prise. Thus Xenophon (Hell. v. 4. 4) uses the word of the 
banquet held by the Theban polemarchs in 379 b.c. to cele- 
brate the end of their term of office ; Plutarch merely speaks 
of an " entertainment " (Mor. 577 c) or of " drinking, com- 
pany, and married women " (Life of Pelopidas, chap. ix. 4 
[282 b]). In our passage Plutarch uses it of sailors on a spree 
after a voyage ; cf. Mor. 785 e and the Life of Lucullus, 
chap, xliv [i]. 3 (521 b). See M. P. Nilsson, Griechische Feste 
von religioser Bedeutung mit Ausschluss der Attischen (Leip- 
zig, 1906), pp. 374 f. 

f Metrodorus, Frag. 46 (ed. Korte). Cf. 1089 f, supra. 

9 Neocles, a brother of Epicurus, predeceased him ; cf. 
1089 f, supra, and Frag. 186 (ed. Usener). 

89 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1097) rjBovfj ' — ravra ovSels av vytatvovrajv 1 eixfrpoovvas 
aXrjdzLS rj )(apas ovoLidaeiev, dAA' el rls ion 2 Kal 
ipvxrjs ^LiCLpSdvios 3 yeAcos, iv rovrois ion rols rrapa- 
fiiaoLiols kcll k Xav a ly eXco a lv.* el S' ovv ravra 
(frrjaet ns ev<f>poovvas Kal ^apds, OKOixei rds virep- 
jSoAas 1 rcjv rjSovcov iicewcDV 

1098 rjLierepats fiovXals Hiirdpryf fxev eKelparo 86£av 

Kal 

ovros rot rwjjuas o Lieyas, ^€ve, Trarpioos 
darrjp 

Kal 

oIl^oj rj oe deov 10 iiavrevcoiiai rj avdpamov. 

orav 8e AajScu rd QpaovfiovXov Kal TleXonlSov rrpo 
o^OaXfiajv KaropOwjJbara Kal rov iv UXaraials 'Apt- 
arelSrjv rj rov iv M.apa8tbvi M.iXndSrjv, 11 ' ivravOa ' 
Kara rov 'HpoSorov ' i^elpyopLai yvwLirjv ' elrreuv 
on ra> TrpaKriKcp filco ro r)8v nXeov rj ro koXov 
ianv. 12 pbaprvpel 8e liol Kal 'E7ra/xetva>v8a9 13 elnwv, 
a)S (f>aoiv, rj&tarov avrcp yeveodat ro 1 * rovs reKovras 15 

1 vyiaivovTCDV g c : vyiaivojv a. 2 iarl a : gc omit. 

3 Hapodvios (-Sea- Victorius) Baxter : oapotavos age. 

4 KXavuLyeXojGLV a : KavatyeXcootv g C. 

5 UnapTr] Aristides and Pausanias : ondpra age Schol. ad 
Aeschin. 3. 211. 

6 ovtos tol a : ovtol g C. 

7 pcofias age: 'Pc^li^s Life of Marcellus. 

8 |eVe a : fetVe g c. 

9 TraTpCbos (-as g) c E/3 2 : narpioos a c (-pt- in an erasure)A. 

10 rj o€ Oeov a : r)e deov ere g c. 

11 rj rov iv fiapadcovL fjuArLaorjv a : g c omit. 

12 ioTLV C (ecrri a g) : eveoriv Cobet. 

13 iiraiJLeivwvoas a g : -jjllv- c. 

14 to a g C : rc5 jS 2 . 15 TtKovras g C : yovels a. 

90 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1097-1098 

that is mingled with tears ' a : no one would call this 
the ' mental joy ' or ' delight ' of men in their sound 
mind ; no, if the soul has its Sardonic laughter, 6 we 
find it here, in this forced merriment and this laughter 
choked with tears. And even supposing that some- 
one should call all this ' mental joy ' and * delight,' 
consider the magnitude of pleasures like these : 

Through me was Sparta shorn of her renown c 
or 

Here, stranger, stands Rome's mighty star, her son d 
or 

Shall I the prophet call thee god or man ? e 

When I set before my eyes the exploits of Thrasy- 
bulus, or Pelopidas, or picture Aristeides at Plataea 
or Miltiades at Marathon, ' here ' in the words of 
Herodotus f ' I am constrained to pronounce ' that 
the pleasure of the life of action is greater than its 
glory. Epameinondas bears me out, who said, we are 
told, that nothing had given him more pleasure than 

° Cf. Seneca, Ep. xcix. 25 (Metrodorus, Frag. 34, ed. 
Korte) : " illud nullo modo probo, quod ait Metrodorus : 
esse aliquam cognatam tristitiae voluptatem, hanc esse cap- 
tandam in eiusmodi tempore " (that is, when you lose a 
young son). 

b Cf. Pausanias, x. 17. 13 : (Sardinia has no poisonous 
plants with one exception). " The fatal weed resembles 
parsley, and it is said that those who have eaten it perish 
laughing. It is with reference to this weed that Homer [Od. 
xx. 302] and later authors call laughter that is for no sound 
reason sardonic [i.e. Sardinian]." 

c Of Epameinondas : cf. Preger, Inscr. Graec. Metr., No. 
161 and Pausanias, ix. 15. 6. 

d Of Marcellus : cf. Preger, op. cit. 9 No. 168 and Life of 
Marcellus, chap. xxx. 8 (316 b). 

• Of Lycurgus : cf. H. W. Parke and D. E. W. Wormell,77i* 
Delphic Oracle (Oxford, 1956), vol. ii, p. 14. / vii. 139. 1. 

91 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1098) 

-r» L^covras emSecv to iv AevKrpoig Tpoiraiov clvtov 

GTparrjyGvvTos . irapa/SaXajLiev ovv rfj 'TLTrapLewcov- 

8ov l fJLTjTpl rrjv 'EnLKovpov, xaipovoav oti top vlov 

inelSev el? to ktj7tl8lov ivSeSvKora kcu koivtj fiera 

TOV TloAvOLLVOV 7Tai8o7TOlOVlieVOV €K T7)S YLv^lKrjvfjS 

iraipas. ttjv fiev yap MrjrpoScopov ivryrepa kqX tt]v 
dSeXcfirjv cog virepeyaipov iirl rols yaLiois avrov Kal 2 
rats irpos tov dheXtf>6v dvTiypacfrals e/c tcov fiifiXLcov 
hrjTTOV 8rjX6v ioTiv. ' dXX rjbecos re 3 pefiicjOKevai 
Kal fipvd^eLV 4, koX KaOvpLvecv tov avrcov 5 fSLov €K- 
Kpavydl^ovTes Xeyovcn.' kcli yap ol Oepdrrovres 
orav Kpowa Senrvcoaiv 77 Aiovvoia /car' dypov 
ayojoi 7T€pa6vT€S, ovk av avrcov tov oXoXvypuov 
C VTTOLieivais Kal tov Oopvfiov, vtto ^appiovr]? Kal 
LvneipoKoAias Toiavra ttolovvtcov Kal cf>6eyyop,evcov 

tl Kadrj; 6 TTicDiiev. ov Kal oitio? 
rrdpeoTiv; to SvoTrjve, litj oavTco <j>66vei. 
ol S' 8 evOvs rjXdXa^av, 9 iv S' eKipvaTO 
otvos' cpepcov Se OTCcpavov aLicpeOrjKe 10 rts" 
v(jlv€lto S' aloxpcos kXcovo 11 rrpos KaXov 8dcj)V7]S 

1 €7TafjL€iva)vhov a g : eVa/ity<wSa C. 

2 /cat added by Wyttenbach. 

3 re a C : g omits. 4 fipvalziv g c : /3ptafeu> a. 

5 avrcov Baxter (aurcDv a) : iavrcov g c. 

6 ti Kadrj w- (or w- ri KaOrj) Lloyd-Jones (tl KaOrj Reiske): 
ri kolOt] /cat age {kXIOijti /cat Meineke). 

7 atrta Bergk, Emperius : crtra a (criVa g) c. 

8 oto' a (from oto' ?) : ovo* g C. 

9 i}AaAa£ay a : iJAAaf ev g C. 

10 d[JL(f>€dr)K€ a : dvredrjKe g C. 

11 KXwva a : KaXajvd g ; fiaXoova c (with an abnormal u-shaped 
0. 

a Cf Mor. 193 a, 786 d ; Life of Coriolcmus, chap, iv 
(215 c). 

92 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1098 

his parents' living to see the trophy at Leuctra, won 
when he was general.* 1 Let us then compare with 
Epameinondas' mother the mother of Epicurus, who 
had the joy of living to see her son ensconced in his 
little garden and jointly with Polyaenus procreating 
a family with the hetaira from Cyzicus. & As for 
Metrodorus' c mother and sister, how overjoyed they 
were at his marriage and at his Replies to his brother d 
is plain enough from his writings. But (it is objected) 
they shout e that ' they have had a pleasant life/ 
1 revel in it ' f and * hymn the praises ' of their own 
1 way of living.' So too when slaves hold a Satur- 
nalian feast or go about celebrating the country 
Dionysia, 5 ' you could not endure the jubilation h and 
din, as in their crude exultation they act and speak 
like this : 

4 Why sit ? Let's drink. There's food too, isn't there ? 
Poor devil, never cheat yourself.' At once 
They raised a clamour * and the wine was mixed, 
Then someone brought a crown and stuck it on 
And to the beat of a fine branch of bay j 
Was Phoebus vilely hymned in notes untrue, 

6 Cf. 1127 c, infra. Usener (Epicurea, p. 416, col. 1) 
identifies her with Hedeia. 

c See pp. 554 and 566 in Korte's collection of the frag- 
ments. d Timocrates ; see 1098 c, infra. 

• Frag. 605 (ed. Usener) ; Frag. 49 (ed. KcSrte). 

' Cf. Frag. 181 (ed. Usener) : jSouaf co rco Kara to acofidnov 
rjfcl and 1 107 a, infra. 

9 Cf. Mor. 527 d with the note. 

h Cf. 1091 c, supra. i In honour of the god. 

* Before the drinking begins the paean is sung not to the 
accompaniment of the cithara or flute but to the waving of 
a branch of bay. Cf. a scholium on Aristophanes, Wasps, 
1239 : " Some assert that it was the custom for anyone who 
could not sing [i.e., play his own accompaniment] at a banquet 
to take a branch of bay or myrtle and sing in accompaniment 
to it." See also Zenobius, Cent. i. 19. 

93 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1098) o Oot/3os* ov 7rpoaa)8d' tt\v t evavXiov 1 

(LOtOV TL$ 2 €^€KXay^€ Z GVyKOLTOV <f>lXrjv . 4 

rj b yap ov tovtols eot/ce tol MrjrpoScopov 7rpos rov 
dSeX(j)6v ypd(f)ovros' ' ovSev Set acp^etv tovs "EAA77- 
vas ov8* €7tl ao(f)iq OT€<f)dvojv Trap* avrcov Tvyyd- 
vetv, aAA' eaOieiv /cat ttivziv otvov, c5 6 TipbOKpares, 
D aj8Aa/3co9 rfj yaorpl /cat 7 /ce^aptctyteVa)? '; /cat 77a- 
Xiv ttov (f)7]criv iv tols avTols ypajjupLacnv ws ' /cat 
kydpr\v /cat edapowdpuqv^ otl epuadov rrapa 'Em- 
Kovpov 6p6cos yaorpl ^apt^ea^at '• /cat ' irtpl ya- 
arepa yap, a) (j>voioX6ye TtpLOKpares, to dya96v.' 
(17.) /cat yap oXov 10 ol avOpamoi ttjs 11 rjSovrjs to 
pueyeOos Kaddnep KevTpco /cat 0tacrT7]jLtaTt ttj yaoTpl 
TT€ptypd(f)ovoL, XapbTrpas 8e /cat fiaoiXiKrjs /cat (f>po- 
vrjfjia TroLOVorjs pueya /cat (fxjos /cat yaXrjvrjv dXrjd&s 
els aTravTas dvaxeopLevrjv 12 papas' ovk ecrrt 13 /xera- 
o-)(€iv fiiov dve^ohov /cat a7roAtT€UTOV /cat d<f)iXdv- 
OpajTTOV /cat avevdovoiaoTov 1 ^ els Tip,r)v /cat ydpiv 
dveXofievovs. ov yap rt <f>avXov rj ipvx'rj 15 /cat fXLKpov 

1 r* cvauAiov a : tc vavXtcov g C. 

2 ojdcjv Tis a : o0ov rts g ; 66ov rls C. 

3 e^e/cAay^ a (-Aa£= A 2 E ; -pa£e j8 2ss ) : efe/eAafe g C. 

4 </>tXr)v a : 17 (/>lXav g C. 5 77 a : 77 g C. 

6 otvov, a> Diibner (from ilfor. 1125 d, which has w without 
otvov) : otvov C g ; otVoj a. 

7 /cat a : g c omit. 

8 i9apovvd^i7)v a : iOapovva (jltj g c. 

9 7rapa g C : ?Tepi a. 

10 yap 6'Aov Pohlenz {totam Ferronus ; oAov Victorius in Q) : 
eojAov a (I- g) C. n ttJ? a : /cat rrjs g C. 

12 dvax€Ofxevrjv a : dvaxeofjuzvT] g c (-77? Victorius in Q). 

13 ovk con a : g c omit. 
94 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1098 

While someone tried to force the courtyard door, 
Howling a loving summons to his wench. 

Metrodorus' b words to his brother are of a piece 
with this, are they not ? He writes : ' We are not 
called to save the nation or get crowned by it for 
wisdom ; what is called for, my dear Timocrates, is 
to eat and to drink wine, gratifying the belly without 
harming it.' And in the same letters he c says again : 
1 It made me both happy and confident to have learned 
from Epicurus d how to gratify the belly properly ' 
and e ' the belly, Timocrates my man of science, is 
the region that contains the highest end/ (17.) 
Indeed these people/ you might say, describing a 
circle with the belly as centre and radius, circum- 
scribe within it the whole area of pleasure, ^ whereas 
delight that is magnificent and kingly and that en- 
genders a high spirit and a luminous serenity that 
truly h diffuses itself to all men is beyond the reach 
of those who set up as honourable and pleasing a 
cloistered life, estranged from public duty, indifferent 
to human welfare, untouched by any spark of the 
divine. For the soul is nothing paltry and inconsider- 

° Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adesp. 418 ; Kock, Comi- 
corum Att. Frag., Adesp. 1203. 

6 Frag. 41 (ed. Korte) ; quoted also at 1100 d and 1125 d, 
infra. 

c Frag. 42 (ed. Korte). d Frag. 409 (ed. Usener). 

• Frag. 40 (ed. Korte). ' Frag. 409 (ed. Usener). 

9 A favourite figure in Plutarch : cf. Mor. 513 c with the 
note and Euclid, Elements (vol. i, p. 284. 2 [ed. Heiberg]). 

h The words xai'pa> and xapa (delight) were derived from 
Xco) in the sense of Sta^cco (to diffuse, relax) : cf. Et. Mag. 
807. 50 and Et. Gud. 100. 1-2. 

14 avcvdovotaoTOv a g : avevdovatcoTOV C. 
15 faxy H?™ ana * Victorius in Q : rvxq age. 

95 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1098) ovSe ay ewes eonv ovS* cboTrep ras irXeKravas 1 oi 

E iroXvirohes a<XP L TC ^ )V ^8oj8ljxojv eKreiveL ras eiridv- 

liiaSy dXXa ravrrjv jjuev 6£vraros diroKOTrreL Kopos 

OLKapes copag puopiov dfcfjudoaoav, rtov 2 8e TTpos to 

koXov 6pp,a)v /cat rrjv errl rep koXlq TLfJbrjv koll x^P lv 

OVK eOTLV aVTCOV fJLCTpOV O 3 TOV /3loV XpOVOS 

dXXa rod ttolvtos altovos imSparrofJbevov to (f>iX6ri- 
jjlov Kal (f)LXdv0pa)7TOV i^apLiXXarai rals irpd£eoL koll 
tolls ydp iGlv rj&ovrjv d/x^avov 4 exovoaLS, as ovSe 

(f)€VyOVT€S OL XprjOTOL 8La(/)€Vy€LV SvVOLVTOLL, 7TOLVTOL- 

Xodev avrols diravrojoas Kal 7repLxeop,evas b otolv 

€V(j)paLVOJOL 7ToXXoVS €V€py€TOVVT€S , 

epXOfxevov S' dvd dorv deov cos eloopocooLV. 

F 6 yap ovrco SLaOels erepovs coots Kal x aL P eiv KCLL 
ydvvoOaL 6 Kal irodelv aipaodaL Kal rrpooayopevoaL 
SrjXos ioTL Kal rvcf)Xa) pLeydXas excov ev eavrco Kal 
1099 KapTrovfJL€Vos rjSovds. 66 ev ovSe KapbvovoLV cbtfie- 
Xovvres ov8e dirayopevovGLV , dXXa roLavras avrcov 1 
aKovopiev cf)covds 

ttoXXov ae OvrjTols d^LOV TLKT€L TraTTjp 
Kal 

pj] ye 7ravocopLeo9a 8 8pcovres ev fiporovs. 
Kal tl 8el Trepl rtov aKpcos ayaOtov XeyeLV ; el yap 

1 ras irXcKroLvas added here by us (Dohner adds nXcKravas 
after iTndvfxias ; Pohlenz adds TrXeKrdvas rrjs before iniOvfilas). 

2 OLKixdcaaav tcov Diibner : aKfiaaavrcov age. 

3 o g c : a omits. 

4 rjSovrjv d/jLt]x avov a : ffiovds dfjurjxdvovs g C. 

5 7T€pLX^Ofl€VaS j3 2 K l8S : 7T€pl€XOfJL€VaS a g e. 

6 ydwodcu van Herwerden : ydvvvodai age. 
96 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1098-1099 

able, or yet petty, nor does it put forth its desires, as 
the octopus its tentacles, only as far as there are 
edibles to be got ; no, such appetite flourishes for the 
briefest fraction of an hour, and then is cut short by 
a most swift satiety ; whereas 

The span of life is time too short to measure a 
the mind's endeavours to achieve greatness and hon- 
our and thanks for work well done ; rather the love 
of honour and beneficence reaches out to eternity as 
it strives for the crown by deeds and benefactions 
that bring the doer a pleasure impossible to describe. 
Even when he tries a good man cannot escape the 
thanks, which come to meet him from all sides and 
flock around him, as multitudes rejoice in benefits 
conferred 

And as he goes about the town, 
Gaze on him as a god. b 

For one who has put others in the mood to be happy 
and rejoice and long to touch him and to greet him, 
why, even the blind can see that such a man has in 
himself great pleasures, and has them as the reward 
of what he has done. Thus such men never weary 
or have enough of conferring benefits, but we hear 
in connexion with them words like these : 

A boon to mortals did thy sire beget thee 
and 

Oh, let us never cease to help mankind. c 

Indeed, why speak of men of exceptional virtue ? 

° Kock, Comicorum Att. Frag., Adesp. 1241. 
6 Homer, Od. viii. 173 ; cf. Hesiod, Theogony, 91. 
c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adesp. 410 ; also quoted in 
Mor. 791 d. 

7 avrcov a g : avha>v C 
8 7TavGa)fjL€ada Xylander : navawfjieda age. 
VOL. XIV E 97 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1099) tcvl rcov iLeocos tf>avXa)v pbiXXovri OvrjOKeiv 6 KVpcos, 
rjrot 9eo9 fj fiaoiXevs, topav imSoLrj \iiav coare XPV 
adpuevov 1 avrfj rrpos rcva 2 kolXtjv npa^iv rf rrpos 
aiToXavcjiv evOvs reXevrav, tls 4 av iv rco xpovtp rov- 
B rco ftovXoiro fidXXov AatSt ovyyeveodai /cat ttl€lv 
olvov 'Apiovocov 77 KT€ivas 'Ap^tW 5 iXevdepwacu 
Ta? yyrjpas; eyw \iev ovoeva vopLL^co. /cat yap 
rcov fJLovojj,d)(a)v opto rovs [at] TTavTOLTraoL 6rjpico8eLS 
dAA' "JLXXrjvas orav etateVat 8 [MeXXcoac, 7TpoK€LjJL€Vtov 
ttoXXcov iSeapbdrcov /cat TroXvreXcov, tJSlov tcl yvvaia 
Tots' cplXois iv rco XP° vc P T °^ TC p 9 TrapaKaraTide- 
(xevovs /cat rovs ot/cera? iXevdepovvras r} rfj yaarpl 
Xapt^ofjuivovs - 

AAAa /cat et rt pueya Trept ra? rov acofxarog 
rjSovds, kolvov ion hrjirov rovro rot? irpaKTiKols 11 • 
/cat yap ' ulrov eSovocv ' /cat ' ttivovoiv aWona olvov ' 
/cat jLtera tf)lXa>v iarccovraL rroXv ye ot/xat Trpodvpuo- 
C repov aVo rcov dycovojv /cat rcov epyatv, o)$ 12 'AAe£- 
avSpos /cat 'AyrjacXaos /cat vrj Ata /cat 13 Owklojv 
/cat ^7rafJi€Lva)v8as , 14 ?} KaOdirep ovtol irpos irvp 
dAct^a/xevot /cat rot? cpopetois drpepLa hiaoziodiv- 
T€S, 15 dXXa Karacppovovoi tovtojv iv €/cetVat9 Tat? 

1 xp^o-a/zevov g C : xpijaro/icvov a. 

2 7rpds rtva Xylander (alicui Ferronus) : npos rrjv age. 

3 rj a : g C omit. 4 TtV g C j8 2 : rt a. 

5 apxtav a : dpylav g c. 6 Oijpas g C : d^iyvas a. 

7 vo/zi£a> a 2 g c : a 1 omits. 

8 etcrteVat a : elaelvcu g C. 

9 eV to) xP° V( i> tovtco is put here by g c : after ^Stov by a. 

10 el rt Xylander : hrl age. 

11 TTpaKTiKois Castiglioni (^pa/cri/cofe rrdai Papabasileios ; 
7TpaKTLKa>v TTpdypLaoi Pohlenz) : irpaKTiKols irpdy^iaai age. 

12 d)s a : cuv g c. 13 Kala: g c omit. 

98 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1099 

For if some person of only average weakness, on the 
point of death, should be granted by his sovereign, 
whether a god or a king, an hour's grace, to use for 
some great action or else for a good time, and then 
die immediately after, who in that hour would rather 
lie in Lais' arms and drink Ariusian wine a than slay 
Archias and deliver Thebes ? b No one, say I. Why 
even among the gladiators I observe that those who 
are not utterly bestial, but Greeks, when about to 
enter the arena, though many costly viands are set 
before them, find greater pleasure at that moment 
in recommending their women to the care of their 
friends and setting free their slaves than in gratifying 
their belly. c 

" Again, any remarkable quality in the bodily 
pleasures is plainly enough enjoyed by men of action 
too. They too ' eat food ' and ' drink the sparkling 
wine ' d and banquet with their friends, and do so 
with keener zest, I think, after their struggles and 
exploits, for instance Alexander and Agesilaus, yes 
and Phocion too and Epameinondas, than when, like 
these, they had done no more than rub down e by a 
fire and get exercise in the gentle jouncing of their 
litters f ; but men of action regard these pleasures 
as inconsiderable, preoccupied as they are by other 

a Cf. Pliny, N.H. xiv. 73 and Athenaeus, i, 32 f. 

6 The story is told in the De Genio Socratis ; see especially 
597 a. 

c Cf. 1098 c-d, supra. They made their wills. 

d Homer, II. v. 341. 

e For Epicurus' anointing himself see Festugiere, Epicurus 
and his Gods (trans. Chilton), p. 70, note 56. 

f Epicurus' poor health caused him to use a litter (Diogenes 
Laert. x. 7). 



14 €Trafi€LV(x)v8as a g : -jjllv- C. 

16 8lCLG€lGd€VT€S d C OiaTT€Lod4vT€S g. 



99 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1099) ijl€l£oglv ovres. 1 ri yap dv Aeyot ns 'ETrajJLeivcjv- 
8av ovk iOeArjoavTCL oenrvelv <hs icopa 7roAuTeAeoT€- 
pov rfjs ovoias 2 to Seljrvov, aAA' elnovra rrpos rov 
cptAov eya> oe cppbrjv Uvetv, ov\ vppi^eiv ; ottov 
/cat 'A\e£av8pos aireuHjaTO rrjs "ASas rovs \iayei- 
povs avros elncbv k'yeiv afieivovas oifsoTroiovs, Trpos 
D fiev 2 dpiorov rrjv WKTOTTOpiav , 4 irpos 8e ozlttvov ttjv 
oXiyapiGTiav ^tAo^evov Se ypdxfsavra irepl ttcllScdv 

KClAtOV €t 7Tpilf)Tai b [XLKpOV €0€7]G€ TTJS €TnTp07TrjS 

a7TOGTrJGat,- kclltoi tlvl jjl&AAov i^rjv ; aAA' wanep 
<f>r)GLV 'iTTTTOKpdrrjs Svelv* ttovcdv rov rjrrova vtto 
rod fjuei^ovos dfiavpovodai, /cat rtov rjSovcov tcls 

GQ)p,aTlKo\s CLL TTpCLKTlKol Kol (^iXoTifJiOL TO) yaipOV7l 

rfjs ifjvxfjs St' VTrepfioArjv /cat pbeyedos ivacfxivL^ovGL 

/cat KaTOLGpeVVVOVGlV . 

18. " Et TOLVVV, 0)G7T€p Aeyovoi, TO fJbefJLVrJGdaL 

rtov TTporepcuv dyaOcov pbeyiorov eon irpos to rjSe- 
OJ9 £,fjv, 'Em/coupa; fiev o?)S' dv eh rjfjicov 7tlot€VG€L€V 
E otl rat? jLtcytWat? dAyrjoooi koli vooois ivaTroOvrj- 
gkojv dvri7rapeTTepi7T€TO rfj p>vrjiJLr] rcov aVoAeAau- 
Gfievwv 7 nporepov tjSovojv, €ik6vcl yap oifjecus iv fivdco 
GwrapaxOevTL /cat kAvScovi jjl&XAov dv tis ?} ixvqfJbrjv 
rjSovrjs StajLtetStcDaav iv B acfrvypbcp* togovtco /cat 

1 ovres g c j8 2 : ovtojv a. 

2 ovoias age: Ovoias Valckenaer. 

3 fiev A 2 E (cf Mor. 127 b, 180 a, and Life of Alexander, 
chap. xxii. 9 [677 c]) : a A 1 g c omit. 

4 WKTOTTOpiav a : vvKra rropiav (-etav c) g C. 

5 7rpir]rai g C : TTpielrai a c (-pt- from -at- ?). 

6 Suctv a : Suotv g c (ovo Hippocrates). 

7 aTToXeXavofiivcov a : ivaTToXeXavoyiivojv g C. 

8 eV a : g c omit. 9 o^vyfico a g : aupty/ico c. 

100 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1099 

greater ones. Thus what need to mention Epamei- 
nondas' refusal to dine when he saw that the dinner 
was an extravagance for his friend, saying ' I thought 
this was a sacrifice and dinner, not a scandal and out- 
rage ' ? What need to mention this, when Alexander a 
rejected Ada's cooks, saying that he had better sea- 
soners himself, for his breakfast night marches, and 
for his dinner light breakfasting ? And when Philo- 
xenus wrote to suggest the purchase of handsome 
boys, Alexander b came within an ace of relieving 
him from his command. Yet who had greater liberty 
to do what he pleased ? But as Hippocrates c says 
that of two pains the lesser is dimmed by the greater, 
so too with pleasures : those of statesmanlike action 
and ambition are so radiant and splendid that in the 
blaze of mental joy the bodily pleasures are obli- 
terated and extinguished. 

18. " Now suppose that, as they say, d the recollec- 
tion of past blessings is the greatest factor in a plea- 
sant life. For one thing, not one of us would credit 
Epicurus when he e says that while he was dying in 
the greatest pain and bodily afflictions he found com- 
pensation in being escorted on his journey by the 
recollection of the pleasures he had once enjoyed ; 
for you could sooner imagine a face reflected in water 
when the depths are stirred and the seas ride high 
than a smiling memory of pleasure in so great an 

C/. Mor. 127 b with Wyttenbach's note, Mor. 180 a, and 
Life of Alexander, chap. xxii. 7-9 (677 b-c). 

b Mor. 333 a, Life of Alexander, chap. xxii. 1-2 (676 f — 
677 a). 

c Aphorisms, ii. 46. Thus the greater fire destroys the less 
(Theophrastus, On the Senses, 18, On Fire, 10) and the greater 
light the less (cf. On the Sublime, 17. 2). 

d Frag. 436 (ed. Usener). 

e Frag. 138 (ed. Usener). 

101 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1099) cnrapaypbcp awpLaros 1 eirivo-qoeie, ras he rcov npd- 
£ecov fivrj/JLas ovSels dv ovSe ftovXrjOels eKarrjaetev 
iavrov. tt6t€ 2 yap rj ttcos olov re r\v emXadeodaL 
rcov ' ApfiiqXcov rov 'AXe^avSpov 77 rov AeovridSov 9 
rov YleXoTTiSav tj rrjs ^aXapuvos rov ®epLLorof<Xea ; 
rrjv fJLev ydp iv* M.apa6a>vL pLa^rjv dy^pi vvv * Adrj- 
valoi kclL rrjv iv AevKrpoLS Qrjf3aiOL koll vrj Ala 
F rj(Jb€LS rrjv Aa'C<f)dvrov b rrepl 'YdpLiroXcv* ioprd^opiev, 

COS t(JT€, KCLL dvOLCOV KCLL TLfJLLOV 7) ^COI<ls €fJL7T€TrXrj- 

orcLiy kclI ovheis cotlv r)p,cov €</>' ols avros fiefipcoKe 

KCLL 7 7T€TTLOK€V OVrCOS r)86jJL€VOS LOS €<£' OLS €K€LVOL 
KCLTcbpdtDCrCLV. eVVOelv* OVV TTapeOTL TTOOrf TL£ €V(f)pO- 

avvrj /cat X a P®- K<Xi y^jSocruvrj ovvefiLcooev avrols 

~ / £• ~ T > 10 >' / 

TOLS TOVTLOV OrjpLLOVpyOLS LOV €V €T€GL 7T€VTCLKOGLOLS 
KCLL TtXeLOOLV OVK d7TO^€^Xr]K€V TJ \XVT\pjT] TO €V(f)pCLL- 
VOV. 

Kat fJLrjv drro 86£rjs yiveoOai tlvcls rjSovds 11 
1100 'YiTTLKOvpos cbpLoXoyec.' ri 8e ovk epueXXev avros 
ovtlo 12 cnrapycov rrepipbavcos Kal o<f>a8d£ ) cov rrpos 86- 
t;av 13 coore pur] p,6vov aTroXeyeoOaL rovs Kadrjyrjrds 
purjSe ArjpLOKpLTtp 1 * rep rd 86yp,ara prjp,acnv avrols 
vcfraLpovpbevtp 15 'Qvyop.ayelv irepl ovXXaficov Kal K€- 
paLtov, oo(j>6v 8e pbrjSeva <j)dvai ttXtjv avrov 16 yeyo- 
vevaL Kal rcov pLaOrjrcov, dXXd ypdfieLV cos K^coXcorrjs 17 

1 oa)fj,aTOS a C : croj/xarcoy g. 

2 7tot€ Emperius : -rrorepov age. 

3 AeovnaSou a : \zovtl8ov g C. 

4 eV g c : a omits. T 

5 haC<j>avrov a g (with no diaeresis) : ha'C<t>av'\Tov c. 

6 v&ilttoXiv a x (v- from vi- ?) : ttoXlv g ; a blank of 6-7 letters 
and ttoXlv c. 

7 -K€ Kal g C : -K€V tj a. 

8 ivvoelv a : voziv g c. 

9 7TOLp€OTl 7TO(77J g C j8 2 ! 7T(ip€OTLV 0G7] CL. 

102 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1099-1 100 

aching and convulsion of the body. And for another, 
no one, even if he should wish, could drive out of 
himself his memory of great actions. When could 
Alexander have possibly forgotten Arbela, Pelopidas 
Leontiades, or Themistocles Salamis ? To this day 
the Athenians celebrate with a festival the victory 
at Marathon, the Thebans that at Leuctra, and we 
ourselves, as you all know, that of Daiphantus at 
Hyampolis, and Phocis is full of sacrifices and honours ; 
and none of us gets such pleasure in what he has 
eaten or drunk himself at the feast as in what those 
men accomplished. We may then conceive how great 
was the joy and delight and rapture that in their 
lifetime dwelt in the minds of the actual authors of 
deeds the memory of which, after five hundred years 
and more, has not lost the power to gladden the heart. 
But Epicurus a (it is objected) allowed that 
some pleasures come from fame/ Of course he did ; 
was he not himself b in such a fury of tense and pal- 
pitating passion for renown that he not only disowned 
his teachers, quarrelled c with Democritus (whose 
doctrines he niched word for word) about syllables 
and serifs, and said d that except for himself and his 
pupils no one had ever been a sage, but even wrote 

a Frag. 549 (ed. Usener). b Frag. 233 (ed. Usener). 

c Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. 97 and Frags. 233-235. 

d Frag. 146 (ed. Usener) ; see on 1117 c, infra. 

10 eV a : g c omit. 

11 Ttvas r)8ovas Usener : nvas a ; ras r)8ovas g C 

12 ovto) a 2 : ottos' age. 

13 npos ho^av a : g c omit. 

14 ArjjjLOKpLTa) Ferronus (Democrito) : 8^/xo/cpaTet age. 

15 ixjycupovfJLevaj a (v<j>aLpovfJL€vos /3 2ss ) : d^aipovfieva) g C. 

16 avrov Stephanus : avrov age. 

17 KCoX(x)T7)S g C t KoA(JL)T7]S a. 

103 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1100) puev avrov c/)VOLoAoyovvra TrpoaKwrjoeie yovdrcov 
difjdp,evos , NeoKArjs Se 6 dSeA(f)ds evOvs e/c iraibtov 
airocfyaivoiTO purjSeva oo(j>djrepov 'ILrnKovpov yeyo- 
vivai fJbrjSe elvai, rj 8e p^rjrrjp aropbovs eayev ev 
B avrrj 1 roiavras 2, otat ovveAdovoai aocf)6v dv eyevvr)- 
aav ; elra ovx toorrep KaAAt/cpaTtoas- 3 e'Aeye rov 

K.6v(X)VCL fJLOLX€V€LV 4 ' TTjV OdAoLOOCLV, 5 OVTCOS dv TLS 

envoi rov 'ULrrLKovpov aioxpcos /cat Kpvcf>a ireipdv 
/cat Trapafiid^eodai rr)v S6£av, ov rvyxdvovra <f)ave- 
p<hs aAA' epdivra /cat Karareivopievov ; worrep yap 
vtto Ai/jlov rd Gcopuara rpocfrrjs pur] Trapovorjs aVay/ca- 
£erat rrapd (f>votv u</>' avrtov rpe(f>eod at, toiovtov r) 
<f)i\oho$;La Troiel /ca/cov 6 ev rats* i/a^ats, otolv eTrai- 
va>v Treivdovres Trap* erepwv 1 pur) rvyxdvajoiv ', av- 
tovs iavrovs 8 e-Traivelv. (19-) aAA' ol ye rrpos 
erraivov ovtoj Kal S6£av 9 e^ovres apa ovx dpuoXo- 
yovai pueydXas r)Sovas TrpoteoOai hi dodeveiav r) 
puaAaKcav (f>evyovres dp\as /cat 10 TroXireias /cat 
C <f)iAlas jSacrtAeajv, ac/>' wv ra pueydXa /cat Aafirrpd 11 
yiveaOai els rov jStW 12 ecfrrj /^qpuoKpiros ; ov yap 
dv riva rreioeiev dvOpwrrcov o 13 rr)v Neo/cAeous" jitap- 
rvpiav /cat rr)v KojAojtou 14 TrpooKvvrjoiv ev rooovrco 
Aoyco riOepievos /cat dyaTT&v d)$ ovk dv vtto rcov 

1 ev avrrj jS 2 E : ev avrrj a 2 ; eavrrj a 1 ; ev eavrrj g C. 

2 roiavras Emperius : rooavras age. 

3 KaAAiKpartSas- Bern. : -rjs age. 

4 )LtOt^€U€tV a : fJLOLX€VC€LV g C. 

5 OdXaaaav g c : OdXarrav a. 

6 7rotet kolkov a : kolkov rroiel g C. 

7 iiralvwv . . . erepoyv g C : eTraivov . . . erepov a. 

8 avrovs iavrovs g C : avrovs a. 

9 ovTco Kal 86£av g C : Kal oo£av ovrojs a. 

10 Kal Castiglioni : rj a g c. 

11 Kal XafjLTrpd Bern. : KaXd a ; Xapareav g C. 

12 yiveadai els rov jStov g C : els rov fliov yiveodai (ylyv- /3 2 ) a. 

104 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1100 

that as he was expounding natural philosophy Co- 
lotes a embraced his knees in an act of adoration, 
and that his own brother Neocles b declared from 
childhood that there had never been born and was 
not now anyone wiser than Epicurus, and that their 
mother got in herself atoms of such a sort as by their 
conjunction must produce a sage ? Pshaw ! As Calli- 
cratidas G said that Conon was making an adulteress 
of the sea, so might not a man say that Epicurus was 
shamefully and covertly attempting to seduce Re- 
nown and force her to his will, since he could not win 
her openly, and yet was racked with amorous desire ? 
For just as in the stress of famine the human body 
is reduced for want of other food to do violence to 
nature and feed on itself, so the love of glory brings 
about a similar perversion in the mind : when men 
who are famished for praise fail to get it from others 
they praise themselves. d (19.) But surely men so 
enamoured of praise and celebrity confess their 
want of ability or resolution when they let slip such 
pleasures, shunning office and political activity and 
the friendship of kings, e things which Democritus f 
said are the fount of all that is heroic and glorious 
in our life. For he g who made so much of Neocles' 
testimony and Colotes' act of adoration and took such 
satisfaction in them would never convince any man 
alive that if he had been applauded by the assembled 

° Frag. 141 (ed. Usener), 1117 b, infra. 
b Frag. 178 (ed. Usener). 

c Xenophon, Hellenica, i. 6. 15. d Cf. Mor. 540 a. 

e Cf Frag. 557 (ed. Usener) and 1127 a, infra. 
f Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Demo- 
kritos, B 157 ; cf. 1126 a, infra. 
Frags. 178 and 141 (ed. Usener). 

13 o g C : on a. 14 kcoXcotov g C : koXcotov a. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1100) 'EXXrjvcov Kponqdels 'OXv/jlttlclgiv 1 i^epbavrj kcll dv- 
ojX6Xv£e, fxdXXov Se oAeo9 2 vtto ^apa? r\p9r] Kara rov 
Ho(f)OKXea 

ypaias aKavdrjs ttolttttos cos (frvocbjjbevos. 

€L }/€ fJLTjV TO €l)So^€LV TjSv , TO d8o^€LV SijlTOV XvTTTj- 

pov a8o£oT€pov Se acfyiXias drrpa^las ddeoT7]Tos 

rjSvTTaOelas oXiyajpias ovdev €gtl. raura Se irdvTes 

D avdpO)7TOL TrXrjV aVTCOV €K€LVOJV ttj alpeGZL TrpooelvaL 

VOJJLL^OVOLV. ' aSlKWS,' c/)^G€L TLS . dXXa T7JV 86£<1V, 

ov ttjv aXrjOecav OKOTrovjiev. /cat j3t/3Aia jjlzv purj 
Xeycofiev jjirjSe e/r^iCT/xara ^Xdo^rjpLa noXeajv ooa 
yeypaiTTai npos avTovs (<j)LXa7T€xO'rjp>ov yap)' el Se 

XpyjGjJLOL KOL (JLaVTLKrj KOLL 0€tOV TTpOVOld KOL yOVZOJV 

7rp6s z eKyova GTOpyy] kol dydinqoLS kcll iroXiTeca 
kcll rjyefjbovla kcll to apyeiv ev8o£6v Igti kcll ev- 
/cAee'?, 4 ovto)s 5 dvdyKrj rous* Xdyovras cos* ov Set ooj- 
£etv tovs "EXXtjvcls aAA' iodUiv koX Ttiveiv ajSAa/Jcos* 
ttj yaoTpl kcll fce^apta/xeVcos* dSo£eu> /ecu 6 kclkovs 
vopbi^eodcLL, vopLL^opbevovs Se tolovtovs dvLaoOcu? Kdl 

tff\V dT€p7TO)S } % €L y€ 8rj TO KClX6v Tj8v KOLL TTjV €V- 
So^lolv rjyOVVTOLL." 

1 oXvfXTriacjiv Q : oXvfjLTndcnv age. 

2 oXcos Wyttenbach (ovtojs Pohlenz ; ttcjs Post) : ottcds age. 

3 Trpos a g : c omits. 

4 ev8o£6v ion kolI €vkXc€s g c j8 2 : a8o|6v eart /cat d/cAccs a. 

5 ovrcos age: ttovtcos Reiske ; ov Trda R. G. Bury. 

6 koll £ 2 E 2m (?) : a g c omit. 

7 dviaadai Xylander : dveladai age. 

8 drepTTtos g C : d-H-peTm)? a. 

a So Themistocles was honoured (Life of Themistocles, 
chap. xvii. 4 [120 e]). C/. also the ovation to Flamininus at 
the Isthmian games (Life of Flamininus , chap. x. 4-10 [374 

106 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1100 

Greeks at Olympia a he would not have lost his head 
and raised a shout of jubilation. Or rather let us say 
that he would simply have been carried away for sheer 
joy, as Sophocles b has it, 

Like down on the dry thistle at a puff. 

But if celebrity is pleasant, the want of it is painful ; 
and nothing is more inglorious than want of friends, 
absence of activity, irreligion, sensuality and indiffer- 
ence — and such is the reputation of their sect among 
all mankind except for themselves. ' Unfairly,' you 
say. c But we are considering reputation, not truth. 
And let us not mention the books composed against 
them or the contumelious decrees of cities d of which 
they are the subject, for that would be invidious. 
But let us say : if oracles and divination and divine 
providence and the affection and love of parent for 
child e and political activity and leadership and hold- 
ing office are honourable and of good report, so surely 
those f who say that there is no need to save Greece, 
but rather to eat and drink so as to gratify the belly 
without harming it, are bound to suffer in repute and 
to be regarded as bad men ; and being so regarded 
they are bound to be distressed and live unhappily — 
if, as they say, they consider virtue with the honour 
it brings a pleasant thing/ ' 

e — 375 a]) and the honour shown to Philopoemen at the Ne- 
mean games (Life of Philopoemen, chap. xi. 4 [362 d]). 

6 Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag,, Sophocles, 784 ; Frag. 868 
(ed. Pearson). 

c Cf. Seneca, Dial. vii. 13. 2 : " sed illud dico : male audit, 
infamis est, et immerito." 

d Such as Rome, Messene, and Lyctos : cf. Athenaeus, 
xii, 547 a ; Aelian, Frag. 39 and Varia Historia, ix. \2. 

e Cf. 1123 a, infra. 

f Metrodorus, Frag. 41 (ed. Korte) ; cf. 1098 c, supra. 

107 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1100) _ n T „ , , „ a , ,., 

-p %U. 1 aura enrovros rov vyeoovos eoo/cet Kara- 

iravoai rov TrepirraroVy /cat 1 Kaddrrep elooOeLfiev 2 em 

t<w fiddpoov Kade^ofjuevoi rrpos rols elprjfjbevois rjjJLev 

GLOorrfj %povov ov rroXvv. 6 yap 2 Zj€v£ lttttos duo 

roov elpr\\xivoov evvotfoas, " rts" €(f>rj, " rd Xenro- 

fjueva rep Xoyoo Trpoaairohihcjoai ; /cat 4 yap ovttco 

TrpoorjKov eypvri h reXos avros 6 apri [JiavriKrjs pLvq- 

odels /cat TTpovolas U77o/3ej3A^/ce 7, ravra ydp ovy 

rjKiard (/>aoiv ol dvSpes 8 rjSovrjv /cat yaXrjvrjv /cat 

ddpoos avrols rrapaaKevd^eiv els rov ftlov, ooare 

Set tl Xeydr\vai /cat 7rept rovroov." vnoXafioov Se o 9 

'ApiGToSrjfAos, " dXXd rrepl rjSovrjs piev eLprjrai cr^e- 

OOV, €L7T€V, COS evrV\OOV /Cat KCLTOpVOOV O AoyOS 

avroov (fiopov d</>atpet n rtva /cat SetatSat/xovtav, ev- 
c/ipoovvrjv Se /cat ^apdv 12 drro roov deoov ovk eVSt'Sa>- 
oiv, dXX ovtcos eyeiv Trotet 13 rrpos avrovs rep firj 
1101 rapdrr eodai /XT^Se yaipeiv a>9 77po9 rot>9 'YpKavovs 
r) 2/cu#a? 14 e^o/xev, ouVe -)(pr]or6v ovdev ovre (f>avXov 
drf avroov rrpooooKoovres . 

" Et Se Set rrpooQelvai re rols elprjfJLevots, e/cetvd 
jitot Sokgo Xrji/jeodai Trap* avroov rrpoorov, on rols 
dvaipovGi Xvrras /cat Sd/cpua /cat orevayfxovs errl 
rals roov (j>iXoov reXevrals p,dypvrai /cat Ae'youat rrjv 
els ro drrades KaOeoroooav aXviriav d<^' 15 erepov 

1 Kal a g : c omits. 

2 elcbOeifjLev a g(-ei- rewritten ?) : eicofle ri/xdV c. 

3 yap a g : jjl€v yap C. 

4 -ov Kal a : -ow ov g C (-err o jS 2 ). 

5 cxovtl nos : e^et a ; e^cov g c ; '£x €iV E 2m s ? 

6 auro? age: avros o' Pohlenz ; avros yap Emperius ; 
ovros yap Reiske ; a avros Bern. 

7 V7TOpel3\r)K€ a : U7rojSe^/<:€ g C. 

8 ol dvop€S a g : ol avopes ol C ; avopes avaipovvres Post. 

9 o a C : g omits. 10 efaev a : ct7rep g C. 

108 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1100-1101 

20. When Theon had concluded we decided to 
break off our walk, and sat down on the benches, as 
was our custom,® in silent meditation on what he had 
said. But not for long. For Zeuxippus said, getting 
his inspiration from Theon 's words, " Who is to 
add to the argument what is still wanting ? Indeed 
Theon himself by his reference just now b to divina- 
tion and providence has suggested the fitting conclu- 
sion which the argument still lacks. For the gentle- 
men say that their treatment of these matters is no 
small contribution to the pleasure, serenity and con- 
fidence of their way of life ; so these points require 
some discussion too/' Aristodemus replied : " One 
point, that of the pleasure they derive from these 
views, has, I should say, been dealt with c : where 
their theory works successfully and is right, it does 
remove a certain superstitious fear ; but it allows no 
joy and delight to come to us from the gods. Instead 
it puts us in the same state of mind with regard to 
the gods, of neither being alarmed nor rejoicing, that 
we have regarding the Hyrcanians or Scyths. We 
expect nothing from them either good or evil. 

" But if we are to add anything to what has already 
been said, I think I will first take from them the 
following points They disagree with those who 
would do away with grief and tears and lamentation 
at the death of friends, and say that an absence of 
grief that renders us totally insensible stems from 

Cf. Mor. 937 d. b 1100 d, supra. 

e 1091 e— 1092 c, supra. d Frag. 120 (ed. Usener). 

11 a<j>aip€i a g : d^atpcirat C. 

12 xapav a : x^P LV E c * 13 itoicl a C : g omits. 

14 rf TtKvdas Xylander (^ 'lxQvo(f>ayovs Pohlenz) : fydds age. 

16 d<£' Usener : v</> y a g c. 

109 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1101) KCLKOV p,€L^OVOS VTTCipyeiV , (hfJbOTTjTOS T) So£oK07TlCLS 

aKpdrov /cat Xvocrrjs' 8lo Traoyeiv tl fieAriov elvai 
/cat XvirelaOai /cat vrj At'a XiTraiveiv 1 rovs ScfrdaXpLovs 

KCLL T7]K€o9ai y KOLL OGCL 8rj TTadoUVOfJLeVOL 2 KCU ypd- 

B </>ovt€s vypoi rives elvai /cat (f)iXiKol Sokovgl. ravra 
yap ev aXXois re ttoXXols 'Em'/coupo? eLprjKe /cat 
7T€pl rrjs ^YiyrjoiavaKTOS reXevrrjs rrpos TitooiOeov* 
ypd<j)tov rov irarepa* /cat Ylvpocova rov doeX(j>6v rod 
reOvr) kotos, evayxos yap /cara rvxrjv ras emoToXas 
SifjXOov avrov- /cat Xeya> fMLfMovpLevos cos ovx r)rrov 
eon KaKov ddeorrjs cbfJborrjTos /cat hokoKorriaSy els 
r)v dyovoiv rjfJbds ol ttjv yap iyh * K T °v Odov 6 p,erd 
rrjs opyrjs avaipovvres. fieXnov ydp evvrrdpxeiv 
tl /cat ovyK€Kpaodai rfj irepi decov 86£rj kolvov 7 
alSovs /cat <f>6^ov rrddos, r) 7tov 8 tovto cfrevyovras 

firjre eXncSa 9 jjuf^re yapiv iavrois /XT^re ddpoos 
dyaOcov rrapovrtov puf^re nvd Svotvxovolv drroorpo- 
c/>r)v 7rpos to delov a7roXei7reodai. 10 

21. " Aet fjuev ydp dpueXei rrjs rrepl 6ecov 86£rjs 
coorrep oifjetos Xr)p,rjv d(f)aipeiv ttjv SeioiSaipbovLav 
el Se tovt 11 dSvvarov, pur) ovveKKOTrreiv purjSe rv- 

(f)XoVV TTJV 7TLOTLV TJV OL TrXeZoTOL 776/H 0€LOV €)(OVOIV. 

avrrj 8e eonv ov (frofiepd ns ovSe OKvOptoTrrj, 12 
Kaddrrep ovtol rrXdrrovoL, 13 SiafidXXovres rr)v rrpo- 

1 vrj 8ta (vrfhCa g) At(Au- g 2 )7ratVetv g C : fir) StaAt7ratv€tv a. 

2 7Tadatv6fjL€VOL a : 7T€i0o/xevoi g C. 

3 aojaideov g C : SoalOeov a c (from go- ?). 

4 ypa<j>cov rov naripa a : rov Traripa ypd<f>cov g C. 

5 x<*P LV Amyot (gratia Ferronus) : x a P^ v a 8 c » 

6 Qeiov Reiske : deov age. 

7 kolvov Victorius in Q and Xylander : kclivov a ; k€vov g c. 

8 rj ttov age (cf. Plato, Laws, 716 c) : ?} Xylander. 

9 iXmba g C : eXrrlSos a. 

10 aiT0\€L7T€odcU a : V7T0\€L7r€o9(LL g C j3 2 . 

110 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1101 

another greater evil : hardness or a passion for no- 
toriety so inordinate as to be insane. Hence they say 
that it is better to be moved somewhat and to grieve 
and to melt into tears and so with all the maud- 
lin sentiment they feel and put on paper, getting 
themselves the name of being soft-hearted and af- 
fectionate characters. For this is what Epicurus has 
said not only in many other passages, but in his 
letter a on the death of Hegesianax to Sositheiis the 
father and Pyrson b the brother of the deceased. You 
see I recently happened to run through his letters. 
I say then, taking his remarks as my model, that irre- 
ligion is no less an evil than hardness and the passion 
for notoriety ; and irreligion is what we come to, if 
we follow those who with the wrath of God deny his 
mercies too. c For it is better that our belief about 
the gods should include an intermixture of a certain 
emotion that is part reverence and part fear, than 
that, by trying to escape this, we should leave our- 
selves no hope of divine favour, no confidence in 
prosperity, and in adversity no refuge in God. 

21. " Now we should, I grant you, remove supersti- 
tion from our belief in the gods like a rheum from the 
eye ; but if this proves impossible, we should not 
cut away both together and kill the faith that most 
men have in the gods. This is no terrifying or grim 
faith, as these men d pretend, when they traduce 

° Frag. 167 (ed. Usener). 

b Perhaps to be identified with Phyrson ; see T. Gomperz, 
Philodem Vber Frommigkeit^ p. 157, and Usener, Epicurea, 
p. 138, note to line 24. 

c C/. Cardinal Tenet i. d Frag. 369 (ed. Usener). 

11 tout* a : ravr* gc. 12 OKvdpamr] a g : vKvOptoTTLKr} e. 

13 7rXdrTOVGL a : irparrovai g C. 

Ill 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1101) voiav cDGnep iraialv "JLfJLirovoav 1 rj Holvtjv aAtrry- 
pia)8rj /cat rpayiKrjv €TTiKp€\i,ap,evi)v . 2 aAA' 3 dAtyot 
fj,ev rcbv av6po)iT(jJv SeStaat tov deov ols ovk aueivov 
D firj SeoteVar SeSiores yap tborrep dp^ovra ^p^crrots 
rpriov drrexdrj 8e c/hivAols evl cf)6^op, St' ov ovk aot- 
kovoi, 41 rroXXcov eXevdepovvrac rcov errl rep 5 aSt/cetv, 
/cat Trap' avrois* drpep,a rrjv /ca/ctW e^ovres olov 
aTTOjJLapaivoiJLevrjv rjrrov rapdrrovrai rcov xpwp^evojv 
avrfj /cat toXuoovtoov elra evdvs SeStorcov /cat puera- 
pbeXopuevcov. 7 rj Se rcov ttoAAcov 8 /cat dpbadoov /cat 9 
ov Trdvv puoxOr]pa)v Siddeocs 7rpos tov deov k\ei puev 
ajiteAet too oeftopLevoo /cat TipuoovrL pbepaypbevov riva 
o(/)vypb6v /cat (fiofiov, fj 10 /cat SetatSatjitovta /cc/cAr/Tat, 

TOVTOV 0€ fJLVpLCLKLS 7TA€OV €OTL /Cat fiet^OV aVTTJ TO 

€veX7TL /cat 7r€pt^ape9 /cat irdoav evrrpa^ias ovrjoiv 
E a>? e/c #ea)i> oucrav evxouevov /cat heyp\ievov. SrjXov 
8e T€/c/xryptot9 13 rols /xeytWots" oure yap Starpt/Jat 
rcov ev lepols ovre /catpot rcov iopraopLoov ovre 
Trpd^ecg ovre oifjeis ev<j)paivovoiv trepan /xaAAov aSv 
opooaev 7} Spcoaev avrol rrepl rovs Oeovs, 1 * opyid- 
tpvres r\ xopevovres fj dvoiais 7rapovT€s 15 fj reXerals. 
ov yap cos rvpdvvois riolv fj SeivoTs /coAaarats 16 

1 "E/x7rou<7av Amyot : efi7rt7Trovoav a ; e[imeoovoL\v g C. 

2 €7nKp€iJLafi€V7}v Dohner (impendeat Ferronus) : emyeypa\L- 
/xeV^v age. 3 After aAA' Pohlenz would add ovk. 

4 ovk ahiKOvoi g C : ou So/coucrt a. 

5 eXevdepovvrai rcov em red g c : eXevOepovvrcov em to a. 

6 auTots Stephanus : avrols age. 

7 fxera/jLeXofjuevcov a : [xerapaXXopievcov g C. 

8 7roAAc5y age: 7roAAtDv ovrcov Post. 

9 Kcil g c : a omits. 

10 tf>6fiov ■% y 1 : <f>6fiov rj a g ; <j>6fios C. 

11 rovrov Se /jLvpiaKis Bern. : rovrov re /zupia/as g C ; fivpiaKis 
be a. 12 rrXeov earl a : 7rA€tov €crr6 g (rrActdv ecrn c). 

13 i 

112 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1101 

providence as if she were some foul witch to frighten 
children with or unrelenting Fury out of tragedy 
hanging over our heads. No ; among mankind a few a 
are afraid of God who would not be better off without 
that fear ; for since they fear him as a ruler mild to 
the good and hating the wicked, by this one fear, 
which keeps them from doing wrong, they are freed 
from the many that attend on crime, and since they 
keep their viciousness within themselves, where it 
gradually as it were flickers down, they are less tor- 
mented than those who make free with it and venture 
on overt acts, only to be filled at once with terror and 
regret. On the other hand the attitude toward God 
that we find in the ignorant but not greatly wicked 
majority of mankind contains no doubt along with 
the sense of reverence and honour an element of 
tremulous fear (and from this we get our term for 
superstition 6 ) ; but outweighing this a thousand 
times is the element of cheerful hope, of exultant joy, 
and whether in prayer or in thanksgiving of ascribing 
every furtherance of felicity to the gods. This is 
proved by the strongest kind of evidence : no visit 
delights us more than a visit to a temple ; no occasion 
than a holy day ; no act or spectacle than what we 
see and what we do ourselves in matters that involve 
the gods, whether we celebrate a ritual or take part 
in a choral dance or attend a sacrifice or ceremony of 
initiation. For on these occasions our mind is not 

° That is, the wicked. 

b Deisidaimonia (superstition) is literally " fear of the 
daemons." 

14 tovs deovs g C (deovs jS 2 ) : Oecjv a. 

15 rj Qvalais 7rap6vT€s a g c c : written twice in g ac . 

16 koXolcjtcus a g : KoXaKevrats C 

113 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1101) ofjucXovaa rrfviKavra rj ^vx^j rrepiXviros eon Kal 

TCL7T€lVrj KCLl OVodvLLOS , 07T€p €LKOS TjV' dAA' OTTOV 

fjbdXiora So^d^et koll Stavoetrat irapelvai tov Oeov, 

e/cet LidXiora Xvrras kclc cfrofiovs Kal to <\>povnt,eiv 

ctTrcooapbevrj 1 rep rjSoLievcp 2 /^e^pt LieOrjs koll 7tcuol&s 

F Kal yeXcoros 3 dcf)lr]oiv eavrrjv. 4, kcu ev puev 5 rols 

ipCOTLKOLS, 6 LOS 6 TTOL7]T7)S €ip7)K€ 

kcli re yeptov Kal yprjvs, eirrjv 7 xpvorjs 'A</>po- 

Slttjs 
LivrjotovTCLL, 8 koll Toloiv ernqepdr] (f)iXov rjrop' 

ev 8e ttollttclIs Kal dvoiais ov liovov 

yeptov Kal yprjvs 

OvSe 7T€VTjS Kal loLtOTTjS dXXd 

Kal TraxvoKeXrjs dXerpls TTpos livXtjv Kivoviievy] 

1102 Kal OLKOTpifies Kal drjres vtto yrjdovs Kal x a PfAoov- 
vrjs dva^epovrac Kal 9 ttXovolols re 10 /cat fiaoiXevoiv 
eondoeis Kal iravoaiolai nves 11 del 12 ndpeioiv, at S' 
€</>' Upots Kal 6vr]7ToXiais , /cat 13 orav eyyiora tov 
deiov rfj eirivola ifjaveiv So/ccocrt 14 Lierd TiLirjs Kal 
oefiaoLLOv, ttoXv §ca<f)epovoav rjSovrjv Kal X^P IV 
€x°voi. ravrrjs ovSev dvopl iiereonv aTreyvcoKon 

1 d7TO)GafjL€vrj a g : c omits in a blank of 13 letters. 

2 ro> r)$ofi€vcu a : ra>v rjBofiivcov g c. 

3 TraiSias Kal yeXcoros a : yiXcoros Kal 7tcu8i&s g C. 

4 iavT7]v a g : rrjv C. 

5 Kal iv fxkv Wilamowitz (iv /x<h> Reiske) : iv a g c. 

6 ipoiriKols a g : UpariKols C. 

7 iir^v a : g c omit. 

8 fjLvrjocovrai a : iivqaovrai g C. 

9 Kal added by us. 

10 r€ g (re a c) : Se Bern. 

114 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1101-1102 

plunged in anxiety or cowed and depressed, as we 
should expect it to be in the company of tyrants or 
dispensers of gruesome punishments. No, wherever 
it believes and conceives most firmly that the god is 
present, there more than anywhere else it puts away 
all feelings of pain, of fear and of worry, and gives 
itself up so far to pleasure that it indulges in a playful 
and merry inebriation. Now in amatory matters, as 
the poet a says 

Why even crone and gaffer, when they speak 
Of golden Aphrodite, their old hearts 
Are lifted up ; 

but in processions and at sacrifices not only crone and 
gaffer, not only men without wealth or station, but 
even 

The grinder with her heavy legs, who pushes at her mill & 

and the servants of household and farm feel the lift 
of high spirits and a merry heart. Rich men and 
kings have a constant round of one banquet or full- 
spread dinner after another ; but when it is a feast 
held on the occasion of some sacred rite or sacrifice, 
and when they believe that their thoughts come 
closest to God as they do him honour and reverence, 
it brings pleasure and sweetness of a far superior 
kind. Of this a man gets nothing if he has given up 

a Callimachus, Frag. anon. 386 (ed. Schneider) ; not in 
Pfeiffer. 

& Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Graec, vol. iii 4 , adesp. 21 ; Diehl, 
Anth. Lyr. Graec. 3 , Frag. Iamb. Adesp. 28. 

Travhaioiai rives a : 7rcu8iat rives g C. 
12 del added by Meziriacus after ndpeiaiv, placed here by 
us. 13 /cat a g c : Wilamowitz would omit. 

14 Bokcogi a : 8o/cd> g ; Sokovctl c. 

115 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1102) rrjs irpovoias. ov yap olvov irXrjOos ovSe ottttjois 
Kpecov to evcfrpcuvov iariv iv rals eoprals, dXX 1 
eXirls dyaOrj /cat 86£a tov Trapelvai rov 6eov evjJLevfj 
/cat Sex^crdat ro\ yivopueva KexapivpLevcos . avXov fiev 
B yap ivtojv 2 ioprtov /cat ori(j>avov d^atpovpiev, Oeov 
8e Ovoia pbrj irapovros cjorrep Upcov So^ea)? 3 ddeov 
iart /cat dveopraorov /cat dvevdovoiaorov to Xeiiro- 

fJL€VOV JJL&XXoV &€ oXaJS* aT€p7T€S aVTCp 5 /Cat XvTTT]' 

pov viroKplverai yap ev^ds /cat irpooKwrioeis ovOev 
Seofievos Std (fiofiov 6 rcov 7toXXcov /cat (fcdeyyerai 
(f>covds ivavrtas oh </>tAo<7o</>et # /cat dvoov pbev cos 
p,ayeipcp TrapdorrjKe rep tepet Gcpdrrovrt, Ovaas Se 
dVetcrt Xeycov to MevavSpecov 7 

eOvov ov rrpooexovoLV ov8ev jjlol 0eots" 

ovrco 8 ydp *Yi7TiKovpos oterat helv ox^^olt i^eod at 
/cat fir) cf>dov€LV 9 fJbrjSe OLTTexOdvecrdaL rols ttoXXols, 
C ots* 10 x^povoiv erepoi Trpdrrovres 11 avrovs Svax^pat- 
vovras 12 - 

rrav yap dvayKalov 7Tpayfi oSvvrjpdv 13 ec/>u 14 

/card rov Etfyvov. 15 fj /cat tovs SeLOcSaifiovas ov 

1 dAA' g C : aAAa /cat a. 

2 gvlcov (or €(jtiv cov) ioprcov Reiske : irepcov ioprcov a° g° C ; 
ioprcov a ac ? ; irepcov irepcov ioprtov g ac . 

3 cocmcp Upcov So^ccos 1 Madvig (oWco Upcov So^evs van Her- 
werden) : coorrep Upov Boxrjs age (irpos for a>s 7rp6s] Upcov oVo- 
hoxr)v Pohlenz). 4 oXcos t* (to aW Sandbach) : oAov age. 

5 auTai a : avro gc. 6 cfrofiov a C : tov <j>6fiov g. 

7 fjL€vdvSpeiov g C : /icv dvopetov a. 

8 ovrco g c : ovrco from ovr€ a c . 

9 cj>dov€iv a : <f>pov€iv g c ; Karacf>pov€Lv Pohlenz. 

10 ots g c : a omits. 

11 TTpctTTovres a g c i rrpdrrovras Usener. 

12 avrovs SvGx^paLvovras Usener : avrol Bvox^palvovres age. 
116 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1102 

faith in providence. For it is not the abundance of 
wine or the roast meats that cheer the heart at festi- 
vals, but good hope and the belief in the benign 
presence of the god and his gracious acceptance of 
what is done. For while we leave the flutes and the 
crowns out of certain festivals , a if the god is not 
present at the sacrifice as master of rites (so to speak) 
what is left bears no mark of sanctity or holy day and 
leaves the spirit untouched by the divine influence ; 
rather let us say for such a man the occasion is dis- 
tasteful and even distressing. For out of fear of pub- 
lic opinion b he goes through a mummery of prayers 
and obeisances that he has no use for and pronounces 
words that run counter to his philosophy ; when he 
sacrifices, the priest at his side who immolates the 
victim is to him a butcher ; and when it is over he goes 
away with Menander's c words on his lips : 

I sacrificed to gods who heed me not. 

For this is the comedy that Epicurus thinks we should 
play, and not spoil the pleasure of the multitude or 
make ourselves unpopular with them by showing dis- 
like ourselves for what others delight in doing. This 
compliance is distressing 

For all compulsion is a painful thing 

as Evenus d said. This indeed is why they e imagine 

a Cf Mor. 132 e and Apollodorus, Bibl. iii. 15. 7. 
b Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. 103. Epicurus was a faithful 
attendant at religious ceremonies ; cf. Frag. 169 (ed. Usener). 
c Frag. 750 (ed. Korte). 

d Frag. 8 (ed. Diehl) ; cf. Plato, Phaednis, 240 c. 
e Cf. Usener, Epicurea, pp. 103, 106. 

13 ohvv-qpov g c : avirjpov a (and so Theognis, 472 ; aviapov 
Aristotle and Alexander). 

14 €(f>v a c : €(/>7] g. 15 evrjvov a 3 g C : cvtjvov a 1 AE. 

117 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1102) xaipovra? dAAd <j>o^ovfxevovs olovrai dvoiais /cat 
reXerals ofJuXeiv, firjdev eKeivcov avrol Sta^epovreg 
el ye 1 St) 2 Std (f)6fiov rd avra SptooLV, ouS' eArn'Sos 
Xpy]CFTrjs oaov €K€ivoi p,€TaXayxdvovTes , dAAd jjlovov 
SeSiores /cat Taparrofjuevoi pbrj cfravepol yevcovrac 
tovs ttoXXovs TrapaXoyL^ofJuevoi /cat (fzevaKi^ovTes' 

€(/)' OVS /Cat T(X 7T€pl 0€CJV /Cat OOLOTrjTOS* CLVTols 

j8tj8Ata owreVa/crat, 

eAt/cra /cat ouoev vyies aAAa irav rrepi^ 

D €77 , a/X77e^ojLteVots > /cat aTTOKpv7TTO\Levoi$ Std (frofiov as 
exovai, 86^ as. 

22. " Kat jit^v /xerd ye tous 1 Trovrjpovs /cat rous 
7roAAou9 rplrov 77077 GKei/jcofJieda to fieXriov dvdpoj- 
ttojv 5 /cat deo^iXeurarov yevos iv rjXiKais TySovat? 
KaOeoraoiv Kadapals* rrepl deov 86£ous 7 ovvovres, 
d)S rrdvrwv fiev rjyepiwv ayadcov ttolvtcov Se Trarrjp 
/caAcov e/cetvos* €OTt, Kat <f>avXov ovOev 8 Troielv avrw 9 
OefJLLS cjG7T€p ovSe Traoyew. ' dyaOos yap iartv, 
dyadcp 8e rrepl ovhevos eyyiverai c/)96vos no ovre 
(j)6^os ovre 11 opyrj r) 12 ploos' ot)Se 13 yap deploy to 
\fyvyeiv dAAd to 1 * OepfJLaiveiv, toonep ovSe dyaOov to 

E j8Aa7TT6tv. opyrj Se ^dptTos* KCLL X°^ os ^v^eveias 

1 ye Reiske : re a g c. 2 817 g c : a omits. 

3 OGLorrjros Cobet : Oeionqros a c ; Qeiorr\ra g. 

4 ouSev a : ouflev gc. 5 dvdpwrrcov a : dvOpwrrots g C. 

6 ^Sovats Kadeordoiv KaOapals Pohlenz (Meziriacus would 
add elolv after ^At/cats) : rjoovaTs KaOapals a c g c ; Kadapals 
•fjoovaZs a ac . 7 So^ais" Meziriacus : oogrjs age. 

8 ot5#€t> g C : ovoev a. 9 iroielv avrco a : avrcj iroieZv g C. 

10 With <t>dovos c breaks off at the end of folio 346 r . 

11 ovre . . . ovre a g : ovSe . . . ovoe Stegmann. 

12 77 a : ovre g. 

13 ouSe Emperius : ovre a g. 14 to /it : a g omit. 

118 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1102 

that the superstitious attend sacrifices and initiations 
not because they like to but because they are afraid. 
Here the Epicureans are themselves no better than 
they, since they do the same from fear and do not 
even get the measure of happy anticipation that the 
others have, but are merely scared and worried that 
this deception and fooling of the public might be 
found out, with an eye to whom their books on the 
gods and on piety a have been composed 

In twisted spirals, slanted and askew b 

as in fear they cover up and conceal their real beliefs. 
22. " Now that we have dealt with the wicked c 
and with the majority/ let us proceed to consider in 
the third place that better class of men, the dearest 
to Heaven, and discover how great their pleasures 
are, since their beliefs about God are pure from error : 
that he is our guide to all blessings, the father of 
everything honourable, and that he may no more do 
than suffer anything base. ' For he is good, and in 
none that is good arises envy about aught ' e or fear 
or anger or hatred ; for it is as much the function of 
heat to chill instead of warm as it is of good to harm/ 
By its nature anger is farthest removed from favour, 

Epicurus wrote On the Gods and On Piety : cf. Frag. 16 
(ed. Arrighetti ; pp. 103-104 Usener) and Frag. 18 (ed. Arri- 
ghetti ; pp. 106-108 Usener). 

b Euripides, Andromache, 448 ; also quoted in Mor. 863 e 
and 1073 c. The words were suggested by the sky tale, a 
cryptographic device of the Spartans. A strip of leather was 
rolled about a staff, then the message was inscribed on it. 
The recipient had a staff of the same size, and was thus able 
to read the message. 

c 1101 c-d, supra. 

d 1101 d — 1102 c, supra. e Plato, Timaeus, 29 e. 

' Cf. Plato, Republic, i, 335 d. 

119 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1102) /cat rod c/>iXavOpa)Trov /cat <j>iX6(f>povos to Svafieves 

/CCU TCLpdKTlKOV aTTCOrdrOJ TTJ <j)V(J€l TeTa/CTCU* TCL 

pt,ev yap aperrjs /cat SvvdpLecos, tol Se dodeveias earl 
/cat (f)avX6rrjros . ov roivvv ' opycus' 1 /cat ( ^dpiotv* 
ov 2 ' owe'^erat ' to Oecov, dAA' on puev xaot£ecr0at /cat 
porjOelv TrecfrvKev, Spyl^eoOai Se /cat 3 /ca/ccos' iroielv ov 
7T€<f>VK€v. dAA' ' d /zev pbeyas eV ovpavcp Zeus' 4 77-pa>- 
ros" 7Topev€TOU SiOLKoofJiajv irdvra Kol eVtjiteAoi;- 
JJL6VOS,' 5 rcov Se dAAcov #ea>v d p,ev eoriv 'EmSajT'^s', 6 
d Se MetAt^tos", d Se ' AAe^t/ca/cos* * d Se 'A770AA0JI/ 

/care/cot^ dvarols 1 ayavcoraros e/xjitev 8 

F 009 ritVSapds' 9 (fyrjoi. Trdvra Se raw #ecov /card top 
Aioyevr], 10 /cat /cotvd rd 11 rcov <f)LXa)v y /cat <£t'Aot rots' 
#eot9 ol ayaOot, /cat rdv 6eocf)iXrj pJ] rt eu rrpdrreiv 
rj deo^tXyj purj 12 etvat tov crwfipova /cat St/catov dSu- 
vardv iariv. dpd ye St/c^s 1 irepas oteoOe Setodac 
1103 tows' d^atpowTas' t^v irpovoiav, ovx Ikclvtjv eyjeiv 

1 dpyats a g : opyats, on Pohlenz. 

2 \dpiaiv ov nos : ^aptat a g. 

3 on /xev . . . Se koI a: 6Vt . . . kolI g. 

4 Zevs nos : £,€vs Karen a g (Zeus irrrjvov apfia iXawcov Xy- 
lander). 6 iTTLfieXovfjicvos a and Plato : emvepLOfxevos g. 

6 €7nSa)T7js a : eVtSor^? g j3 2 . 7 Ovarois ft 2 : davdrois a g. 

8 e/x/zev /c : €fi[i€v* a ; e/x/ievai g. 

9 IltVSaod? Xylander : mvbapos tttt^vov dpfia iXavvcov a g. Xy- 
lander would transpose ttttjvov dpfia iXavvwv after Zeus above. 

10 oLoyevr) a : -rjv g. n rd a : g omits. 

12 /!/») added here by Xylander, after rj by cr 2 . 

Epicurus, Cardinal Tenet i : " What is blessed and 
imperishable neither suffers trouble itself nor brings it on 
others ; hence it is not a prey to feelings of anger or of 
favour, for all such feelings are found in weakness." 

6 Plato, Phaedrus, 24,6 e. 

c A name or epithet of a daemon at Sparta (Pausanias, iii. 

120 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1102-1103 

wrath from goodwill, and from love of man and kind- 
liness, hostility and the spreading of terror ; for the 
one set belong to virtue and power, the other to 
weakness and vice. Consequently it is not true that 
Heaven ' is not prey to feelings of anger ' and ' favour ' a ; 
rather, because it is God's nature to bestow favour and 
lend aid, it is not his nature to be angry and do harm. 
Rather, ' great Zeus in Heaven heads the procession, 
ordering and caring for all things ' b ; and of the 
other gods one is ' Bestower,' c one ' Kindly,' d one 
* Averter of Evil ' e ; and Apollo, as Pindar f says, 

Hath been adjudged most gentle to mankind. 

All things belong to the gods, as Diogenes g said ; 
among friends all property is in common ; good men 
are friends of the gods ; and it cannot be that one 
dear to the gods should fail to prosper or that the 
temperate and upright man should fail to be dear to 
the gods. 7 * Do you think that deniers of providence 
require any other punishment, and are not adequately 

17. 9), of Sleep (ibid. ii. 10. 2), of certain gods not further 
described (ibid. ii. 27. 6), and of Zeus (ibid. viii. 9. 2). 

d An epithet of Hera ; of Dionysus (cf. Mor. 613 d, 994 a, 
and Life of Antony, chap. xxiv. 4 [926 a]) ; of the Roman 
Fortuna Obsequens (cf. Mor. 322 f) ; of Aphrodite (cf. Mor. 
370 d) ; of the Muses (Aratus, 17) ; and of Zeus (cf. Mor. 
1076 b). 

6 Epithet of Apollo (cf. Pausanias, i. 3. 4), Heracles (cf. 
Aristides, Or. 38 [vol. I, p. 730, ed. Dindorf]), Hermes (Aris- 
tophanes, Peace, 422), and of Zeus (cf. Mor. 1076 b). 

' Frag. 149 (ed. Snell), 158 (ed. Turyn) ; quoted also in 
Mor. 394 b, 413 c. 

Cf. Diogenes Laert. vi. 72, where Diogenes argues as 
follows : everything belongs to the gods ; the gods are 
friends of the wise ; the property of friends is in common ; 
therefore everything belongs to the wise. 

h R. M. Jones (The Platonism of Plutarch, p. 131) com- 
pares Plato, Republic, i, 352 b. 

121 



PLUTARCH'S M011ALIA 

(1103) eKKonrovras eavrcov rj&ovrjv /cat x a P^ v Too-avrrjv 
oarj Trdpeori 1 rols ovrco hiaKeipievois rrpos to Sat- 
\xoviov ; r) ra> 2 pbev 'Em/coupo* 3 /cat M.rjrp68a)po9 
koll YloXvaivos koI * ApiGrofiovXos ' eKddporjpba * 
kcli ' yrjOog ' rjoav, cbv rovs TrXeiorovs Oeparrevajv 
vooovvras r) Karadprjvcov dTToOvrjoKovras SiereXeue, 
AvKovpyos 8e vtto rr)s TLvdias TrpooayopevOels 

TjTjvI <j)i\os /cat Traoiv* 'OXvpLTna Sco/xar' eypvoi 

/cat YiOJKpdrrjs olopievos avra> hiaXeyeodai to Sat- 
fioviov 5 vtto evpuevelas /cat fltVoapos- olkovojv vtto 
rod llanos' aSeoOau tl pbeXos tov avros erTOLrjoe pue- 
B rpiojs* eyaipev; r) $>oppLLO)v rovs kiooKopovs r) tov 
^KokXtjitiov Ho^okXtjs ^evit.eiv avros 7 re 7T€l96[jl€VOS 
/cat rtov olXXojp ovrtos e^ovrajv Sta ttjv yevopbevrjv 
iiTi(j)dveiav ; a Se ^ppboyevrjs ecfypovei Trepl rtov 
decov d^iov ioTLv avrols oVo/xacrt ScapLvrjpLoveveLV 8 ' 
ovtoi yap/ (firjoLV, l ol iravra puev elSores iravra 
Se Swdpuevot Oeol ovtoj [jloi <f>LXoi elolv ojs 9 Sta to 

1 TrapeoTi Baxter : yap ion a g. 

2 rj rat Pohlenz (ypZv rj rep Wyttenbach) : rjfilv rrjs aA 1 (rjpuv. 

TOO A 2 E) ; Tj flTJVLS' rols g. 

3 €7TLKovpw a : eiriKovpos g. 4 ixaoiv a : ttoXiv g. 

5 btaXeyeoOai to oaifjLOVtov g : to oaipioviov oiaXiyzodai a. 

6 fieTpLcus a : pLerpicjv g. 7 avros a : avrovs g. 

8 oiap,v7]fxov€V€LV a : oiapwqpiovevoai g. 

9 cos a g : wore Xenophon. 

a Usener, Epicurea, pp. 92 f. 

6 Herodotus, i. 65 ; cf Oracular Responses 29 and 216 
(H. W. Parke and D. E. W. Wormell, The Delphic Oracle 
[Oxford, 1956], vol. ii, pp. 14 and 216). 

c Cf. Life ofNuma, chap. iv. 8 (62 c). 

d Cf Pausanias, iii. 16. 2-3 : " . . . Close by is a house in 
which they say the sons of Tyndareiis dwelt originally, while 

122 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1103 

punished when they extirpate from themselves so 
great a pleasure and delight as that of men who stand 
in this relation to the divine ? Or were Metrodorus 
and Polyaenus and Aristobulus a source of ' confi- 
dence ' and * joy ' to Epicurus a — most of whom he 
was constantly tending in illness or mourning in 
death — while Lycurgus, when called by the Pythia 

One dear to Zeus and all who dwell on high, b 

and Socrates, when he believed that Heaven was so 
propitious that it spoke to him, and Pindar, c when he 
heard that music of his own composition was sung by 
Pan, were only mildly pleased ? Or Phormio d who 
was host to the Dioscuri, or Sophocles e who was host 
to Asclepius, as he was convinced himself and the 
rest believed with him because of the epiphany that 
had occurred ? Hermogenes' f views about the gods 
deserve to be remembered in his very words. 

These gods [he says] who have all knowledge and all 
power are such friends to me that because of their care for 

some time later it was acquired by Phormio, a Spartan. The 
Dioscuri came to him in the likeness of strangers. They 
said they came from Cyrene and asked to be lodged at his 
house, requesting the room they liked best when they were 
among men. Phormio told them to take any other part of 
the house they pleased, but refused them the room that they 
requested, as he had a maiden daughter who lived in it. 
The next day the maiden and all her belongings had dis- 
appeared, and in the room were found statues of the Dioscuri 
and a table with silphium upon it." 

e Cf. Life of Numa, chap. iv. 9 (62 d) and the Etymologi- 
cum Magnum, s.v. AefiW : "... They say that after So- 
phocles' death the Athenians wished to show him honour 
and set up a hero's shrine for him, calling him Dexion, from 
his reception (dexis) of Asclepius ; for he had received the 
god in his own house and set up an altar to him." 

f Xenophon, Symposium, iv. 48. 

123 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1103) eTTipbeXelodal [jlov ovirore Xrjda) avrovs ovTe vvktos 
ovre 7]fjLepas orroL 1 av oppbajpiaL ovre 6 tl av pueXXoj 

7Tp(XTT€LV §KX 8e TO TTpoetSeVat KCl\ 6 TL i£ €KOLGTOV 2 

aTTofSiqoeTai orjpbalvovoL* irepmovTes dyyeXovs cfrrjpbas 
Kal evvirvia koX olcovovs.' 

23. " KaAa puev ovv elhcos elvai Kal ra yivopueva 

irapd tcov decov to 8e ylveodai 8id tcov Oecov tolvtcl 

auro 4 pieydXrjv rj8ovrjv iroiel kclI Oapoos afuq-^avov 

Kal (frpovrjfJLa Kal ^apav olov avyrjv 5 emyeX&oav 

toIs ayaOois. ol 8e aXXoJS k\ovTes ttjs puev evTV- 

X^CLS TO Tj8lOTOV KoXoVOVOL, 6 TOL? 8c SuOTt^iaiS* 0L7T0- 

OTpo(f>rjv ovk aTToXeiTTOVoiv y aXX els p,tav KaTa<f>vyr)v 
Kal Xtfieva irpaTTOVTes KaKcbs ttjv SidXvocv Kal ttjv 
dvaioOrjolav airofiXeiTOVoiv toorrep el tls ev ireXayei 
Kal yei\x6yvi Oappvvoov 1 emoTas Xeyoi 8 pbrjTe tlvol 
tt)v vavv eyeiv KvftepvrjTrjv pJyre tovs kiouKopovs 
avTOts 9 a(f)l£;eodai 

eTrepypp,ev6v re puaXd^ovTas fiiaTav 10 
D ttovtov d>Kelas re dvepbwv pnras, 

ov8ev Se ojjbojs elvai 8eivov aXX ooov ovSeiroj /cara- 
7To6rjoeodat ttjv vavv vtto tt\s OaXaTTrjs 11 r) ovvTpi- 
j3rjaea6ai ra^u irpos ireTpas 12 eKireoovoav . ovtos 13 
yap eoTLV 6 'Em /coupe to? Xoyos ev vooois heivals 
Kal ttovols vnepfiaXXovcnv' ' eXirl^eis 1 * tl x/^otov 

1 ottol a c : 07701* g a ac ; ovd' ottoi Xenophon. 

2 e£ eKaorov a and Xenophon : e/caorco g. 

3 orjfiatvovcri a : Kal arjfxaivovGi g ; arjpLaLvovai /xot Xenophon. 

4 avro Pohlenz : aura a g. 

5 avyrjv Baxter : avrrjv a ; g omits. 

6 koXovovgl g : kojXvovgl a. 

7 dappvvojv (dapvvcov g ac ) a g c : Oappvvwv Pohlenz. 

8 Xiyoi a : Ae'yei g. 

124 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1103 

me they never lose me from sight, night or day, wherever 
I go or whatever I set out to do ; and because they also 
know beforehand the outcome of every act, they give indi- 
cations of it, sending as their messengers prophetic utter- 
ances, dreams and omens. 

23. " Now it is to be presumed that what comes 
from the gods is excellent as well ; but its coming as 
a divine gift is itself a great source of pleasure and 
unbounded confidence and of a pride and joy that are 
like a gentle radiance illuminating the good. Those 
who do not experience this amputate the greatest 
pleasure of prosperity, while in misfortune they leave 
themselves no source of help. They can see but one 
haven of refuge in adversity, dissolution and the loss 
of all sensation. a It is as if someone in a storm at 
sea should come and reassure us by saying that the 
vessel has no helmsman, that no Dioscuri will come 
to save us 

To still the rude invasion of the seas 
And the swift hurtling of the winds b ; 

there is however no cause for alarm, since at any 
moment the ship will be engulfed by the sea or will 
soon be cast on the rocks and dashed to pieces. For 
this is the Epicurean c argument in perilous disease 
and excruciating pain : ' You hope for some kind 

a Frag. 500 (ed. Usener). 

6 D. Page, Poetae Melici Graeci, Frag. 998 (Adesp. 80) ; 
quoted also in Mor. 426 c. 
c Frag. 448 (ed. Usener). 

9 avrois g : clvtovs a, 
10 fSiaTav Bergk : jSiaiov a g ; jSta top Mor. 426 c. 

11 daXa.TT7]s a : OaXdaorjs g. 

12 7T€Tpas a : ras nerpas g. 
13 ovtos a g ac : ovtojs g c . 

14 eAmfeis a : eAm'^civ g. 

125 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1103) rrapa Oecov St' evoefieiav ; rervc/xjoaai' " to yap 
[ACLKapiov kclI acfrdaprov ovre opyals ovre ydpioi 
ovveyerai." fieXriov tl tcov iv ra> fSico /xera tov 
filov emvoels ; e^rjirdnqo ac ■ to yap StaXvdev 1 dvai- 
odrjrel, to Se dvatoOrjTovv ovSev TTpos rjfJL&s.' ' ttcos 
ovv, av6pa)TT€, </>ayeiv pue 2 Kal yaipeiv KeXevecs;' 
E ' otl vrj Ata ^etjLta^o/xeVa) to vavdyiov iyyvs 3 eoTiv 
11 6 ydp ttovos 6 vrreppdXAajv avvdifjei OavaTcp." M 
KaiToi vetos p<€V €K7T€od>v €7Tif$dTJ]s SiaXvdeLorjs C77 55 
iXTTtSos o^etTat twos d>S yfj Trpooe^ojv to ocopua 
Kal 6 Scavrj^opievos , ttjs Se tovto)v (f>iXooo(j>ias 

eKfiaoLS ov 7T7) </>aiVe#' 7 dXos ttoXloZo dvpa^e 

Trj ipvxfj, aAA' evOvs r](f)dvLGTai /cat SieoTrapTai Kal 
7TpoaTr6Xa)Xe s tov owpuaTos' tooTe VTrepxaipeiv to 
Travoo(f>ov tovto Soypua Kal 6elov TrapaXafiovoav , 
otl tov KaKcos TrpaTTeiv Trepas IotIv avTrj to airoXe- 
aOai Kal cf)9aprjvai Kal purjSev elvai. 

24. " 'AAAa yap," e(f>7] TTpos epue fiXei/jas, " evrj- 

ues eoTi Kai Trepi tovtov Aeyeiv rjpuas, gov Trpcorjv 

F aKrjKooTas LKavcos SiaXeyopuevov 11 TTpos tovs a^iovv- 

Tas tov 12 'KmKovpov Xoyov 13 tov 1 * UXaTa>vos Trepl 

ipvxfjs pdovas Kal r)8iovs TTpos OdvaTov rjpias ttol- 

1 oiaXvdzv g : Xvdev a. 

2 fie a : fiev g. 

3 iyyvs a : g omits. 

4 Oavdrco a : ddvarov g. 

5 eV g : a omits. 

6 /cat a : g omits. 

7 (fxuved* g : (jxuveod* a. 

8 77poa7ToAa>Ae a : aVdAcoAe g. 

9 Kal g : a omits. 

10 gov Meziriacus (te Ferronus, V Amyot) : ovag. 

126 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1103 

treatment from the gods for all your piety ? You are 
deluded ; " what is blessed and imperishable is prey 
neither to feelings of wrath nor of favour/' a You 
conceive of something after this life better than what 
you found in it ? You are deceived, " for what is dis- 
sipated has no sensation, and what has no sensation 
is nothing to us." ' b ' Then why, you knave, do you 
tell me to eat and rejoice ? ' * Why else but because 
for you, who are labouring in the storm, shipwreck is 
imminent, " for surpassing pain leads straight to 
i death/' ' c Yet a voyager cast away when his vessel 
breaks up is kept from sinking by some hope of get- 
ting his person to land and swimming safely through ; 
but in these men's d philosophy the soul 

Can find no egress from the hoary sea * 

since she is at once annihilated and scattered, perish- 
ing before the body. Consequently she is overjoyed 
at receiving this most sapient and godlike doctrine/ 
that the end of her troubles is to be destroyed and 
perish and be nothing. 

24. a As a matter of fact," he said, with a look at 
me, " it is foolish for us to include this point with the 
rest, since the other day we heard the able reply you 
gave to those who believe that Epicurus' theory of 
the soul makes us face death with greater composure 

° Cardinal Tenet i. 

b Cardinal Tenet ii. 

c Frag. 448 (ed. Usener). 

d Cf. Metrodorus, Frag. 38 (ed. Korte). 

• Homer, Od. v. 410 ; alluded to in Mor. 594 a. 

' Frag. 500 (ed. Usener). 

11 StaAcyo/LtcVou a : SiaAeyo/zeVous g. 

12 rov a : tcov g (sic), 13 Xoyov a : Xoywv g. 

14 rod g : rovs a. 

127 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1103) €LV.' n viroXaficDV ovv 2 6 Zj€v£ltt7tos, " etra ovtos" 
€cf)7] y " St' eKeivov aTeXrjs 6 Aoyos" eoraiy /cat <^oj8ry- 
Orjaofieda ravroXoyelv irpos 'Em'/coupo^ 3 Xzyovres;" 
" tJklgtcl," £<fyqv eyar 

" /cat Sis 4, yap 5 o Set kolXov eoriv aKovacu 

1104 kclt q 'E/xrreSo/cAe'a. irdXiv ovv 6 Qeojv tj/mv rrapa- 
kXt]t^o9' ov yap dpyov 7 otjitat Trapelvai rots tot€ 
Xexdeloiv, dXXa /cat veos cart 8 /cat ov Se'Ste purj 
Xr]6r)s evOvvas vnooxj) tols veois." 

25. Kat 6 Qecuv coairep eK^iaodeis y " dXX el 
So/cet ravra/' e<f>7], " rroielv, ov fJupLtjoopbai ere, a) 
• 'ApiOToSrjfjbe' ov p,ev ydp ecfroprjdrjs rd tovtov 
Xeyetv, eyeb Se xp^ao/zat rots' oois. 6p6tos ydp jjuoi 
Statpetv eSo^a? 9 els Tpta yevr] tovs dvOpwnovs, to 
tojv aSt/ccov /cat novqpcov, SevTepov Se to tcjv ttoX- 
Xcov /cat ISiojTiov, rpirov Se to tcov eVtet/ctoy /cat 
vovv eypvToav. 

" Ot /zev ow aSt/cot /cat 7rovrjpol ret? /ca#' "At- 
B Sou 10 St/cas* /cat TipLajpias SeStoTes* /cat (frofiovfMevoL 

1 7rpo? ddvarov rjfids iroielv a : ij/xas 7tol€lv irpos ddvarov g. 

2 ouv a : g omits. 

3 rat^roAoyciV 7r/)6? 'EmVoupov Wyttenbach : to Aoytov 7r/oos 
iiriKovpov a ; 7rpos iiriKovpov ro Xoyiov g. 

4 8i<r Schol. Plat. Gorg. 498 e : oel a ; 8^ g. 

5 yap Schol. Plat. 6ror#. 498 e : nap 9 a g. 

6 kclt g : Kara rov a. 

7 dpyo> nos : avrov a g (Pohlenz would add napipycos after 
olfjiai ; fxovov avrov Post). 

8 koX veos iorl a : Kevos ion g. 

9 After eoogas g breaks off in the middle of line 27 on 
folio 217 v (g has 36 lines a page). 

10 kolO' "Aioov Meziriacus : KadoXov a. 

128 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1103-1104 

and serenity than Plato's." a Here Zeuxippus spoke 
up : " What ! Is the present discussion to remain 
incomplete because of the other, and are we to be 
afraid to repeat ourselves in reply to Epicurus of all 
people ? " " By no means," I said ; " as Empedocles 6 
has it, 

Well may we hear the right word said again. 

We must therefore once more call upon Theon ; for 
I do not think he was an idle auditor of what was said 
on that occasion ; he is also young and need not fear 
that the young men c will take him to task for lapses 
of memory." 

25. To this Theon said, as though yielding to com- 
pulsion : "If it is settled then, I shall not imitate 
you, Aristodemus. For you were afraid d to repeat 
the arguments of our friend here, whereas I shall 
repeat yours. I thought your distinction of men into 
three classes e a good one — first evil-doers and the 
wicked, second the ordinary majority, and third the 
upright and intelligent. 

" Now evil-doers and the wicked, dreading judge- 
ment and punishment in the world to come, and from 

a This has been taken to refer to a lost work of Plutarch, 
such as those listed as No. 177 or 226 in the Catalogue of 
Lamprias. It is, however, unlikely that Plutarch would have 
repeated himself at such length in writing, and no known 
title of a lost work exactly fits the subject. He is probably 
publishing an earlier lecture as part of the present essay. 

b Diels and Kranz, Die Frag. d. Vorsokratiker, Empe- 
dokles, b 25 ; cf. also Plato, Gorgias, 498 e — 499 a and 
Philebus, 60 a. 

c Students of the school, who are now present and who 
attended the lecture spoken of. 

d Cf. 1103 e-f, supra. 

e Cf. 1102 d, supra, and 1130 c-d, infra. The division is 
found in Plato, Phaedo, 89 e — 90 a. 

vol. xiv F 129 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1104) KOLKOvpyelv /cat Std tovto piaXXov r\<jvyiav dyovres 
tJSlov fiiayoovTai /cat drapaKrorepov . ov yap 'Em- 
Kovpos dXXcp tlvl ttjs dot/cta? oterat Selv arreipyeiv 
r) <f>6fia) KoXdaecDv. 'oxjt€ /cat 7rpoo€fi(f)opr]T€ov 
e/cetVotS" 1 rrjs oetcrtoat/xovtas' /cat Kivqreov iir* avrovs 
dfjba rd i£ ovpavov /cat yrjs Selfiara /cat ^aa/xara 2 
/cat <f)6fiovs /cat vrrovoias €t jieXXovoiv eKTrXayevres 

V7TO TOVTOJV €TTl€l,K€(JT€pOV k'ytlV KOI 7TpaOT€pOV. 

XvoireXel yap avrols rd fierd rov ddvarov (fiofiov- 
fjbevois p>r} dSt/cetv fj dStKovaiv e7Tio(j>aXcx)S iv rep 
j8ta> 8idy€LV /cat Trepicjiofiajs . 

26. " Tot? Se ttoXXois* /cat dvev (f>6fiov Trepl rtov 
C iv "AtSou 4 7rapa 5 to fMvdcjSes rf rrjs dihiOTTjros 
iXmSi kclI 6 ttoQos rod elvai, iravraiv ipd)ra>v irpe- 
ofivraros a>v /cat pLeycaros, fjSovats VTrepftdXXei, /cat 
yXvKvdvpiiais 1 to 7ratS ikov €K€lvo Seos. fj 8 /cat 
re'/cva /cat ywat/ca 9 /cat cfylXovs aTrofidXXovTes elvai 
ttov [JbaXXov edeXovac /cat Sta/xeVetv KaKoiradovvras 
fj TTavrdrraaiv i^rjpfjodai /cat Ste^ddpdat, /cat yeyo- 
vivai to fJbrjSev rjSeajg 8e rcov ovopudrajv rod fieO- 
ioraodai rov dvrjOKOvra /cat pLeraXXdrreiv /cat 6'cra 
SrjXot fJLerapoXrjv dvra ttjs ipvx^j? ov <j>dopdv rov 
ddvarov aKpocovrai /cat Xeyovoiv ovtojs 

avrdp eyeb /cd/c€t#t (f)iXov p,ep,vr\oop? iraipov 

1 itcelvTjS a ac . 

2 ^acr/xara a : <£aa/xara Wyttenbach ; irXda^iara Post. 

3 7roAAotj a : ttoXKoIs Ikolvt) Pohlenz. 

4 /cat aVeu . . . "AiSou nos : /cat aVeu . . . dSov r) a. 

5 7rapa j3 : 7rcpt a. 

6 ij added by us. 

7 ^Sovats . . . yXvKvdvfilais Castiglioni : rjSovijs . . . yXvKv- 
dvixtas a. 

130 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1104 

that fear remaining more inactive, will enjoy for that 
reason a life of greater pleasure and less anxiety. 
For Epicurus a supposes that fear of punishment is 
the only motive to which we can properly appeal in 
deterring from crime. It follows that we should cram 
them even fuller of superstitious dread and bring to 
bear on them the joint array of celestial and terrestrial 
terrors and chasms b and alarms and apprehensions if 
they are to be shocked by all this into a state of greater 
honesty and restraint. For they are better off avoiding 
crime for fear of the next world than committing 
crimes and spending their lives in insecurity and 
apprehension. 

26. " The great majority, however, have an expec- 
tation of eternity undisturbed by any myth-inspired 
fear of what may come after death ; and the love of 
being, the oldest and greatest of all our passions, 
is more than a counterpoise for that childish terror. 
Indeed when men have lost children, a wife, or friends, 
they would rather have them exist somewhere in 
hardship and survive than be utterly taken away and 
destroyed and reduced to nothing ; and they like to 
hear such expressions used of the dying as ' he is 
leaving us ' or ' going to dwell elsewhere ' and all that 
represent the soul as changing c but not perishing in 
death, and they talk like this : 

Nay even there I shall remember him d 

° Frag. 534 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Cardinal Tenets xvii, xxxiv, 
xxxv. 

6 Cf. Colotes' attack on the myth in the Republic trans- 
lated pp. 178 f., infra. c Cf. Plato, Apology, 40 c. 
d Homer, //. xxii. 390. Achilles says of Patroclus : 
And if in Hades men forget the dead 
Nay even there I shall remember him. 

8 $ fi 2 '• 1 a ' 9 yvvouKa a : yvvaiKas Baxter. 

131 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1104) /cat 

D TL GOl TTpOS "E/CTOo' Tj ylpOVT €LTTO) TTOGIV ,* 

e/c Se tovtov TraparpoTrrfs yevojJLevrjs Kal orrXa /cat 
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MtVojs ra> TXavKco 

Kpr[TiKovs avAovs OavovTi 1 KtoXa ttolklAtjs ve- 
fipov 

OVv9aiTTOVT€S TjOLOV €^0i>(7t. KCLV TL So^WOLV OLTZLV 

Kal TTodelv €K€lvovs, yjaipovoLV imSioovres, 2 tooirep 
6 Ylepiavopos rfj yvvaiKi tov kogjjlov ws Seopuevr] 
Kal piyovv Aeyovar) ovyKaT€Kavoev. ol Se AlaKol 
Kal 5 Acr/caAa<£ot Kal 'A^epovres 1 ov rravv oiarapar- 
tovglv, ol? ye Kal %opovs Kal Oearpa Kal puovoav 
E TravTooarrrjV dis rjSofJLevot oeowKaGiv. 3 aAA' €K€lvo 
tov davdrov to TTpoowrrov ojs (frofiepov Kal oKv9pa>- 
rrov Kal GKoreivov arravres VTroSetpbalvovGi, to rfjs 
avaioOrjoLas Kal Arjdrjs Kal ayvoias* Kal 77009 to 
arroAojAe /cat to avfjprjTat /cat to ovk €Otl 

1 Oavovri Reiske (Oavovoi Rasmus) : davovorjs a. 

2 iirihovres a ac . 

3 TTavTohaTrrjv (Ls rjb6fi€voi SeSco/cacny nos : 7jhofji€VOLS iravro- 
ha7TT]v yevofxevov ScSaj/cacriv a ; rjbovfjs 7ravTo8a7rr}s yefiovaav 8e- 
hcoKacriv Meziriacus ; rjdovrjs TravrohaTrrjs yevireipav a7ro8e8aj- 
Kaaiv ? Pohlenz ; ojs av rjho/jidvoLS TravTohaTT7)v yevofxevov tovtov 
bebcoKaotv Post. 

4 to avrjprjTai A 2 E : To\vr\pr\Tai a (r- possibly an after- 
thought^ 1 . 

132 






A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1104 

and 

What word from you to Hector shall I bring, 
Or to your aged husband ? a 

Then a false turn is taken, and people feel easier 
when they bury with the dead the arms and property 
and clothes with which they were familiar, as Minos 
buried with Glaucus 

The Cretan flutes, 
Bones of the dappled fawn. b 

And if they imagine that the dead are asking them 
for something that they miss, they gladly give it, as 
Periander burnt all the finery for his dead wife in the 
belief that she desired it and complained of being 
cold. c The figures of Aeacus d and Ascalaphus e and 
Acheron / can hardly be said to terrify them greatly, 
since to these they have given the honour of choruses 
and presentation in theatres and of elaborate music, ^ 
taking pleasure, it would seem, in the giving. No ; 
the countenance worn by death that dismays all men 
as fearful, grim, and dark, is insensibility, oblivion, 
and knowing nothing. Such expressions as ' he is 
lost ' and ' he has perished ' and ' he is no more ' 

a Euripides, Hecuba, 4*22. Polyxena, about to be led off 
and sacrificed, speaks to her mother Hecuba. 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adesp. 419. 

c Herodotus, v. 92rj. 2-3. 

d Grandfather of Ajax and Acnilles ; after death a judge 
of the dead. 

e Son of Acheron ; punished for betraying Persephone's 
eating of the pomegranate seeds (cf. Ovid, Metamorphoses, v. 
534-550 and Apollodorus, Bibl. i. 5. 3 with Frazer's note in 
the L.C.L.). 

f Eponym of the infernal river. 

9 Perhaps Plutarch is thinking of a dithyramb telling the 
story of Persephone : cf. Melanippides, Frag. 3 (D. Page, 
Poetae Melici Graeci, No. 759). 

133 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1104) rapdooovrai /cat hvaavaG^erovai tovtojv Aeyo- 
fievcov 

to €7T€ira /cetcreTat 1 fiaOvSevSpto 

€V X® OVL VVfJL7TO(Jia)V T€ KCLI X.Vpdv CLfJLOipOS 

la*%as re Travrepireos avXihv 



dvSpos Se fax'*] ttoWlv iXOelv oiire Xe'Carrj 

ovd' eXerrj, eVet dp Kev dju-et'^erat epKos oSovrcov. 

(27.) TjV 2 KCLL 7rpOG€7TLOcj>drTOVOLV 3 Ol TOLVTL XeyOVT€S 

dirat; dvdpamoi yeyovafxev, 8ls Se ovk eon yeve- 
adat' Set Se tov alcova pbr)K€T etrat.' 4 /cat yap to 
F rrapov d)S \LiKpov, puaXXov Se jLtryS' otlovv 7rpos to 
ovpmav h aTifJLdaavTes* avairoXavoTOV 1 irpotevTai, /cat 
oXiyajpovoLV dp€Trjs /cat Trpd^ecos olov i^aOvpbovvTes 
/cat KCLTac/ypovovvTes iavTtov &>s l^>y]\iipoyv /cat dfie- 
1105 ftalojv /cat 7rpo9 ovOev d£c6Xoyov yeyovoTOJV. to 
yap ' dvaiodrjTelv to ScaXvOev 8 /cat p/rjSev 9 etvai 
Trpos rjfJL&s to dvaioOrjTovv ' ovk avaipel to tov 
OavaTov Seos aAA' cooirep arrohei^iv avTod TrpooTL- 
Orjoiv. avTO yap tovto €otlv o Se'Scn/cev rj envois* 

dXX vp,els p,ev irdvTes xiSojp /cat yata yevoiode — 

ttjv els to fjurj <f>povovv p,r)8e alo9av6p,€vov hidXvoiv 

1 TO €7T€LTa K€lG€TCLl PohlenZ (d)S TO, €7T€LTCL KCLGCTOLl Dtibner) ! 

to €7TLraK^cr€raL a. 

2 r)v Pohlenz (fj Baxter) : rj a. 

3 TTpoo€TTio<f>aTTovoiv a : Trpo^mo^drrovoiv Pohlenz ; irpoohia.- 
<jTp€<f>ovcriv ? Westman. 4 chat, Baxter : Uvai a. 

5 avfjunav Xylander : av[nravra a. 

6 aTLfjL<i(javT€s Cobet : ariixf)oavr^s a. 

7 avoLTToXavorov Wyttenbach : avarroXavora a. 

134 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1104-1105 

disturb them and these lines when quoted fill them 
with uneasiness : 

Henceforth shall he lie 
In the deep roots of earth, and know no more 
Of banquets or the lyre or the sweet cry 
Of flutes a 



and 



No raid or capture can bring back the life 
Once it has passed the barrier of the teeth b 



(27.) a life that is actually dealt the finishing blow by 
those c who say : ' We men are born once ; there is no 
second time ; we must forever be no more.' Indeed by 
discounting the present moment as a minute fraction, 
or rather as nothing at all, in comparison with all 
time, men let it pass fruitlessly. They think poorly 
of virtue and manly action ; they lose heart, you 
might say, and despise themselves as creatures of a 
day, impermanent, and born for no high end. For 
the doctrine d that * what is dissipated has no sensa- 
tion, and what has no sensation is nothing to us ' does 
not remove the terror of death, but rather confirms it 
by adding what amounts to a proof. For this is the 
very thing our nature dreads : 

May all of you be turned to earth and water — e 

the dissolution of the soul into what has neither 

° D. Page, Poetae Melici Graeci, Frag. 1009 (Adesp. 91). 

b Homer, II. ix. 408-409. 

c Frag. 204 (ed. Usener) and Gnom. Vat. 14 ; cf. 1106 f, 
infra. 

d Frag. 500 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Cardinal Tenet ii, quoted at 
1103 d, supra. 

e Homer, II. vii. 99. 

8 avaiodr)T€iv to biaXvdcv Usener (avaiadrjTeiv to Xvdkv Gata- 
ker) : avaiodiqrov koX \vdkv a. 9 /u/^Sev a 2 AE : firjdev a 1 . 

135 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1105) rrjs ifwxfjs, fjV 'J&TTtKovpos els Kevov Kal dropuovs 

8iaU7TOpaV 7TOLOJV €TL pbdXXoV eKKOTTTei T7]V cAm'So, 

rrjs a(f)6apaias, oV rjv oXiyov 8ea> Xeyeiv irdvras 
etvat KoX Traoas irpoOvpbovs ra> KeojSepa) StaSaKve- 
odai Kal (f)opelv els rov rprjrov, 1 077009 ev rep elvai 
B puovov SiapbevcoGL /zrySe dvacpeddxji. kclitoi ravra 
piev, tooirep e<f>r)v, ov rrdvv ttoXXoI hehiaai y pbrjrepwv 
bvra Kal titOcov Soypbara Kal Xoyovs pivOwSeis, oi 
Se Kal SeScores reXerds rivas av rrdXiv Kal Kadap- 
puovs oiovrai /3orj9eLV, ots dyviodp.evoi SiareXeiv ev 
"AlSov irait^ovres Kal xopevovTes ev tottols 2 avyrjv 
Kac TTvevpba Kadapov Kal <f)d6yyov e'xovaiv. rj 8e 
rov tfiv areprjais evoyXel Kal veovs Kal yepovras' 

Svcreptores yap (fracvopLed' ovres 
rovSe* 6 rt tovto* oriXfiei koto, yrjv 

ws JLvpLTTiSrjs (f)7]GLV ovSe paSlaJS ovSe dXvnaJS 
aKovopbev 

cos dpa elnovra pav riqXavyes dp,fSpooiov 

eXaGLTTTTOV 7TpOGa)7TOV 5 

direXiTrev dpiepas. 

1 rp-qrov Rasmus {rprjrov ttLOov Reiske) : arprjTov a. 

2 tottols Wyttenbach : rots' a. 

3 rovbe a 2 : rod Se a. 4 rovro Euripides : robe a. 

5 TTpoocDTTov Wyttenbach : npos tottov a. 

a Cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. 9 vol. i, p. 33 
(Zenobius, Cent, ii. 6) and vol. ii, p. 154 (Macarius, Cent. iii. 
16). The Danaids in Hades draw water in broken vessels 
and carry it to a leaky jar. 

b 1104 b-c, supra. 

c Cf. Cicero, Tusc. Disput. i. 21 (48) and Be Nat. Deor. ii. 
2(5). 

d Cf. Plato, Republic, ii, 364 b— 365 a, 366 a-b. 

136 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1105 

thought nor feeling ; and Epicurus, by making the 
dissolution a scattering into emptiness and atoms, 
does still more to root out our hope of preservation, 
a hope for which (I had almost said) all men and all 
women are ready to match their teeth against the 
fangs of Cerberus and carry water to the leaky urn,° 
if only they may still continue to be and not be blotted 
out. Yet such tales as these, as I said, & are not feared 
by very many, being the doctrine and fabulous argu- 
ment of mothers and nurses c ; and even those who 
fear them hold that there is an answering remedy in 
certain mystic ceremonies and rituals of purification,** 
and that when cleansed by these they will pass their 
time in the other world in play and choral dancing in 
regions where there is radiance and a sweet breeze and 
a sound of voices. 6 Whereas privation of life is a 
gnawing thought to young as well as old : 

Smit with a painful love are we of this 

We know not what, this brightness here on earth 

as Euripides f says ; and it is not calmly or without 
a pang that we give ear to this : 

Thus spoke he ; and the radiant face 
Ambrosial of the charioting day- 
Departed from him. flr 

e Cf. a fragment of Plutarch On the Soul (vol. vii, p. 23. 
7-14 Bern.). The experience of death is like initiation into a 
great mystery. "At first we wander and run about labori- 
ously and make certain journeys in the dark that are dis- 
quieting and lead nowhere ; then before the actual consum- 
mation come all the terrors — we shiver and tremble and sweat 
and are thunderstruck ; but then a marvellous light meets us 
and pure regions and meadows with voices and dances and 
all the majesty of sacred recitals and holy visions ; . . . " 

f Hippolytus, 193-194. 

3 Page, Poetae Melici Graeci, Frag. 1010 (Adesp. 92). 

137 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1105) 

q (28.) 8lo rf\ 86£r) rfjs ddavaoias ovvavaipovoi rot? 
rjSlcFTas iXrrlSas kcll LieyLoTas tcov rroXXcov. 

Ti Sfjra 1 tcov dyadwv olopieda kcll fieftLcoKOTCov 

OOLCOS KCLL OIKCLICOS, OL KCLKOV fJL€V OVU€V €K€L, T(X 06 

KaXXtara kcll deLorara rrpooSoKcooL; rrpcoTov Liev 
yap, cos 3 a^A^rai are^avov ovk dycovL^oLievoL* Xap,- 

fiaVOVOLV dXXd dyCOVLGOLLieVOL KCLL VLKTIOCLVTeS , OVTCOS 5 

rjyovLievoL tols dyadols rd VLKrjrrjpLa rod JSlov 
fJL€rd tov jStov virdpyeiv davpidoLov olov <j>povovoL 
rfj dperfj rrpos eKelvas rd? eArn'Scis" iv ats ecrrt Kal 
tovs vvv vfiplt^ovTas vtto ttXovtov Kal Swdfiecos 
Kal KarayeXtJJvras dvorjTcos rcov KpeLTTovcov err- 
D Lhe.lv d^iav Slktjv rivovras. eVetra rrjs dXrjdelas 
Kal 6eas rod ovtos ovSels evravda tcov ipcovTcov 6 
iveTrXrjaev iavrov LKavcos, olov 8t' ofJLLxXrjs r) vecf)0vs 
rod awLiaros vypco Kal raparroLieva) rco XoyLOLico 
XpcoLievos, dAA' opvL0os Slktjv dvco fiXeTrovres cos 
eKTrrrjooLievoL rod owiiaros els (liya tl Kal Xapu- 
7Tpov y evoraXrj Kal eXo^pdv ttolovol ttjv ifjvxrjv drro 

TCOV dvTJTCOV, TO) (f)LXoOO(f)€LV LLeXeTT] )(pa)Ll€VOL TOV 

d7TodvrjOK€LV, ovtcos pueya tl Kal TeXeov ovtcos dya- 

dov rjyovLievoL 7 ttjv TeXevTrjv, cos fiiov dXrjdfj j3lco- 

aoLievrjv €K€L ttjv \\)vyr\v ', ovx V7rap s vvv 9 t^cooav, 

E aAA' oveipauLV opLOLa Trdoypvoav . €6 tolvvv ' r)Sv 

1 Srjra a : Se to, Kronenberg. 

2 ot added by Baxter (qui Ferronus). 

3 (Ls added by Pohlenz ; woirtp or Ka9a7T€p Castiglioni ; 
tocmep ol ? Westman. 

4 dycovi^ofxevoi Reiske : dycovi^o/jLevoL ov a. 

5 ovtcos a : /cat ovtcos Westman. 

6 ipcovTcov a 2 AE : ipcoTcov a 1 . 

7 r}yovfi€voi nos : yyovpicu a (rjyovvrai /3 2ss ). 

8 virap AE : tfrrap a. 

9 vvv A 288 E : aA 1 omit. 

138 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1105 

(28.) Hence in abolishing belief in immortality they 
also abolish the pleasantest and greatest hopes of 
ordinary men. 

" What then do we suppose they do to the pleasures 
of the good, whose lives have been just and holy, who 
look forward to nothing evil in that other world but 
instead to all that is most glorious and divine ? For 
in the first place, just as athletes receive the crown not 
while they are engaged in the contest a but when it is 
over and victory is won, so men who believe that 
the awards for victory in life await the good when 
life is done are inspired by their virtue to a most 
wonderful confidence b when they fix their eyes on 
these hopes, which include that of seeing at last the 
condign punishment of those who in their wealth and 
power are injurious and insolent now and who in 
their folly laugh all higher powers to scorn. In the 
next place no one impassioned for the truth and the 
vision of reality has ever been fully satisfied in this 
world, since the light of reason, veiled by the body 
as by a mist or cloud, is wavering and indistinct ; but 
like a bird c that gazes upward, they are ready to 
take wing from the body to some luminous expanse, 
and thus they lighten and disburden the soul of the 
gear of mortality, taking philosophy as an exercise 
in deaths They regard death as so great and so 
truly perfect a blessing since they hold that in that 
other world the soul will live a real life, whereas now 
it is not fully awake but is living instead in a kind of 
dream. If then ' the memory of a dead friend is 

a Cf. Mor. 561 a. 

6 Cf. Plato and Pindar in Republic, i, 331 a. 
c Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 249 d 7 and the Seventh Letter, 
348 a 1. 

d Plato, Phaedo, 64 a 4-6, 67 d 7-10, e 4-5, 80 e 5—81 a 2. 

139 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1105) rravraxodev rj cf)iXov fjbvrjfjbrj redvrjKOTog/ tocnrep 

'JLlTlKOVpOS €L7T€, KOLL 7]8r) VO€LV 7T0Lp€OTLV rjXiKTjS 

iavrovs x a pQ-S aTroorepovoi, ^aoyxara [lev 1 /cat 
etocoAa TedvrjKOTOJV iraiptov olopLevoi Se^ecr&H /cat 
Orjpeveiv, 2 ols oiire vovs iariv oxire aiodrjots, avrols 
Se ovveoeod at ttoXiv aX-qdcos, /cat rov <j>iXov irarepa 
/cat rrjv (friXrjv pjr)r£pa /cat ttov yvvaiKa XP 7 ] GT V V 
oifjeodai jXTj irpooooKcovTes, p,rj8e exovres iXrrlSa rrjs 
ojiiXias €K€lvy]s /cat cf)iXo(f)poovvr)s , r\v k'xovoiv °^ T( * 
aura TlvOayopa /cat nAdVam /cat 'Ofjurjpu) ire pi ifjv- 
F xys So^d^ovres. c5 Se ojjlolov eortv avr&v to rrddos 
"OjJLTjpos VTroSeSrjXajKev , elSojXov rod Alveiov koltcl- 
fiaXcov ets* pL€oov rols /xa^ojLteVots" ws reOvrjKorog, 
elra vorepov avrov eKelvov dvaSeu^as 

£a>dv re 3 /cat aprejiea Trpooiovra 
/cat jjuevos eodXov exovra 

rot? c/)lXols' 

ol Se exdprjcrav 

(f>rjGi, /cat to et'SojAoy fxeOepievoL rrepieoxov avrov, 4 

1106 ovkovv /cat ^/xet? rou Aoyou oet/cyuovro? oj? €or«> 

ivrvx^lv 5 aXrjdajs rolg redvetboi /cat ra) cftpovovvri 

/cat 6 (f)iXovvri rod <f>povovvros avrov /cat c^lXovvtos 

1 /u.ei> added by Reiske. 

2 Orjpeveiv a : decopelv Sandbach ; TrjpeTv ? Pohlenz. 

3 re Homer : a omits. 

4 pLeOepbevot nepteaxov avrov Meziriacus : OepLevot, Trap£x ov 
(-iaxov \i ; -et^ov ac) iavrov a. 

140 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1105-1106 

pleasant on every count ' as Epicurus a said, we need 
no more to make us see the great delight that they 
renounce when they suppose that they can receive and 
capture the apparitions and likenesses b of dead com- 
panions — images that have neither mind nor feeling 
— but do not think they will meet once more those 
friends themselves, or ever again see a dear father or 
dear mother or perhaps a gentle wife, and have not 
even the hope of such company and welcome that 
they possess who share the views of Pythagoras c 
and Plato d and Homer e about the soul. There is a 
hint in Homer of the case in which they find them- 
selves. He places on the ground between the contend- 
ing armies a likeness of Aeneas, lying there as if dead/ 
only to present the real Aeneas later as 

Drawing near alive and sound of limb 
And breathing valour 9 

as he joins his friends. They were filled with joy, 71 he 
says, and let go the likeness to gather round the man 
himself. Then let us too, when reason shows that we 
can truly meet the dead and with the part of us that 
thinks and loves embrace and join the very part of 
man that thinks and loves, refuse to imitate those 

° Frag. 213 (ed. Usener). 

b That is, the films : cf. Lucretius, iv. 722-161. 

c The doctrine of metempsychosis involves the survival of 
the soul. 

d Cf. for instance Phaedo, 68 a, 106 e 9—107 a 1. 

e Thus Achilles sees the soul of Patroclus (II. xxiii. 65-107) 
and Odysseus that of his mother (Od. xi. 152-224). 

/ II. v. 449-453. 

' II. v. 515-516. 

* //. v. 514. 

6 ivTvxelv Basle edition of 1542 : evrvxelv a. 
6 (j>povovvTi /cat added by Bern. 

141 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1106) aifjaoOai kcll ovyyeveoOai, . . } pur) Svvapudvovs 
fjurjSe aTTOpplipai ra elScoXa rrdvra kcu rovs cj)Xoiovs, 2 

€(f) i3 OLS 6Svp6pb€VOL KCLL K€VOTTadoVVT€S* SiartXoVOLV. 

29. " "Avev Se rovrcov, 5 ol fiev irepov fiLov rov 
ddvarov apxty Kpeirrovos vopul^ovres, edv re ev 
ayadols cool pbdXXov rjSovrcu puei^ova rrpoaSoKcovres' 
dv re jJLT] Kara yvcopurjv rcov evravda rvy^dvcooiv ov 
rrdvv hvoxepaivovoiv , dXX at rcov puerd rov ddvarov 

B dyadcov Kal koXcov eXrrihes apbrj^dvovs rjSovas Kal 
rrpoohoKias e^ovoai irav puev eXXeipipua nav Se rrpoa- 
Kpovofia rrjs ifjvxfjs e£aXelcf)ovoL Kal a^avit.ovaiv 
coorrep iv oSa>, puaXXov Se 6Sov TraparpoTrfj jSpa^eta, 
paSlcos ra ovvrvyydvovra Kal pier picas cfrepovorjs. 
ols Se o filos els dvatoOrjaiav rrepaivei Kal SidXvaiv, 6 
rovrois 6 ddvaros rcov ayaOcov 1 ov rcov KaKcov 
puerapoXrjv iirufrepcov, dpu(f)orepoLS /xeV eon Xvrrrjpos, 
fiaXXov Se 8 rots evrvypvoiv rj rols eTTirrovcos t,coai- 
rovrcov puev yap 9 ajTOKonrei rrjv dSrjXov eAm'Sa rov 
rrpd^eiv dpueivov, eKeivcov Se fiefiaLOV dyadov, ro 
rjSecos t,rjv, a<j>aipelrai. Kal KaOdrrep ot/xcu ra purj 

C XP 7 ? " 7 "^ Ta ^ v <f>app<dKCOv dXXd dvayKaia, 10 Kov^i^ovra 
rovs vooovvras ernrpi^ei Kal Xvpualverac rovs vyiai- 

1 Here Ferronus supposes a lacuna. Bern, supplies ^at- 
petv iajjxev tovs tovto ovixfiaXiod at, Kronenberg fjur) fjufiajfieOa 
tovs fjLcdearOat, Pohlenz (tentatively) TooavTrjv iXiriSa fxrj d<f>oofi€v 
Std tovs tov ovtos olvt€X€ct9ch, 9 Post 7T€id6fjL€da (or viraKovofiev) 
iiovTts x a ^P €LV tovs fxedeoOai. 

2 <f>Xoiovs aA 1 : j>Oovs A 2 E jS 2 . 

3 i<f> y Wyttenbach : ev a. 

4 K€vo7TadovvT€s Pohlenz : KaivoiradovvTes a. 

5 tovtoov Benseler : tovtov a. 

6 hidXvoiv Reiske (dissolutione Ferronus) : StaAu'et a. 

7 tcov dyaOoov supplied by us ; Wyttenbach supplies dAAd /cat 
(Pohlenz drops /cat) tcov dyadcov oVo/foA^y after fieTafioXrjv. 

142 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1106 

who are unable to let go a or cast aside all ' likenesses ' 
whatever and the mere ' husks ' b over which they 
keep up a lamentation wherein they take appearance 
for reality. 

29. " Quite apart from this, those who consider 
death the beginning of a new and better life, get 
greater pleasure in the midst of blessings as they 
expect still greater ones, or if they do not obtain the 
portion of blessings in this world that they could wish 
are not overmuch embittered. Rather, their hopes 
for a fullness of blessing and felicity after death bring 
with them wonderful pleasures and expectations, 
and erase and obliterate every deficiency and every 
rebuff from the mind, which as if on a road, or rather 
a short byway, accepts easily and calmly the chances 
of the journey. To those c on the other hand who 
hold that life comes in the end to insentience and 
dissolution, death is painful whatever one's fortune, 
since it brings a change from good, not from evil. It 
is more painful, however, to the fortunate than to 
those whose lives are hard ; for it debars the wretched 
from the uncertain hope of better times, while it 
robs the fortunate of a solid asset, his pleasant life. 
The case, I think, is like that of medicines that are 
not positively good, but are used under compulsion : 
though they relieve the sick, they bring misery and 

The text is corrupt. The words " refuse to imitate " and 
" to let go " translate conjectural supplements. 

b All " likenesses," whether Homeric or Epicurean. 
" Likeness " (eidolon) is the Epicurean term for " film " ; 
for " husk " cf. cortex (" bark ") in Lucretius, iv. 51. 

c Frag. 500 (ed. Usener). 

8 Se Bo- 2 : a omits. 

^ • yap E 2m ? a 2 : a omits. 

10 dAAa avayKala] Hartman would delete. 

143 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1106) VOVTCLS, OVTOJS 6 ^TTLKOVpOV X6yOS ToZs [JL€V aOAlOJS 

l^loglv ovk €VTV)(f) rod kclkcos rrpaGGetv 1 reXevrrjv 
irrayyeXXeraL rrjv avaipeoiv kcll oidXvGiv 2 rrjs ifjvxfjs, 
tlov Se (fypovLfJiajv kcll gcS(J>cov kcll fipvovTtov dyadoZs 
ttclvtclttclgl KoXovet 3 to evOvpuov, £k tov tfqv /xa/ca- 
piojs €ts to /jltj c^rjv fJbrjSe elvai KCLTaoTpecfrcov. 4 ' 
avTodev fxev ovv 5 ion SfjXov tbs dyaOcov oltto^oXtj^ 
eirivoia XvrreZv* rrefyvKev ogov eXirihes fieftouoL kcll 
aTToXavaeis evcf)paivovGL rrapovTcov. (30.) ov (jltjv 
D dAAa kcll XeyovGLV clvtoZs 1 kclklov diravGTCov koj? 
dopiorcov XvOelaav v7toi/jlclv dyadov ftefiouoraTov 
kcll tJSlotov aTToXnrelv rrjv Ittlvoiclv tov XeXvodcLL* - 

KCLL TOVTO 7TOL6LV TOP ' E 77 tKOUyOOU X6yOV , LGTCLVTCL 
TOV 0CLVCLTOV TO SeOS €V T7] 8iaXvCT€L TTjS fox^S . 
€L7T€p OVV 7]8iGTOV €GTLV CLTTaXXayr) TTpOGOOKLCLS KCL- 

klov drreipcoVy ttcos ovk dvLdpov alcovicov dyaOcov 
€Xttl8os 10 GTepelaOai kclI ttjv aKpoTaTTjV evScLLjJLovLav 
aTrofSaXeZv ; dyadov fxev yap ovSe eTepois, dXXd 

TTOLGL TOZS OVGL TO JJL7] flvCLl TTCLpd (f)VGLV KCLL dXX6- 
TpLOV COV Se d(/)CLlp€Z TCL TOV fiLoV KCLKCL TCp TOV 
dcLVaTOV KCLKLpy TO dvCLLGdrjTOV e^OVGl TTCLpCLpivdlOV 

toGTrep dirohibpaGKovTes, 11 kclL tovvclvtlov, ols ££ 
E dyaOcov els to jJL7)8ev fjLeTaftoXrj , (po^epcoTaTov 

1 rod kolkws irpdaoeiv Pohlenz (/xev, tov Se kclkojs 7rpdao€iv 
oyaos Reiske) : toZs Se kolk&s TTpdooovoi a. 

2 avaipeoiv koi oiaXvoiv a : SidXvoiv /cat avaipemv X s (and SO 
Bern, and Pohlenz). 

3 KoXovei Wyttenbach : KooXvei a. 

4 KaraoTp€(f>a)v Usener : KaraoTpi^ov a. 

5 ovv j8 2 : a omits. 

6 Xvneiv a : togovtov Xvneiv ? Reiske. 

7 avTots Stephanus : avTois a (avToi Reiske). 

8 koi Leonicus and Donatus Polus : a omits. 

144 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1106 

injury to the healthy. So the doctrine of Epicurus a 
promises the wretch no very happy relief from ad- 
versity, the extinction and dissolution of his soul ; 
but from the prudent and wise and those who abound 
in all good things it quite eradicates all cheer by 
altering their condition from blissful living to not 
living or being at all. Now it is at once evident that 
the thought of losing good things is naturally painful 
to the same degree as the assured prospect or present 
enjoyment of them brings delight. (30.) Nevertheless 
they & assert that when the foreboding of incessant 
evils to which no period is appointed is dispelled they 
are left with a benefit that is in the highest degree 
assured and pleasant, the thought of release ; and 
that this is done by Epicurus' doctrine when it termi- 
nates the fear of death with the dissolution of the soul. 
If then relief from expecting infinite woe is highly 
pleasant, how can it not be painful to be deprived of 
hope of everlasting weal and to lose a felicity beyond 
compare ? For not to be is a boon to neither class of 
men; it is unnatural and inimical to every thing that is. c 
Those from whom it takes the miseries of life by the 
misery of death can find comfort, like runaways, in 
eluding all sensation ; whereas those on the contrary 
who pass from prosperity to nothing, see before them 
a most appalling issue, a point at which their present 

° Frag. 500 (ed. Usener). 

b Frag. 501 (ed. Usener) ; Metrodorus, Frag. 38 (ed. 
Korte). 

c Cf. Cicero, De Finibus, v. 11 (31) : " ab interitu naturam 
abhorrere." 

9 XcXvddaL a : XeXvaeadai van Herwerden. 

10 eArn'Sos Meziriacus : eAmSa a. 

11 aTTohiBpaoKovTes Baxter (subterfugissent Xylander) : diro- 
hihpaoKovra a. 

145 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1106) optooi reXos, 1 ev a> uavoeTai to fiaKaptov. ov yap 
<bs OLpXV v eTepov 2 rfv dvaioOrjotav hehiev rj envois, 
aAA' on tljv irapovTOJV dyadcbv areprjacs eoTi. to 
yap ' ov 77/30? rjpLas ' rravTos dvaipeoei rod rjpberepov 
ytvo/JLevov rjSrj rrpos rj/JL&s ion rfj eTrcvola, Kal to 
avaio6r)TOV ov Xvrrel rore tovs purj ovras, dXXd 
tovs ovras, els to (jltj elvai ftaTrTopLevovs 3 vtt* avrov 
Kal fjLTjSafJLOjg eKhvoopievovs .* odev ov8e 6 KepjSe- 
pos ov8e 6 Kojkvtos aopiorov eixoiqoe rod davdrov 
to 8eos, dXXd rj rod p,rj ovtos aTrecXr), pberajSoXrjv 5 
F els to etvai udXiv ovk e^ovoa rots <f)6ape2oi' ' his ' 
yap 'ovk eon yeveodai, Set Se tov alcjva fir) el- 
vat ' Kar 'JLrriKovpov. el yap eon to irepas to* 
ixrj elvai, tovto he duepavTov Kal d\ieTaoTaTOV , 
evprjTai KaKov aldjviov rj tcov dyadcov OTeprjois 
dvaioOrjOia paqheTTOTe Travoopbevrj . 7 Kal oo<j)OJTepos 
'HpoSoTOS" elrroov d)S ' 6 Beds yXvKVv yevoas tov 
1107 alcova <f)6ovepos ev avTco tov (/>atVeTcu/ 8 /cat pidXiOTa 
tols evSaipLovelv Sokovglv, ots SeXedp eoTi Xvtttjs 
to rj8v, yevofxevois &v OTeprjoovTai. Tiva yap 
ev(f)poovvr)v fj dnoXavGLV Kal PpvaojJbdv ovk av e/c- 
Kpovoeie Kal KaTaiyLoeiev* e/JL7TL7TTOvoa ovvex&s rj 
entvoLa 10 ttjs ifjvx^S cboirep els rreXayos dxaves to 

1 optoaiv reXos Wyttenbach (opcbaiv [or ovvopajaiv] iavrols 
reAo? Reiske) : 6pa> eVrcAcs* a. 

2 erepov a : irepov kolkov Reiske. 

3 pa7TTOjjL€vovs Xylander : ^Xairro^ivovs a. 

4 fX7]hapLcos eK^vGOjiivovs Pohlenz (firjiroj iKovoofidvovs Diib- 
ner) : fjdfi* cos hvoop,evovs a. 

5 fi€Tal3o\r)v Aid. 2 and Meziriacus : nerapaXelv a. 

6 to ire pas toj (toj from to a c ) a ac : iripas ra> elvai to Wytten- 
bach. 

7 avaioOyjola . . . Travoofievr) Emperius : avaio6r]oiav . . . 

7TCLVGOlJL€Vr]V a. 

146 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1106-1107 

felicity will end. For human nature does not fear the 
loss of sensation as a beginning of something new, 
but as costing us the good which we now enjoy. For 
this ' nothing to us,' when achieved by the extinction 
of everything that is ours, is already ' something to 
us ' in our thoughts. And lack of sensation is no 
hardship to those who when the time comes no 
longer are, but it is to those who are, because it 
plunges them into non-being, from which they are 
never to emerge. Hence it is not Cerberus nor yet 
Cocytus that has set no period to the fear of death, 
but the threat of non-being, which allows those once 
dead no return to being, for ' there is no second 
birth ; we must forever be no more ' as Epicurus a 
says. For if the limit is non-being, and this has no 
limit and no exit, we discover that this loss of all good 
things is an evil that lasts forever, because it comes 
from an insentience that will never end. And Hero- 
dotus b was wiser who said that ' God, who has let 
us taste the sweetness of life, is seen herein to be 
envious,' and especially of men who are accounted 
happy, for all their pleasure is for them a lure to 
misery, since what they taste will be taken from 
them. For what delight of the spirit or ' revelling ' d 
satisfaction would not be dashed and overwhelmed, 
in those who place all excellence and felicity in plea- 
sure, under the constant assaults of this thought — 

a Frag. 204 (ed. Usener) ; cited also 1104 e, supra, 
6 vii. 46. 

c R. M. Jones compares the language of Plato, Timaeus, 
69 d : " pleasure, the greatest bait of evil ..." 
d Cf. 1098 b, supra. 

8 tbv <j>aiv€Tai a : cupta/cerat i<bv Herodotus. 

9 Karaiyioeiev nos (KaraTrovTioeitv Pohlenz) : /cara y€ a. 

10 17 iirlvoia a 2 k 1 : rj iirivoia a. 

147 



PLUTARCH'S xMORALIA 

(1107) aireipov eKx^opbevrjs, tcov ev rj8ovfj TL0epLevcov to 

KoAoV KOLL jJiCLKOLpiOV; €L §€ 8rj KCLL pieTOL dAyrj8oVOS, 
6007760 'Em'/COUpO? OL€Tai> Tols TrAeLoTOLS OLTToXXv- 

odai, ovpbfiaLveL, TravTarraoLV drraprjyoprjTos eoTiv 6 
tov davdrov <j)6f5oSy els dyadcov OTeprjoLV 8td kolkcov 
dyovros. 
B 31. " Kat 77009 ravra puev ovk aTTOKapuovvTai p,a- 
XOfievoL /cat /3ta£op,eyot itclvtcls dv6pco7Tovs 3 dyadov 
puev rjyeZcrdai ttjv tcov kclklqv a7ro<j>vyr\v , kclkov 8e 
fjbrjKeTL vopLLC^eiv Trjv tcov dyadcov oreprjocv eKelvo 
8e ofJboXoyovGL, to p,7]8ep,Lav cAmSa pur]8e ^apdv 
eyeiv tov ddvarov aAAa a770/ce/cd</>#at tt&v to rj8v 
kcll to dyadov. ev to XP° VC P ^oAAa /caAa kcll /xeyaAa 
/cat 6ela 7Tpoo8oKtooiv ol tols i/jvxgls dvcoAedpovs 
elvai 8iavoovp>evoL kcll d(f)ddpTovs rj puaKpds tlvcls 
Xpovcov TrepLo8ovs vvv \xev ev yfj vvv 8e ev ovpavco 

TTepiTToAoVGCLS , CL^pL 1 OV OVv8iaAv9tOOL Tip /COOjltOJ, 

pLeTa rjAtov kcll oeArjvrjs els rrvp voepov dva<f>deioai. 

C TOLCLVTTJV X co P aV ^}8oVCOV TOOOVTOJV 'FiTTLKOVpOS €K~ 
TepLVeTCLL, 2 KCLL €77t 3 TOLLS €/C deCOV iAlTLCnV COOTTep 

etprjTCLi kcll x&P lCTlv dvcLipedeiocLLS tov* decoprjTLKod 
to c/)iAopLa9es /cat tov rrpaKTiKov to ^AoTipbov diro- 
TV(f)Acooas els OTevov rt KOfiiSfj /cat ov8e Kadapov 
to €77t T7] oap/ct ttjs i/jvx^js ypXpov ovveoTeLXe /cat 
/carejSaAe ttjv </)vctlv, cos pbel^ov dyadov tov to 
kokov cf>evyeiv ov8ev exovoav." 

1 dxpiS a. 

2 eKTefiverai a : a7roTe/zv€Tai j8 2ss . 

3 eVt rats Madvig : rats a. 

4 rod Madvig : hrl rod a. 

a Cf. 1130 e, infra. b Frag. 502 (ed. Usener). 

148 



A PLEASANT LIFE IMPOSSIBLE, 1107 

of the soul spilt out into infinity as into some yawn- 
ing ocean ? a And if, as Epicurus 6 imagines, for most 
people the process of dying is attended with pain, 
the fear of death is quite beyond any comfort, since 
death ushers us through misery to loss of every good. 
SI. " And yet against these arguments they will 
never weary of contending with all men, trying to 
force them to hold the escape from evil a good, yet 
not also the loss of good things an evil. This how- 
ever they concede : that death brings no hope or joy 
but means the severance of all that is pleasant and 
good. Whereas this space of time unfolds a multitude 
of noble prospects, magnificent and divine, to those 
who hold the soul to be imperishable and incorrupt- 
ible, 6 or else hold that for long cycles of time it roams 
now on earth, now in heaven, until it suffers dissolu- 
tion with the universe, when with the sun and moon 
it blazes into intellectual fire. d It is a space like this, 
with pleasures so ample, pleasures of such magnitude 
that the surgery of Epicurus e cuts out of our lives. 
Not content with removing all hope of help from 
Heaven and all bestowal of grace, as we said/ he 
kills the love of learning 9 in our soul and the love 
of honour h in our heart, and thus constricts our nature 
and casts it down into a narrow space indeed and not 
a clean one either, where the mind delights in no- 
thing but the flesh, as if human nature had no higher 
good than escape from evil." 

c The Platonic view. 

d The Stoic view. 

* Frag. 418 (ed. Usener). 

f Cf. chapters 21-23, supra. 

9 Cf. chapters 9-14, supra. 

h Cf. chapters 15-19, supra. 



149 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

IN DEFENCE OF THE 

OTHER PHILOSOPHERS 

(ADVERSUS COLOTEM) 



INTRODUCTION 

The Adversus Colotem is a reply to Colotes' otherwise 
unknown book entitled " On the Point that Con- 
formity to the Views of the Other Philosophers Actu- 
ally Makes it Impossible to Live." 

Colotes of Lampsacus presumably became a dis- 
ciple of Epicurus when Epicurus held his school in 
that city (310-306 B.C.). We may suppose that Colotes 
was at least fourteen years old — the early age when 
Epicurus himself began the study of philosophy — in 
306, and was thus born at the latest in 320. Epicurus' 
letter to him (1117 b-c) was probably written after 
Epicurus had left Lampsacus for Athens in 306 — 
though it could have been written after a subsequent 
visit — and would indicate that Colotes' act of suppli- 
cation had been performed a short while before, per- 
haps when he knew that Epicurus was leaving for 
good. The endearing form of the name — Kolotaras or 
Kolotarion — used by Epicurus, together with that 
presumably recent display of generous emotion, sug- 
gests that Colotes at the time of Epicurus' departure 
was very young. 

In the book Colotes alludes to the views of Arcesi- 
laiis, who became head of the Academy some time in 
the course of the olympiad 268-264. Arcesilaiis left 
no writings ; his fame rested on his lectures alone, 
and we may assume that when attacked by Colotes 

153 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

he was already head of the Academy. a Colotes' 
book, then, was not written before 268. b The Ptolemy 
to whom it is addressed is therefore Ptolemy II, c who 
succeeded Ptolemy I in 282 and died in 246. Per- 
haps the book was addressed to him when he was ally 
of Athens in the Chremonidean war, which ended for 
the city with its surrender to Antigonus Gonatas in 
263-262. 

Colotes may ultimately have directed the school 
at Lampsacus ; we hear of a disciple, Menedemus, 
whom he lost to the Cynics. d He favoured polemic 
against Plato. We have fragments of Replies to 
Plato's Lysis and Euthydemus e and of an attack on 

° Plutarch (1121 e) says that Epicurus was jealous of 
Arcesilaiis' fame. Epicurus died in 270, when Arcesilaiis 
was about forty-five. It is likely that Arcesilaiis had dis- 
tinguished himself before he became head of the Academy, 
since the head was elected by the students (Acad. Philos. 
Index Here, col. xviii [ed. Mekler, p. 67]). A regular attack 
such as Colotes' implies a more than local reputation. It is in 
any case intended to draw students from the Academy, and 
to do that you attack the head. 

6 Colotes is not mentioned in Epicurus' will, and W. Cro- 
nert (Kolotes und Menedemos [Studien zur Palaeographie 
und Papyruskunde, VI (Leipzig, 1906)], p. 11, note 42) 
infers that he remained behind at Lampsacus. The present 
book, in all probability aimed at an audience of young 
Academics, was no doubt written during a visit to Athens. 

c Cf. Cronert, op. cit. 9 p. 13. As Plutarch implies (1111 r), 
Ptolemy II was no unlettered king : he was taught by Strato, 
Philetas, and Zenodotus. For the dates of his reign see A. E. 
Samuel, Ptolemaic Chronology (Munich, 1962), chapters i-ii. 

d Cf. Cronert, op. cit., p. 4. 

e Published by Cronert (op. cit. 9 pp. 163-170) from Hercu- 
lanean papyri. The reply to the Lysis is earlier than the reply 
to the Euthydemus, which refers to it. In the reply to the 
Lysis Zeno of Citium is mentioned, who died in 264-261. If 
Colotes did not mention living scholarchs by name, neither 
reply is earlier than that date. He appears to have imitated 

154 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

the myth in the Republic. a Another title is uncertain. 6 
The attack on the Republic left its mark. Colotes 
asks how it was possible for a dead man to come back 
to life. c Cicero and Plutarch both imitated the 
Platonic myth. Cicero's narrator appears in a dream, 
the Somnium Scipionis, and Plutarch's Aridaeus (Mor. 
56S d) gives up only the intelligent part of his soul. 
In the present book Colotes deals with Democritus, 
Parmenides, Empedocles, Socrates, Melissus, Plato, 
Stilpon, and two contemporary schools identified by 
Plutarch as those of the Cyrenaics and of Arcesilaus. 
Democritus has pride of place ; the rest are in 
chronological order. d The common complaint against 
all is that their doctrines make it impossible to deal 
with external objects e and so to live. 

Metrodorus in the style of the title of the present book (see p. 
164, note a, infra). Metrodorus also wrote replies to Platonic 
dialogues (the Gorgias and the Euthyphro [p. 546, ed. 
Korte]), and the language of his attack on Diogenes (1127 
b-c) is like Colotes' heavy with polemical double meaning. 

a See Macrobius, Comm. in Somnium Scipionis, i. 1. 9-2. 4 
and Proclus, Comm. in Platonis Rem Publicam, vol. ii, pp. 
105. 23-106. 14, 109. 8-12, 111. 6-9, 113. 9-13, 116. 19-21, 
121. 19-25 (ed. Kroll). 

6 " On Laws and Opinion " (nepl voficov kcli hofys) in Cro- 
nert, op. cit., p. 130, note 542. Unfortunately the two pre- 
ceding lines of the papyrus (Philodemus, On Flattery) are 
imperfect and unintelligible. If the title is his it no doubt 
refers to Epicurus' urging Idomeneus not to live a slave to 
laws and men's opinions (1127 d ; Frag. 134, ed. Usener). 

c Proclus, op. cit., vol. ii, p. 113. 12-13 ; also p. 116. 19-21. 

d Plutarch places Empedocles after Democritus and Plato 
after Parmenides ; he says nothing of Melissus' doctrine. 
Thus his order is : Democritus, Empedocles, Parmenides, 
Plato, Socrates, Stilpon, the Cyrenaics, and Arcesilaus. 

e Democritus, Empedocles, and Socrates discredit the 
testimony of the senses about external objects ; Parmenides 
denies them ; Plato makes beliefs about them worthless, 

155 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

'■ The other philosophers is a sweeping expres- 
sion. Plutarch mentions nine as the targets of 
abuse a ; Colotes dismissed Xenocrates and the Peri- 
patetics as followers ofPlato. To judge by Plutarch, 
Colotes did not mention Thales, Pythagoras, Hera- 
cleitus, Anaxagoras, the Cynics, or the Stoics. The 
book is an attack on Arcesilaiis. The other philo- 
sophers are singled out because the sceptics of the 
Academy regarded them as predecessors. Plutarch 
says (1121 f — 1122 a) that the sophists of the day 
aocused Arcesilaiis of fathering his scepticism on 
Socrates, Plato, Parmenides, and Heracleitus b ; and 
Colotes asserts that he said nothing of his own but 
conveyed the notion that he did. c Socrates — the 
Platonic Socrates — is distinguished from Plato and 

Stilpon makes useful statements about them impossible, and 
the Cyrenaics make no statements about them at all ; and 
Arcesilaiis refuses to assent to anything. The final charge 
against Arcesilaiis, that he threatens to destroy all law, and 
thus to return man to primitive conditions which would be 
fatal, is the only one into which the impossibility of dealing 
with objects does not enter. 

a At 1108 b Plutarch lists Socrates, Democritus, Plato, 
Stilpon, Empedocles, Parmenides, and Melissus ; to these 
we must add the unnamed schools he mentions later (1 120 c) : 
the Cyrenaics and the Academy of Arcesilaiis. In this list 
the order is first the moralists, in chronological sequence, then 
the physicists in the order of Plutarch's reply (Melissus being 
merged with Parmenides). Plutarch is going on to praise 
the philosophers for their gift of the good life. 

b Here cited in the order of the extent of their influence on 
Arcesilaiis. They recur at 1124 d in the chronological order 
Parmenides, Socrates, Heracleitus, Plato (Heracleitus being 
given the later dating). 

c So Colotes would have it that Er is really Zoroaster : cf. 
Proclus on the Republic (ed. Kroll), vol. ii, p. 109. 8-12 and 
the note in J. Bidez and F. Cumont, Les Mages hellenises^ 
vol. ii (Paris, 1938), p. 160. 

156 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

dealt with (to judge by Plutarch) at greater length ; 
the reason is that Plato is a dogmatist, whereas 
Socrates was almost a pure sceptic. Colotes here 
agrees with an Academic tradition that may go back 
to Arcesilaiis (cf. Cicero, Acad. Post. i. 4 [15-18]), as 
he does when he makes the Peripatetics followers of 
Plato. 

It might well have seemed at the time that Arcesi- 
laiis was carrying everything before him. Epicurus 
had died in 270. Strato had died in 270-268, and the 
Lyceum was headed by Lyco, an athlete and expert 
in the education of boys. 

The very charge that Colotes brings against the 
philosophers, that they make it impossible to live, is 
a variant of the charge brought against the Sceptics, 
that they destroy our life. a It was not easy to attack 
Arcesilaiis on the ground of doctrine, as he had none 
(Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 6 [17]). But a man shows certain 

° Diogenes Laert. ix. 104. Colotes also uses this variant 
(1119 c-d). Another variant is " confound our life " (1108 f), 
which Colotes may have got from Epicurus (cf. Gnom. Vat. 
57 [Frag. 6. 56-57, ed. Arrighetti]). " Destroy " or " abolish " 
is anairein, literally " pick up," and hence " remove." Philo- 
sophers used the word of the operations of causes and reason- 
ing. One opposite " removes " another, and a philosopher 
by his reasoning, or the reasoning itself, removes the thing 
disproved. The development was furthered by a common 
use of tithenai (sometimes hypotithenai), " lay down," origin- 
ally used of laying down laws, to indicate a thesis or position 
that will be maintained throughout the subsequent reasoning. 
(Thus Plato speaks of " picking up " or " removing " the 
hypotheses " things laid down " in Republic, vii, 533 c 8.) 
As we lay down what was not there before, so we remove 
what was already there and take away the familiar and 
accepted. This is opposed to apoleipein, " to leave us with " 
something possessed and cherished. Thus to " destroy " our 
life is to use reasoning that leads to the impossibility of life 
(and particularly of civilized life) as we live it. 

157 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

beliefs by the acts of his life. These can be shown 
to conflict with his professed uncertainty about the 
world around him (and Arcesilaiis spent his life 
attacking Zeno's criterion), since that uncertainty 
makes it impossible to live. The same objection can 
be made to the philosophers Arcesilaiis cited as his 
authorities. Cicero lists the following as authorities 
claimed by the Academics (Acad. Pr. ii. 5 [14]) : 
Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Democritus, Parmenides, 
Xenophanes, Plato, and Socrates. Perhaps Anaxa- 
goras and Xenophanes are missing from Colotes' 
attack because Anaxagoras was censured by Socrates, 
and Xenophanes' views were much like Parmenides' ; 
whereas Melissus, Stilpon, and the Cyrenaics were 
dropped by Cicero's anti- Academic because they 
were not of the celebrity required for making his 
point, that the Academics, like subversive statesmen, 
hide behind the great names of the past. 

Democritus was attacked in the Epicurean school, 
perhaps by Epicurus himself, for holding the view 
that the sense-qualities are human conventions, and 
only the atoms and the void are real, and thus making 
it impossible to live. Diogenes of Oenoanda (ii-iii 
century a.d.) says in his inscription : 

Democritus too erred in a fashion unworthy of himself 
when he said that the atoms alone exist in truth among 
realities, but everything else by convention. For according 
to your account, Democritus, far from discovering the 
truth, we shall not even be able to live, since we shall 
neither avoid fire nor a wound nor . . . a 

° Frag. 7, col. ii. 2-iii. 1 (ed. Grilli). Here " not even live " 
is opposed to discovering the truth, perhaps because Demo- 
critus had said (Frag, b 117, ed. Diels-Kranz) " in reality 
we know nothing ; for truth is in the depths." It is likely 
that Colotes intended the same opposition (cf. R. Westman, 

158 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

Hence Democritus' pride of place in Colotes' book : 
the Epicureans had first brought the objection against 
him. He was also the author of the most celebrated 
sceptical dictum, " no more this than that." We 
shall presently find another reason. 

Two charges are brought against Democritus. 
First, by saying that each and every object is no 
more of one description than of another he has thrown 
our life into confusion. Second, the dictum that 
colour is a convention while the realities are the 
atoms and the void, contradicts our senses, and any- 
one putting this doctrine into practice could not con- 
ceive of even himself as a man or as alive. The dis- 
tinction that Colotes makes between the two sayings 
is that the first affects sense-objects, the second our- 
selves as well. This distinction can be traced through 
the rest of the polemic. a 

In drawing this distinction between objects and 
ourselves Colotes is inspired by a distinction made 

Plutarch gegen Kolotes [Helsingfors, 1955], pp. 97-98), and 
not (as one might suppose from the Non Posse Suaviter 
Vivi Secundum Epicurum) an opposition to living pleasantly. 
The Academics justified their wisdom — suspension of judge- 
ment — not so much by appealing to the resulting felicity 
(peace of mind) as to their duty as philosophers of assenting 
to nothing but the truth. 

° He says in a question put to Empedocles (1112 d) 
" neither do we exist nor do we in living make use of other 
things." The " inhabited cities " of the attack on Parmenides 
include ourselves, and his " fire " and " water " are sense- 
objects. In the assault on Socrates the distinction is especially 
clear (1117 d, 1118 c). Plato holds it useless to consider 
horses horses and men men. The Platonic examples recur 
in the attack on Stilpon (" horseman " being substituted for 
" horse " for a polemical motive) and on the Cyrenaics. 
" Wall," " door," and " the man who suspends judgement " 
occur in the attack on Arcesilaus. 

159 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

by the Pyrrhonists. They said that Democritus de- 
stroyed both the criterion and the phaenomena : 

(The Sceptics hold that Democritus was one of them) 
when he expelled the qualities, where he says " cold is by 
convention, hot by convention, but the atoms and the void 
are in reality," and again " in reality we know nothing ; 
for truth is in the depths." (Diogenes Laertius, ix. 72.) 

Thus according to the Sceptics the phaenomenon is the 
criterion, as Aenesidemus says ; and so too says Epicurus. 
But Democritus says that none of the phaenomena is a 
criterion, and the phaenomena do not exist. (Diogenes 
Laertius, ix. 106.) 

But the Democritean philosophy is also said to have a 
community with the sceptical, since it is held to use the 
same material as we do. For from the fact that honey 
appears sweet to some and bitter to others, they say Demo- 
critus (Frag, a 134, ed. Diels-Kranz) reasoned that it is 
neither sweet nor bitter, and for this reason pronounced 
about it the words " no more this than that," a sceptical 
expression. Yet the Sceptics and the Democriteans use 
the phrase " no more this than that " in different ways. 
The Democriteans apply it to the phaenomenon's being 
neither whereas we apply it to not knowing whether some 
phaenomenon is both or neither. But the distinction be- 
tween us is most obvious when Democritus says (Frag. 
b 9, ed. Diels-Kranz) " in reality are the atoms and the 
void." For by " in reality " he means " in truth " ; and 
I think it is superfluous to remark that in saying that " in 
truth the atoms and the void are existent " he differs from 
us. (Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 213-214.)° 

Phaenomenon (" what appears ") can mean " what 
seems (but is not necessarily) true " and " what is 

a In the later work, Against the Mathematicians (vii. 135- 
140) we find no mention of the " no more this than that " in 
connexion with Democritus. No doubt Sextus or his authori- 
ties (like Plutarch) did not find it in their Democritus. So 
Galen (cf. Democritus, Frag, a 49, ed. Diels-Kranz), like 
Plutarch, speaks instead of the " aught " and " naught " in 
connexion with the dictum about the conventional character 
of the sense-qualities. 
160 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

evidently true." What is evidently true is the sensa- 
tion as fact ; what seems — or only seems — true is 
sensation the report. The term criterion comes from 
the conflict of the Sceptics with the dogmatists, who 
asserted that there is something on which we can 
rely to determine truth. This thing is the criterion ; 
and the dogmatists asserted that the sensation is 
such a criterion. Democritus abolishes this criterion. 
We taste honey in health and have the sensation 
" sweet." We taste it in illness and have the sensa- 
tion " bitter." The sensation corresponding to the 
quality of the honey is as much the sensation " sweet " 
as it is the sensation " bitter " ; or to put this in 
Democritus' language (which prepares us for the 
next dictum), is " no more this than that." 

Democritus then abolishes the pretended original 
itself. There is no such external reality as " sweet " 
or " bitter " ; there are only the atoms and the void. 
We prove a thing a mere linguistic or legal convention 
and not an eternal verity by confronting it with a 
conflicting law or linguistic expression of equal 
authority. The sensations " sweet " and " bitter " 
discredit each other as verities. They are conven- 
tions. 

The formulation "is no more this than that " is 
designedly paradoxical when used of the sensation : 
it refers to the sensation as a report of the reality (and 
the report is no more " sweet " than " bitter "), and 
sounds as if it referred to the sensation as a fact (and 
the sensation " sweet " is certainly not " bitter," nor 
is the sensation " bitter " " sweet "). To treat sensa- 
tion as a report involves a slight personification : sense 
speaks to us in the only language it knows, sensa- 
tions. So the rival of sense, reason, speaks to us, but 

VOL. XIV g 161 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

its language is more like the language of men. How 
does Democritus pass from " no more this than that " 
to the reality of the atoms and the void ? The first 
dictum discredits the report of sense, but not entirely : 
the two sensations agree in that each exists and each 
is one. Thus they report a single reality. If one, the 
reality cannot be both sweet and bitter. It is there- 
fore neither. We must therefore consult reason, and 
treat that " sweet " and " bitter " not as a report, but 
as a product or result. It results from something 
done to us by a single external reality. If external, 
the reality must act on us by transmission. There 
must be something solid to strike us, and space for 
that something solid to come through. Reality is 
therefore body and void. 

Then why did Epicurus, who accepted the teaching 
that the atoms and the void are real, disagree with 
the doctrine that sense-qualities are a human conven- 
tion ? It would seem that Epicurus never treated 
sensation as something outside the physical world, 
reporting about it. He always treated sensation as a 
physical fact, a result of the impact of one set of 
atoms and void on another. He starts where Demo- 
critus left off. For him " sweet " names a certain 
configuration of atoms and void and the movement it 
imparts to another configuration of atoms and void 
in ourselves ; it does not name an intimate and un- 
analysable feeling. 

Plutarch holds that the saying as it appears in 
Colotes — each and every sense-object is no more this 
than that (1108 f) — is a view held by Protagoras. 
We may suppose that Epicurus assailed it in this 
form, and in an attack on Protagoras. Epicurus said 
in a letter (Frag. 172, ed. Usener) that Protagoras 

162 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

began as a " basket-carrier " (no doubt the basket 
contained firewood : cf. Diogenes Laertius, iv. 3) 
and " faggot-carrier." Democritus noticed an in- 
genious way he had of arranging the faggots, and 
took him as his scribe ; then Protagoras taught 
school in a village and finally embarked on a sophist's 
career. This looks as if Epicurus regarded Protagoras 
as a man who had rearranged Democritean " matter,' ' 
copied it without understanding it fully, and propa- 
gated it among the ignorant. Protagoras' most 
famous dictum was " Man is the measure of all things ; 
of things that are, that they are ; of things that are 
not, that they are not." It is things that are " no 
more this than that," and man the sensation who is 
always true. The reality, instead of being neither 
sweet nor bitter, is both, and thus has to be two 
realities ; Democritus' contradictory sensation-report 
ceases to be contradictory, since it now concerns two 
separate realities, and the middleman, our informant 
sense, who is placed by Democritus between the two 
sensations and the reality, disappears to be replaced 
by ourselves, a collective unit undistinguishable from 
the two sensations. Thus we get Colotes' distinc- 
tion between " things " (plural) and (a singular) 
" man." 

Things to be sure are for Colotes sense-objects and 
not external qualities, but the shift was prepared by 
Protagoras himself, who used the all-inclusive chremata 
(" things ") in his dictum. In any case Colotes forces 
it on his philosophers : thus he imports " objects " 
into the first dictum of Democritus (1108 f) and syn- 
krisin (a scientific synonym) into the second (1110 e) ; 
he modifies the text of Empedocles (e/cao-roi; 1111 f) 
to force a parallel with Democritus ; and he foists 

163 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

examples of objects on the Cyrenaics, who had used 
examples of qualities (1120 d-e). 

Colotes has dealt with " things " in the first charge 
against Democritus ; he' must therefore deal with 
" man " in the second. Yet there is nothing in the 
Protagorean dictum that suggests the use to which 
Colotes puts it. He says to his philosopher in effect : 
" You have made your world (largely by a process of 
removal) ; let us see you live in it." The distinction 
suited Colotes' purposes because it not only was made 
by the Epicureans a but can be seen in Arcesilaiis 
himself. Sextus (Against the Mathematicians, vii. 150- 
158) preserves a detailed argument of that philo- 
sopher against the Stoic criterion, " apprehension/' 
When the criterion has been exploded Sextus adds 
(158) : 

But since the next point to be examined, as we saw, is 
the question of the conduct of life, and this is not usually- 
presented without a criterion, on which the accreditation 
of felicity — that is, the goal of life — depends, Arcesilaiis 
says that the man who suspends judgement about every- 
thing will test his acts of choice and of avoidance — his 
actions in sum — by their reasonableness . . . 

Colotes, a happy combination of caricaturist and Epi- 
curean, likes to present his views in concrete terms. 
Without " apprehension " we cannot trust the senses, 
and without reliance on the senses we cannot know 
sense-qualities or sense-objects. Thus Arcesilaiis 
abolishes things. For " life " we substitute " living 

a Cf. the title of a book of Metrodorus (Frag. 5, ed. Korte) : 
" On the Fact that the Cause which Depends on Ourselves is 
of Greater Effect in Producing Felicity than the Cause which 
Depends on Things (irepl rod fjL€iE,ova clvat, ttjv nap' rjfxds alrlav 
7rpos evdaijjLOvtav rrjs e/c ra>v 7rpayixdra)v).^ The title, we note, is 
in the style of Colotes' own. 

164 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

man." To the polemical eye the world of Arcesilaiis 
himself falls into two parts, " things " and " man." 

After citing or paraphrasing the erroneous doc- 
trine Colotes follows with the attack. Here in the 
manner of Epicurean polemic the offender, like some 
student caught at fault, is scolded to his face. The 
attack, it appears, was not a carefully reasoned expo- 
sition of the Epicurean stand, but largely a series of 
caricatures, in which we see the philosopher or his 
adherent in the pretty pass to which his tenets lead 
him. This method of polemic was well suited to its 
audience, young visitors from the Academy, per- 
haps come to collect material for a disputation. 
They knew enough about the philosophers to be 
amused by the caricature, and were far better forti- 
fied against argument than against ridicule. The 
ridicule of Democritus, the Epicurean ancient, serves 
as a proem, and prepares them to accept the ridicule 
of Parmenides and Socrates, the venerables of the 
Academy. 

We suppose that a list of predecessors of the scep- 
tics, with citations or paraphrases of the views of 
each that impugned some form of knowledge, had 
been drawn up in the Academy in the time of Ar- 
cesilaiis and was known to Colotes and his audience. 
Such a collection lies behind most of the learning on 
this subject of Sextus, of Diogenes Laertius in the 
Life of Pyrrho, and of Cicero in his Academics. From 
it Colotes drew most of his knowledge of the views 
of the philosophers attacked. For Socrates he could 
add from his own reading ; for Empedocles from 
Hermarchus ; and he could have learned the views 
of Arcesilaiis from students who had deserted to the 
Garden. 

165 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

In the following survey of Colotes' charges and 
attack we supply the missing names, as Plutarch 
often uses the equivalents of " he." The mss. leave 
blanks where the archetype was illegible. Supple- 
ments of the blanks are enclosed in angular brackets ; 
other conjectures are in parentheses. 



1. Democritus 

1108 f Colotes first charges Democritus with throwing 
our life into confusion by saying that of objects each is no 
more of this quality than of that. 

1110 e The slime and the (confusion?) into which 
Colotes says those persons fall who say of objects " no 
more this than that "... 

Democritus had said " in reality we know nothing, 
for truth lies in the depths " (Frag, b 117, ed. Diels- 
Kranz). He meant submerged in the depth of the 
sea, where we cannot reach or see it. But " depth " 
suggests a bottom ; and Plato lets Socrates speak of 
falling into a " depth " of nonsense and perishing 
there (Parmenides, 130 d 7-8). Colotes lets the Demo- 
critean (and not Democritus himself, who is treated 
more gently than Socrates) find his " truth " at the 
bottom of a mud hole. Colotes may also be glancing 
at Democritus' " dark and spurious (skotie) " know- 
ledge of the senses (Frag, b 11, ed. Diels-Kranz). 
Thus Plato too speaks of the eye of the soul as buried 
in barbaric slime (Republic, vii, 533 d 1). 

1110 e Colotes says that the dictum " colour is by con- 
vention and sweet by convention " and a compound (and 
the rest) by convention, " (whereas the reality is the void) 
and the atoms " is an attack by Democritus on the senses, 
and a man adhering to this account and putting it to use 
would not think of himself as even (a man) or as alive. 

166 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

Colotes interpolates synhisin (Epicurus' word for a 
compound of atoms) into the dictum and reverses the 
order of " atoms " and " void." " Compound "is an 
equivalent of pragma or " sense-object," and when 
you abolish these your first result is naturally a void. 
" Man " and " alive " are Colotes' way of speaking 
of the " life " that Democritus abolished. (Even the 
Pyrrhonists admitted that they were alive [Diogenes 
Laertius, ix. 103].) Democritus had said " man is 
what we all know " (Frag, b 165, ed. Diels-Kranz) ; 
he thus contradicts himself. 



2. Parmenides 

1113 f Colotes speaks of the shameful sophistries of 
Parmenides. By calling all things one Parmenides has 
somehow prevented us from living. 

1114 b Parmenides for one has neither abolished fire 
nor water nor a precipice nor cities, as Colotes says, in- 
habited in Europe and Asia. 

By making everything one Parmenides has obliterated 
his own elements (fire and earth : see Frags, a 23, 24, 
35, ed. Diels-Kranz, and Diogenes Laert., ix. 21 ; 
they appear in Plutarch's answer as the light and the 
dark) and their mixtures (water is a mixture of fire 
and earth : Frag, a 35, ed. Diels-Kranz). And as he 
makes being uniform and continuous (Frag, b 8. 6, 
23-24, ed. Diels-Kranz), there can be no such thing 
as even a singular precipice. Colotes may be thinking 
of the story that Pyrrho had to be kept by his pupils 
from walking over precipices (Diogenes Laertius, 
ix. 62). a The cities were probably suggested by Par- 

a Cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics, V 4 (1008 b 16) and Lucre- 
tius, iv. 509. 

167 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

meIlides , being a man of Elea, and are plural because 
Parmenides denied all plurality, not merely the collec- 
tive. They are in Europe and Asia, and thus include 
not only Parmenides and Arcesilaiis but ourselves ; 
the audience were city folk. 

1 1 14 d Colotes says that Parmenides simply takes away 
all things by laying down one being. 

The formulation is Platonic : the " laying down of one 
(as) being " is in the Parmenides (142 d 3-4). " Simply " 
in philosophy is " without qualification " ; it can also 
mean "at a single blow " and " like a simpleton." 
Parmenides " picks up " (the literal sense of " re- 
moves " or " takes away ") by laying down. 



3. Empedocles 

1111 f But Colotes fastens on Empedocles in turn (as) 
breathing the same doctrine [Frag, b 8, ed. Diels-Kranz] : 

This too I'll tell thee : 
There is no nature of each mortal thing 
Nor any lamentable brood of death ; 
Mixture alone there is and dissolution 
Of things commingled, and men call them nature. 
I do not see wherein these words interfere with living . . . 

1112 d How then did it enter Colotes' head to put to 
Empedocles such questions as this ? " Why do we weary 
ourselves in serious concern for ourselves, seeking certain 
objects and avoiding certain objects ? For neither do we 
exist nor do we in living make use of other things." 

" Breathing " — that is, " inspired by " — is a thrust 
at Democritus, who said (Frag, b 18, ed. Diels-Kranz) 
" whatsoever a poet writes with the god within him 
and a holy breath (hieron pneuma) is very fine " ; 
Democritus, like Empedocles, is here no better than 
168 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

a poet. " Why do we weary ourselves " has a certain 
pathos that surprises in Colotes. The verb is literally 
" pound " or " chop " without displacing ; the sense 
of " wearying " comes from the soreness and debility 
we get from such a pounding. In Frag, b 2. 6 (ed. 
Diels-Kranz, cited by Sextus for Empedocles' distrust 
of the senses) Empedocles says we are " driven all 
over " : we are driven from one place to another, and 
appear as plants, fish, men, or gods. The verb can 
also mean " hammer " and " strike," but the object 
is displaced : the horse moves on, the iron flattens, 
the man goes into exile. Perhaps Colotes' " pound " 
or " knock " is a malicious interpretation of this : we 
let drive at ourselves and only get worn out for our 
pains. And we certainly do " take ourselves seri- 
ously " when we imagine we are immortal. Colotes' 
words " we exist " and " living " are double-edged. 
According to Empedocles in each state our senses 
are so restricted that they tell us nothing of the 
others ; thus we confine " exist " and " live " to our 
existence as men. But the elements that compose 
us exist and are in a sense alive, as they constantly 
seek or repel (this being Empedocles' Love and Strife 
and Colotes' seeking and avoidance). Thus in the 
conventional sense, we, as men, can be said to live 
and die ; in the true sense we, as the elements, live 
and exist forever. Colotes' words are subtle rather 
than pathetic. " For neither do we exist " — it is the 
elements that do so — " nor do we live " — that is, pass 
through a human life that ends in death, a sense of 
" live " rejected by Empedocles — " making use of 
other things " — these in Empedocles are no more 
" things " than we are " men." " Nature " was 
understood by Colotes and his Academic source as 

169 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

" reality " a in opposition to " appearance." The 
present fragment of Empedocles may have disap- 
peared in Sextus because " nature " is open to the 
Aristotelian interpretation proposed by Plutarch, 
" generation," and on this interpretation the passage 
ceases to be relevant. 
1113 A 

When what is mixed (comes to) the light of day 
As man or breed of beasts or plants or birds, 
Men (speak) of birth ; but when they are dissolved 
Of woful doom. They speak (not) as they should. 
But I too speak as they do, by convention. 
Though Colotes (cited these lines himself) he failed to see 
that Empedocles did not abolish men, beasts, plants, and 
birds . . . 
1113 D 

No sage in his prophetic soul would say 
That while men live the thing that they call " life," 
So long they are, and suffer good and ill ; 
But till the joining of their elements 
And (after) dissolution men are nothing. 
For these are not the words of one who denies the existence 
of men who have been born and are living, but rather of 
one who takes both the unborn and the already dead to 
exist. Yet Colotes has found no fault with this, but says 
that on Empedocles' view we shall never so much as fall ill 
or receive a wound. 

Colotes takes Empedocles to hold that men are im- 
mortal ; and immortals are immune to disease and 
wounds. Disease, we may suppose, is from the inside, 
wounds are from the outside. Thus Empedocles' doc- 
trine is in contradiction with itself (since in the first 
of the two quotations he abolished man) and with his 
life : he went mad, and was killed by the leap into 
Aetna. 

° So too by Sextus (cf. Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 233) and 
so no doubt by Lacydes, of whom the Suda says s.v. eypai/je 
Se <f>iA6aocf>a kclI Trepl <f>vo€a)s. 

170 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

4. Socrates 

1108 b Colotes has a way of presenting Socrates with 
grass and asking how comes it that he puts his food in his 
mouth and not in his ear. 

As Socrates was superior to the senses he cannot 
know grass from food ; as he does not even know 
himself, he cannot tell his mouth from his ear. But 
perhaps Colotes made these remarks before he came 
to deal with Socrates' self-ignorance. In that case 
they may have been suggested by Phaedo 64 d 2-4, 
65 b 1-7. If Socrates has such contempt for the 
pleasures of food and for the senses and the body, 
why does he bother to taste his food ? Why not put 
it in his ear, the channel of that " talk " or " argumen- 
tation " he esteems so highly (99 e 1 — 100 a 3) ? (So 
too with the " cloak " mentioned at 1 1 17 f : if he cares 
so little for the comfort of a cloak (64 d 9) why wrap 
his cloak about himself and not put it around the 
column ?) 

1116 f Colotes adds : "we shall dismiss this business 
of Chaerephon's as it is nothing but a cheap and sophistical 
tale. ,, 

Colotes turns Socrates' own language against him : 
M cheap " (pkortikos) and " sophist " are no compli- 
ments in the Socratic dialogues. A moralist contra- 
dicts himself when his own statements are open to 
the strictures he passes on others. 

1117 d Again Colotes, premising with these profound 
and noble truths, that " we eat food, not grass, and when 
rivers are high we cross by boat, but when they become 
fordable, on foot," follows up with this : " The fact is, 
Socrates, that your arguments were charlatans ; and what 
you said to people in your conversations was one thing, 
but what you actually did was something else again.*' 

171 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Crossing the river comes from a " conversation " well 
known to Academic youth, the Phaedrus (242 A), a 
where Socrates threatens to cross the Ilissus and is 
prevented by his sign ; the grass from Republic, ix, 
586 a 8, where Socrates uses " graze " of men. The 
" swaggering arguments " (alazones logoi) — which 
claim more than they can perform b — are those of 
the Pkaedo (92 d 2-4) c ; and the final comment, that 
Socrates' acts did not tally with his words, puts a new 
interpretation on the striking phrase : it is no longer 
the talk, but Socrates, that is the charlatan. We have 
no irony or ironist here. d 

1117 f Let Colotes himself be asked those questions : 
how comes it that he eats food and not grass, well suited 
as he is for such provender, and drapes his cloak about his 
person and not around the pillar ? 

The second question was suggested by the death- 
scene (Pkaedo, 118 a) ; the prison doubtless had its 
columns. 

1118 a ... if Colotes does not cross rivers on foot 
when they are high and keeps out of the way of snakes 
and wolves . . . 

Colotes found the snake in Republic, ii, S58 b 3, the 
wolf in Republic, i, 336 d 6-7. 

° Noticed by von Arnim, s.v. " Kolotes " in Pauly-Wis- 
sowa, vol. xi (1921), col. 1121. 61. 

b Colotes refers them to the discussion of the practice of 
death (Phaedo, 64 b 8—69 e 5). 

c The expression also occurs in Lysis, 218 d 2-3 and Re- 
public, viii, 560 c 2. 

d Cicero's anti- Academic says that Socrates' scepticism did 
not represent his true belief, but was ironic (Acad. Post. i. 
4 [16]). Colotes means that in spite of his talk of training 
himself to do without the senses (Phaedo, 64 d 1 — 69 e 5) 
Socrates relied on them to live. Epicurus (Frag. 231, ed, 
Usener) censured Socrates for his irony. 

172 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

1118 c But where Colotes resorts to downright ridicule 
and denigration of Socrates for seeking to discover what 
is man, and as Colotes says, for the "cocky" statement 
that he did not even know (himself) . . . 

Sextus mentions Socrates' explicit confession that he 
did not know whether he was a man or something 
else {Outlines of Pyrrhonism, ii. 22 ; Against the Mathe- 
maticians, vii. 264). " Cocky " (neanieuomenon) is 
another Platonic word, used by Socrates in Phaedrus, 
235 a 6 and Gorgias, 527 d 6. 

5. Melissus 

[Plutarch cites nothing of the attack.] 

In vindicating Parmenides Plutarch no doubt con- 
sidered that he had vindicated the follower as well. 

6. Plato 

1115 c But Plato asserts that horses are uselessly (con- 
sidered) by us to be horses and men (men). 

Colotes has Phaedo, 73 c 1 — 77 a 5 (cf. also 96 d 8 — 
102 a 1) in mind ; the examples " horses - and " man " 
occur at 73 e 5-6 and 96 d 9~e 1 . Plato does not make 
this assertion. It is an inference from his giving 
sense-objects that recall an idea the name of that 
idea and his saying that the sense-object is something 
else than the idea and need not even resemble it (74 
c 4 — 75 a 1). Thus we learn nothing certain about 
the sense-object " horse " when it is called " horse," 
the name of the idea. 

7. Stilpon 

1119 c-d Colotes mentions one of the little verbal puzzles 
that Stilpon used to propound to the sophists . . . and 

173 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

. . . assails Stilpon in high tragic style, saying that his 
assertion that a thing cannot be predicated of something 
else is the taking away of our life. " For how shall we 
live if we cannot call a man good or a man a general, but 
can only on one side call 'a man a man and on the other 
good good and general general, or if we cannot speak of 
ten thousand horse or a strong city, but only say that horse- 
men are horsemen and ten thousand ten thousand, and so 
with the rest ? " 

Plato makes it nugatory to consider a man a man ; 
Stilpon holds it impossible to call him even that, if 
subject and predicate indicate different things. In 
his attack on the myth in the Republic Colotes cen- 
sures Plato for taking a tragic tone ; Plutarch returns 
the compliment. Colotes has taken his examples 
from Stilpon's famous reply to Demetrius Poliorcetes, 
who asked him after the sack of Megara (306 B.C.) 
whether he had lost anything. Stilpon (who had 
been plundered) replied that he had lost nothing of 
his own, as he had observed no one making off with 
his virtue. a The first " man " is Stilpon, and " good " 
the character he has not lost ; the second " man " 
and the " general " are Demetrius ; the " ten thou- 
sand horse " are his army ; and the " strong city " is 
Megara. This time Stilpon loses his virtue. 

° Epicurus (Frags. 173-175, ed. Usener) attacked Stilpon 
for holding that the sage was content with himself and had 
no need of a friend, presumably on the ground of this saying. 
Some versions merely mention " what is mine " (Mor. 475 c 
and Seneca, Be Constantia Sapientis, 5. 6, Ep. 9. 18) ; others 
mention only his " knowledge " (Life of Demetrius, chap, 
ix. 9 [893 a] and Simplicius on the Categories , p. 403. 19 [ed. 
Kalbfleisch]) or " education " (Mor. 5 f). For the fuller ver- 
sion see Gnom. Vat. 515 (ed. Sternbach). 



174 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

8. The Cyrenaics 

1 120 c-d The Cyrenaics . . . thought that evidence de- 
rived from the senses was insufficient warrant for certainty 
about sense-objects . . ., admitting that external objects 
appear, but refusing to venture further and assert that 
they are. Therefore, says Colotes, they cannot live and 
cannot make use of sense-objects, and he adds in derision : 
" These people do not say that a man or horse or wall is, 
but say it is themselves who are ' walled,' ' horsed,' and 
4 humanized.' " 

Colotes chooses unfair examples, says Plutarch ; the 
Cyrenaics said " sweetened.' ' As in the attack on 
Democritus, Colotes replaces qualities with objects. 
Here the object-examples (" wall " from Arcesilaiis, 
" horse " and " man " from Plato) point up the 
absurdity. 

9. Arcesilaiis 

1 108 d These people charge the other philosophers with 
using that wisdom of theirs to make it impossible to live . . . 

" These people " are the Epicureans, represented by 
Colotes ; " the other philosophers " are the sceptics, 
represented by Arcesilaiis. The wisdom of that 
philosopher lay in suspending judgement, since the 
criterion had been discredited. a By this piece of 
wisdom he abolishes life. 

Sextus, Against the Mathematicians, vii. 155-157. Zeno 
held that the sage would never have opinions, but only know- 
ledge, as opinions can be false, and it is disgraceful for a 
sage to err. Knowledge ultimately rests on sense-perception. 
The sense image can be rejected as untrue, or held weakly 
(and is then opinion), but when it is a true impression it is 
held firmly by reason and assented to (von Arnim, Stoicorum 
Vet. Frag, i, pp. 16-20). Arcesilaiis retained the description 
of the sage as one who knows for certain, but denied that any 

175 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

1121 f For though Arcesilaiis said nothing of his own 
Colotes says that he gave the unlettered the impression and 
belief that he did — our critic, of course, is widely read himself 
and writes with a beguiling charm. 

Arcesilaiis derives all his views from the " other 
philosophers " and is thus refuted already. The 
audience, lettered (unlike the Epicureans) and proud 
of it, is warned not to be taken in like their inferiors 
by literary graces. Arcesilaiis is in effect another 
poet ; his philosophy is so much music (Phaedo, 61 a 
3-4). 

1 122 e But how comes it that the suspender of judge- 
ment does not run to a mountain but to the bath, and does 
not on rising pass to the wall but to the double door when 
he wishes to issue forth to market ? 

" Run " suggests the " impulse " (horme) on which 
Arcesilaiis relied, and perhaps a certain quickness in 
the man himself ; Numenius (in Eusebius, Praep. 
Evang. xiv. 5. 12 [part ii, p. 271. 20, ed. Mras]) calls 
him ites (" impetuous "). The bath and market may 
hint at a love of crowds or of high living ; men of 
Arcesilaiis ' means commonly left marketing to the 
servants. The mountain is a private place, the bath 
a public one. Another sense of epechein (" suspend 
judgement," " hold back ") is hinted at here. Medical 
writers use it of various kinds of physical retention. 
To bring out this sense we should have to render 
" run for the mountain " and "for the bathhouse/ ' 
Worse is to come. " Wall " is no doubt Arcesilaiis' 
own illustration, taken (like Aristotle's bronze sphere 
and Chrysippus' signet) from the scene of the lecture. 

sensation was proof against error. The sage, therefore, 
avoiding precipitancy and error, withholds consent from the 
sense image. 
176 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

It would be in Arcesilaiis' style to illustrate his 
polemic against the Stoic " apprehension " or " grasp- 
ing " with an object that Zeno could not hold in his 
hand. (Zeno illustrated " apprehension " and the 
process of which it was a part by holding up his out- 
stretched palm and closing his fingers on it, finally 
holding the clenched fist in the other hand [Cicero, 
Acad. Pr. ii. 47 (145)].) " Door " (plural in the Greek, 
since it has two wings) would as an example possess 
the same advantage ; indeed we may hazard the 
guess that Arcesilaiis would rise from his lecturer's 
seat, walk to the wall or door, and lay his hand 
against it in a counterpart of Zeno's gesture. In 
view, however, of a certain use of " wall " (Lucian, 
Asinus, 9 ; cf Pollux, v. 21) and of " door " (Euripides, 
Cyclops, 502) we must suppose that Colotes is also 
pointing to Arcesilaiis ' private life. (For " pass " cf. 
Aristotle, Generation of Animals, i. 17 [721 b 18], iv. 
8 [776 b 29] ; for " issue forth " cf. ibid., i. 5 [717 b 
24].) There may even be a reference here to Theo- 
dote and Phila (Diogenes Laertius, iv. 40). Such 
women might well be established near the market- 
place ; in any case they offered a market of their own. 
If the other reference is to Cleochares (ibid., iv. 41) 
Colotes is raking up the distant past, as Demochares, 
the rival to whom Arcesilaiis once yielded precedence, 
died in 271-270, aged over eighty. 

1122 f — 1123 a " But it is impossible to refuse assent to 
plain evidence, for neither to deny nor to affirm things 
credited is more unreasonable than to deny them." (The 
mss. give : " for to deny things accredited is more un- 
reasonable than neither to deny nor to affirm them.") 

Confronted with a conflict of views Arcesilaiis refused 
assent or denial to either, as either might be errone- 

177 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

ous, and the sage does not err (Cicero, Acad, Pr. ii. 20 
[66]). For the actions of daily life, however, a criterion 
was expected, and Arcesilaiis' was the " reasonable " 
(eulogon : cf. Sextus, Against the Mathematicians, vii. 
158). The Epicurean objector here (probably Colotes 
himself) has this criterion in mind as his term " un- 
reasonable " (paralogos) would indicate. In these 
daily decisions we are guided by accepted beliefs 
among other things, and paralogos means not only 
" unreasonable " but running counter to all normal 
expectation or custom. To suspend judgement is it- 
self a most outlandish and unparalleled sort of thing, 
like the very actions that the " reasonable " is sup- 
posed to avoid. 

1124 b And so this doctrine of retaining judgement is 
no myth, as Colotes thinks, or bait to attract froward or 
flighty youth . . . 

Colotes knows Arcesilaiis' audience well ; it is his 
own. The word lamyros (" froward ") can mean 
" greedy " ; it is also used of women who invite 
advances. Like attracts like. u Flighty " or " pre- 
cipitate " makes a neat point. Arcesilaiis suspended 
judgement, since assent would be precipitate and un- 
worthy of a sage. The pupils may not be precipitate 
about assenting, but they are about acting. 

In his commentary on the Republic Proclus cites 
Colotes' censure of the myth (vol. ii, p. 105. 23-106. 
14, ed. Kroll) : 

Colotes the Epicurean reproaches Plato, saying that he 
abandons scientific truth and dwells on falsehood by telling 
myths like a poet, and not presenting demonstrations like 
a man of science ; and that in contradiction with himself 
he abused the poets in the preliminaries to this discussion 
for inventing stories about the underworld that arouse 
terror and fill their hearers with the fear of death, and then 

178 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

himself at the end transforms the philosophic Muse into a 
theatrical narration of myths about the world after death ; 
for, says Colotes, the bellowing opening in that passage and 
the savage and fiery executioners of the tyrant and Tartarus 
and the rest — how do they leave tragedians any room for 
going further ? And his third objection is that such myths 
must have a good deal of purposelessness. For they are 
not adapted to the multitude, who cannot even see their 
meaning, and they are superfluous for the wise, who have 
no need of being made better by such terrors. Since then 
they [presumably, writers of myths] cannot find an answer 
to the question : for whom are they written ? they show 
that their exertions in the matter of telling myths are 
purposeless. 

(" Philosophic Muse " comes from the Philebus [67 b 
6], though Colotes may also have had Republic, vi, 
499 d 4 and Phaedo, 61 a 3-4 in mind.) Arcesilaus' 
doctrine is a " myth " in part because of the poetry 
of his style (cf. memousomenos, 1121 f). 

1124 d ... as the book nears the end Colotes says : 
" The men who appointed laws and customs and established 
the government of cities by kings and magistrates brought 
human life into a state of great security and peace and de- 
livered it from tumults. If somebody should take all this 
away we shall live a life of beasts and anyone who chances 
upon another will all but devour him." 

The dogmatists had said that the Pyrrhonist would 
be capable of butchering his own father and eating 
the flesh (Diogenes Laertius, ix. 108). Epicurus did 
not go so far, we may suppose, in his picture of 
primitive life ; hence the qualification " all but." 
We have Plutarch's word for it that Colotes did not 
mention Arcesilaus by name ; " somebody " has 
here the meaning " a certain somebody." Arcesilaus 
is doing something that will nullify all law and custom, 
and this will end in a return to primitive conditions, 

179 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

which for man in his present softened state will be 
fatal. Thus Arcesilaiis destroys " life " in the sense 
not only of civilization but of existence itself. We 
are told that he introduced the practice of arguing 
both sides of a question (Diogenes Laertius, iv. 28 ; 
cf. Cicero, Acad. Post. i. 12 [45] and Acad. Prior, ii. 3 
[7] with Reid's note). This was a way of enforcing 
his view that affirmative and negative arguments on 
any point are in even balance (1124 a). This con- 
trasting of opposing views, for the purpose of winning 
hearers from an attachment to either, could easily be 
applied to legislation ; indeed the Pyrrhonists so 
applied it (cf. Diogenes Laertius, ix. 83). The result 
to be expected is the nullification of law. We shall 
therefore be reduced to the condition of man before 
the institution of laws and government. What this 
was we may see from the account in the fifth book of 
Lucretius : " Men were unable to keep in view a 
common good nor had they the wit to observe custom 
or law in their dealings with one another. Whatever 
prize chance offered, each carried off, since each had 
instinctively learned to use his strength and live for 
himself" (958-961). In verses 1011-1027 Lucretius 
says that this changed with the discovery of houses, 
clothing and fire, and the establishment of marriage. 
Love for wife and children softened men. Neigh- 
bours were now ready to become friends and avoid 
mutual injury ; if most had not observed this com- 
pact the race would have perished. (That is, they 
had been so far softened that a return to the earlier 
state would have been fatal.) Then (1105-1150) the 
more intelligent became kings and began to build 
cities and citadels for their own security. Next kings 
were overthrown through jealousy, and mob rule and 

180 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

turbulence ensued. As a result people instituted 
magistracies held in rotation (thus avoiding the jeal- 
ousy) and set up laws, since the race was worn out 
by unending hostilities. 

We notice one slight discrepancy between Lucre- 
tius and Colotes. Lucretius lets kings precede magis- 
trates, and come to power by their superior intelli- 
gence. Colotes makes both kings and magistrates a 
human institution. It may be that Lucretius or his 
source has abbreviated here, and mentioned only 
what happened in certain parts of the world, includ- 
ing most of Greece. Elsewhere kings survived, and 
contrived to make their office a legal one. 

Colotes' work was short, probably in a single book, 
as it was read and answered in a single session of 
Plutarch's school. There was also time to hear the 
protests of an outsider, Heracleides a ; and after the 
audience had dispersed, the circle around Plutarch — 
Theon, Aristodemus, and Zeuxippus — held under 
Theon's direction the discussion recorded in the Non 
Posse Suaviter Vivi Secundum Epicurum. Of the works 
that Plutarch presents as reports of lectures the De 
Audiendis Poetis occupies some twenty-three pages 
of the Frankfort edition, the De Audiendo eleven, the 
De Capiendo, ex Inimicis Utilitate six, the Adversus Co- 
lotem twenty. (The Non Posse Suaviter Vivi Secundum 
Epicurum covers about twenty-one.) It would take 
about an hour and a half to read the Adversus Colotem 

a Cf. Mor. 1086 e, supra. It is possible that the objections 
were actually made to the published book. Plutarch's ex- 
haustion (ibid., 1087 a) after the reply may have been real, 
but it allows the discussion in the Non Posse Suaviter Vivi 
Secundum Epicurum to be conducted in a gentler tone by 
the diffident Theon : thus Plutarch has taken account of 
Heracleides' protest, 

181 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

aloud at the usual rate of delivery for a lecture. If 
Colotes' work was as long as Plutarch's reply, the 
session would have had to be of twice the usual 
length. 

We pass to Plutarch's reply. After a short address 
to Saturninus, to whom the book is dedicated (as 
Colotes had dedicated his to Ptolemy II), Plutarch 
tells how his friends requested him to reply, after 
Aristodemus, alleging his anger, had refused. Plu- 
tarch is also afraid of appearing too angry, but will 
use the utmost freedom of language to defend the 
philosophers and the good life against the Epicureans. 

The harmful Epicurean views run through their 
philosophy. Colotes, on the other hand, has taken 
isolated statements out of their context, which ex- 
plained and supported them. Even so, most of the 
difficulties raised by Colotes will be found to apply to 
Epicurus himself. 

Democritus is first attacked, his reward for being 
Epicurus' teacher. The first charge is due to a mis- 
understanding of what Democritus said. And in any 
case the doctrine attacked can be derived from 
various statements made by Epicurus himself, as (1) 
that all sense impressions are true ; (2) that sensation 
occurs when some of the components of a mixture 
penetrate passages in the sense organs that they ex- 
actly fit ; (3) that wine can either be heating or 
cooling ; (4) that colours are not intrinsic to bodies. 
The second charge is true, and applies even more 
obviously to Epicurus. 

Plutarch passes to the attack on Empedocles, who 
denied that things have a " nature " or death ; there 
is nothing but a mixing and unmixing of components. 
If this means that life becomes impossible Epicurus 

182 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

is liable to the same charge on the same grounds, 
indeed more liable, as Empedocles allowed his ele- 
ments certain qualities beyond mere impenetrability 
and rigidity. If Empedocles merely objects to the 
use of the word " nature " for " a natural thing," the 
point is merely verbal and gives no occasion for 
Colotes' attack ; Epicurus himself would have had 
to admit that by " nature " he meant no more. 
Plutarch, however, believes that the interpretation 
of " nature " as birth is the correct one, and that 
Empedocles is merely denying generation from 
nothing. 

Parmenides is now taken up. Plutarch does not 
deny the sophistries, but insists they are not shame- 
ful : they have had no harmful moral or religious 
consequences, and for one so ancient, Parmenides 
has done well. But he has called the universe one. 
So too does Epicurus ; and when he divides this 
singular universe into two, bodies and the void, and 
takes the void to be nothing, he leaves us with a 
unity (which Plutarch does not call by the plural 
" bodies " but by the singular " infinity "). The 
charge is not pressed ; Plutarch quickly adds that 
the Epicurean infinity and void lead nowhere, whereas 
Parmenides combines as elements the light and dark 
and produces a world. Parmenides is distinguishing 
between the world of the intelligible and the world 
of opinion or sensation, as Plato did even more dis- 
tinctly in his theory of ideas. 

We thus pass to Plato. Colotes shows his lack of 
instruction when he says that Aristotle and the Peri- 
patetics followed the doctrines of Plato that are here 
impugned. What Plato is actually doing is to dis- 
tinguish between the world of being, the exemplar, 

183 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

and the world of becoming, the imitation ; he is not 
doing away with the latter. 

Socrates comes next. Plutarch first deals with the 
abuse. The charge of vulgarity is answered by citing 
choice samples of liberties taken by the Epicureans 
with religious terms and acts ; and the charge of not 
living up to his doctrine by mentioning the heroic 
acts of Socrates' life. Socrates' treatment of the 
senses is defended by the Epicurean doctrine that 
only the sage is unalterably convinced of anything. 
Colotes was not reckoned a sage (like Metrodorus) ; 
how then can he put such trust in the senses ? 
Actually our responses to appearances are not a matter 
of dogmas or reasoning at all, but are due to causes 
in which reason has no part. 

Next Colotes ridicules Socrates for saying that he 
did not even know himself. Plutarch points out the 
source and shows the true sense of the remark from 
the context. Socrates is here asking " What is 
man ?," a question faced by many others, Epicurus 
included ; Colotes never reached that stage. And 
granting it to be a foolish question, how does it pre- 
vent us from living ? 

Stilpon's denial of all but identical predication is 
taken by Plutarch as a jest, a puzzle presented to the 
sophists to solve. It does not make us live worse, 
like the Epicurean views that forbid us to attach to 
the gods the ancient epithets that describe their 
beneficence and concern, or the Epicurean denial of 
" meaning," which makes thought impossible. 

Plutarch now attacks Colotes for not mentioning 
by name the two contemporary schools he assails, 
although he made free with the eminent names of the 
past ; it must have been cowardice. (It was conven- 

184 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

tional not to mention by name a contemporary you 
were attacking, and as with other courtesies the 
motives differed in different cases.) Plutarch identi- 
fies the first contemporary school as the Cyrenaics, 
the second as the Academy of Arcesilaiis. 

The first school (the Cyrenaics) refused to make 
pronouncements about external objects, and confined 
themselves to statements about their sensations. 
Plutarch attacks Colotes for formulating this philo- 
sophy not in the words of the school, but in his own 
comic neologisms (1120 d). Plutarch then shows that 
the Epicureans similarly accept the impressions as 
true but in the case of illusions deny the interpreta- 
tion ; and when they use one act of sensation to con- 
firm or discredit another they let opinion decide 
about the truth, trusting fallible opinion more than 
the " truthful " sensations. 

Arcesilaiis is the last of the philosophers discussed. 
Plutarch traces the attack on Arcesilaiis to Epicurus' 
jealousy of him. The charge that Arcesilaiis said 
nothing original is met with the charge of the sophists 
of the day, who alleged that he fathered his views on 
Socrates, Plato, Parmenides, and Heracleitus. Plu- 
tarch thanks Colotes for vindicating the doctrine as 
an ancient tradition. 

The doctrine of suspended judgement has not been 
shaken by far more elaborate and philosophical as- 
saults. Plutarch proceeds to expound it, and shows 
that the Epicurean objection that we must " assent " 
to plain evidence is inconsistent with one of their own 
pronouncements, that we need no teacher — that is, 
no intervention of reason — to tell us that pleasure is 
good, but only to have sensation and be made of 
flesh. We Academics do not distort sensation by 

185 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

forcing assent on it ; we simply treat the irrational 
thing as its nature demands, that is, as irrational. 

The charge that it is more " unreasonable " to 
withhold assent and denial from " plain evidence " a 
is met by examples of the Epicureans' treatment of 
" plain evidence." They deny the consensus of man- 
kind when they deny religious beliefs and the natural 
affection of parent for child ; they deny our own 
feelings when they assert that there is no mean be- 
tween pleasure and pain, and they deny the plain 
evidence that sensation can err when they call the 
phantoms of madness and illusion real. It is actually 
more reasonable to distrust all sensation than to 
trust such sensations as these, as we must if all sensa- 
tions are equally true. 

Finally Plutarch takes a statement that Colotes 
had directed against Arcesilaiis (whom he did not 
name) and presents it as a most damning indictment 
of the Epicureans themselves. Colotes had praised 
the institutors of laws and customs for rescuing us 
from turbulence and war, and added that anyone 
who set out to destroy all this would reduce us to 
bestial savagery. This Plutarch denies ; even without 
our laws the doctrines of Parmenides, Socrates, Hera- 
cleitus and Plato will preserve us from such a life. It 
is the Epicurean doctrines that make laws necessary. 

° " Plain evidence " is the Epicurean term, which Plu- 
tarch treats as equivalent to " accredited beliefs " (ta pepi- 
steumena). The sceptics asserted that they would take certain 
actions, in spite of their suspension of judgement. Sextus 
(Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 23) distinguishes four cases : (1) 
we are guided by our nature, (2) we are compelled by our ex- 
periences, (3) we follow habits and usages, and (4) we follow 
the teaching of the arts. Plutarch's examples of Epicurean 
disregard of " plain evidence " can all be easily brought 
under the first three. 

186 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

And it is these doctrines that nullify the laws, and 
among them the religious beliefs of mankind. Plu- 
tarch then surveys the Epicurean views about law- 
givers and the Epicurean abstention from public 
office and contrasts the conduct of the other philo- 
sophers (omitting the Cyrenaics and Arcesilaiis, and 
compensating by the addition of Heracleitus and 
Melissus), and ends by saying that the Epicurean 
quarrel is not so much with the lawgivers whom they 
vilify as with law itself. 

The titles, preserved in the catalogue of Lamprias, 
of nine lost works show Plutarch's continuing concern 
with the problems of Academic scepticism : Ucpl ttjs 
€ts €Karepov kiriyeipiqo-ebiS /3c/3Xia e' (No. 45) " On 
Arguing Both Sides of a Question " in five books ; 
TLepl tov p'uxv etvou rrjv dirb tov Ukdrcovos 'A^aS^/Atav 
(No. 63) " On the Unity of the Academy Derived from 
Plato " ; Ilept rrjs 8ca<popas twv TlvppiDveioyv kolI 'Ako,- 
8r)fiaiKMv (No. 64) " On the Distinction Between the 
Pyrrhonists and Academics " ; Ile/n tov /xr) pdyewOai 
rrj pavriKrj tov 'AKadrjpa'iKov Xoyov (No. 131) " That 
the Reasoning of the Academics does not Conflict 
with Divination " ; SxoAat 'A/caSry/zat/cat (No. 134) 
"Academic Discussions " ; ILtpl twv Uvppuvos Se/ca 
T07ra)v [rpo7rcou ?] (No. 158) " On the Ten Modes of 
Pyrrhon " ; Hepl Kvprjvaiu)v [Kvp-qvaiKwv Bern.] (No. 
188) " On the Cyrenaics " ; Et dirpaKTos 6 irepl irdvTiiiv 
kirkytav (No. 210) " Whether One who Suspends 
Judgement about Everything Will be Unable to 
Act " ; and Titos Kpcvovpev rrjv dXrjOeiav (No. 225) 
" How we shall Judge the Truth." 

The dialogue is a companion piece to the Non Posse 
Suaviter Vim Secundum Epicurum. Ziegler ° dates it 

° Pauly-Wissowa, vol. xxi. 1, s.v. " Plutarchos," coll. 762 f. 

187 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

by the dedication to Saturninus, who was identified 
by E. Bourget a as L. Herennius Saturninus, procon- 
sul of Achaia in 98-99- If we press the remarks at 
1107 e, Saturninus was in a position of almost royal 
authority at the time of dedication. 

The scene of the dialogue is Plutarch's school, no 
doubt at Chaeronea. If the scene had been Delphi, 
we should have expected some indication of this in at 
least one of the companion dialogues. The essay is 
No. 81 in the Catalogue of Lamprias. 

Manuscripts E and B b alone preserve it entire. 
The Aldine was apparently printed from a lost twin 
of B. To these can be added ms. 517 of the library 
of St. Mark, which contains on fol. 67 v passages from 
1 126 c, c-d, and 1 125 d in the hand of Georgius Gemis- 
tus Plethon, c and ms. 429 of the State Library at 
Munich, which on fol. 119 v contains part of 1126 b. 
Neither manuscript presents variants significant 
enough to determine the affiliation of the text. We 
have collated the Aldine directly ; E, B, and the ex- 
cerpts from photostats. We record all differences 
between E and B. The translation of Epicurus' en- 
dearments has been taken from Paul Shorey's per- 
sonal copy of Bernardakis' edition. 

To the translations the following may be added : 

A. Ferronus, Phttarchi Chaeronei in Coloten Liber Pos- 
terior, Lugduni, 1555, pp. 9-75. (The " first book 

a De Rebus Delphicis Imperatoriae Aetatis (Montpellier, 
1905), p. 71. 

6 Traces of correction are found in B. Thus at 1120 e we 
have TTpos E : rov B. The original had rov superscribed over 
7rp6s\ meaning npos rov. At 1121 n we have rrpoaeXdovm E : 
eXOovcjL B. In the original ttpoo was expunged. 

c Cf. Aubrey Diller in Scriptorium, viii (1954), pp. 123-127 
and x (1956), pp. 27-41. 

188 



REPLY TO COLOTES 

against Colotes " is the Non Posse Suaviter Vivi 

Secundum Epicurum.) 
G. M. Gratii in Opuscoli Morali, di Plutarco Cheronese 

. . . Parte Seconda, Venice, 1598, pp. 317 v -329- 
A. G., " Against Colotes the Disciple and Favourite 

of Epicurus " in Plutarch's Morals, vol. v, Fifth 

edition, London, 1718, pp. 312-357. The first 

edition is dated London, 1684. 
J. J. Hartman in De Avondzon des Heidendoms 2 , part 

II, Leiden, 1912, pp. 240-252. Only chapters 1-3 

and 30-34 are translated. 
O. Apelt, Plutarch, Moralische Schriften, Bandchen I, 

Leipzig, 1926, pp. 1-55. 



189 



1107 D nPOS KQAQTHN 1 YnEP TON 

AAAftN OIAOSOOON 2 

E 1. ¥Lo)\a)Tr]S, OV ^TTLKOVpOS €LCO0€L KcoAcOTOLp&V* 

viroKopi^eodai koli Y^coAcordpiov y c5 Haropvlve,* 
jStjSAtov i£e8a>K€V emypaijjas rrepl rod on Kara ra 
tcov dAAcov (j>iAooocj>cov Soy/xara ovSe ^rjv ioTiv^ 
€K€lvo fJL€V ovv TlToAepLaitp Ttp jSacjtAet 7rpoo7T€(f)cb- 
vrfrar a 8e r\plv irrrjAdev elrrelv rrpos rov KcoAcoTrjv, 
r)8ecos dv olfiai ere yeypafifieva SieAOelv, (^iAokclAov 
/cat <f>i\apxaiov ovtol /cat to fiepivrjodaL kcll Sea 
ytipoov e^etv cos fidAiora Svvcltov ion tovs Aoyovs 
tcov rraAaicov ^aoiAcKajrdrrjv SiarpL^rjv rjyovfjbevov. 
2. "JZvayxos ovv dvayivcooKOfxevov rod ovyypdp,- 
jp fxaros eh tcov eraipcov, ' ApioToSrjpLos 6 Alycevs 
(otoOa yap rov dvSpa tcov i£ 'AKaSrjpLias ov vapOrj- 
Kocj)6pov dAAa ip,pLav€OTaTOV opytaorrjv TlAdrajvos), 
ovk ol8a 0770)9 Trapd to elcoOos iyKapTeprjoas 

OICOTTTJ KCLL TT apaO\C0V idLVTOV dKpOCLTTJV d\pl TeAot>9 

KoofiLOV, cos reAos eo)(€V rj dvdyvcoocs , " etev," 
€<j>7], " rlva tovtco puaxovpuevov dvLorapiev virep tcov 

1 K<i)Xa)TT]v Bern, and two mss. in Treu's apparatus to the 
Catalogue of Lamprias : koX. EB passim. 

2 vrtkp tcov dXXcov <f>iXoa6<f>cov Catalogue of Lamprias : irepi 
tcov dXXcov cf>iXoa6<f>cov E ; B omits. 

3 KcoXcoTapdv Cronert : KoXcoTcipav EB. 

4 HaTopvlve Aid. : oaTopvlXe EB. 

190 



REPLY TO COLOTES IN DEFENCE OF 
THE OTHER PHILOSOPHERS 

1. Colotes, my dear Saturninus, whom Epicurus' 1 
used to call affectionately his " Colly " and " Colli- 
kins," brought out a book entitled • On the Point 
that Conformity to the Doctrines of the Other Philo- 
sophers Actually Makes it Impossible to Live." This 
book he addressed to King Ptolemy ; you, I think, 
would enjoy perusing a written account of the answer 
it occurred to me to make to Colotes, as you are a 
lover of all that is excellent and old and consider it 
a most royal occupation to recall and have in hand, 
so far as circumstances allow, the teachings of the 
ancients. 

2. While the book was being read not long ago, 
one of our company, Aristodemus b of Aegium (you 
know the man : no mere thyrsus-bearer of Academic 
doctrine, but a most fervent devotee of Plato c ), with 
unusual patience somehow managed to hold his peace 
and listen properly to the end. When the reading 
was over he said : " Very well ; whom do we appoint 
our champion to defend the philosophers against this 

a Frag. 140 a (p. 346, ed. Usener). 

6 A speaker in the Non Posse Suaviter Vivi Secundum 
Epicurum ; otherwise unknown. 

c C/. Plato, Phaedo, 69 c : " Many the thyrsus-bearers, 
few the bacchants." 

191 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1107) (f)iXoa6(j>a>v ; ov yap dyapuac to 1 tov NeaTopos", 
iXeaOai Seov e/c tcov ivvea tov dpiGTov, eVt rfj 
rvxij 7Toiov\i£vov /cat 8iai<Ar]povvTos " " dXXa 
opqs," ecfrrjv, " on Katceivos liri tov KXrjpov iavTOV 
eTa^ev, a)GT€ tov <f)povijJLOJTdTov fipaftevovTOS yeve- 
odai tov KOLToiAoyov, 

1108 e/c S' edope KXfjpos KW€rjs ov dp* rjdeXov olvtol, 
Alolvtos. 

ov firjv dAA' et ov 7rpoGTOLTT€LS eXeodai 

ttcos civ kireiT 'OSvorjos 2 iyto detoio 3 XadoLp,7)v ; 

opa 8rj /cat okottzi ttcos dpivvfj tov dvSpa." /cat 6 
'ApioToSrjpbos, " dXX otoda," €<f>r], " to tov II Aa- 
Tojvog, otl to) ttcuSI xaXe7rr]vas ovk clvtos iveT€cve 
TrXrjyds dAAd YiTrevonnrov eKeXevoev, elncov clvtos 
opyl^eodai. KoX ov tolvvv 7TapaXafid)v /cdAa£e 4 tov 
dvOpcorrov 0770)? jSouAer iycb ydp 6pylt ) op J aiy 
Td avTa Stj /cat tcov dXXcov TrapaKeXevopuevcov 
B " Ae/cre'ov pcev," ec/trjv, " apa, <f)ofiovp,ai Se pur) 86£co 
/cat avTos €G7rovSaK€vai pbdXXov t) Set Trpos to 
j3t/3AtW vtt' opyrjs 5 St' dypoLKiav /cat j8a>/xoAo^tav 
/cat vfipiv tov dvdpti)7Tov x°P TOV Twa irpofidXXovTOS 
Gvvrjdtos 6 Soj/cpdret /cat 77009 ets to OToixa to oltlov 

1 ayafjLcu to Cobet (aya/xat Aid. 2 and Stephanus) : ayav fol- 
lowed by a blank of 4 letters EB. 

2 oSvcrrjos E : oSvggtjos B. 

3 deioio B : deloi E. 

4 Ko\a£,€ Reiske : KOfii^e EB. 

5 v7t' > opyrjs Wyttenbach : vnep rrjs EB. 

6 avvrjdajs nos : iodrjoecos E ar (apparently) ; a blank of 3 
letters in E r , of 5 in B, followed by rjoecos (01 epcoTrjoecos Poh- 
lenz ; dvrl airtjaecos Bern.). 

192 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1107-1108 

man ? For I hardly admire Nestor's plan a of leaving 
the matter to the chance of the lot when the thing 
to do was to choose the best of the nine." " But 
you observe," said I, " that he also appointed himself 
to cast the lots, so that the selection should take 
place under the direction of the most prudent b of the 
company, and 

Out of the helmet leapt the lot of Ajax, 
That all desired. c 

But since you direct that a choice shall be made, 

How could I then forget godlike Odysseus ? d 

Look to it then and consider what defence you will 
make against the man." Aristodemus replied : " But 
you know how Plato, 6 when incensed at his servant, 
did not beat him personally but told Speusippus to 
do it, saying that he himself was angry ; do you too 
then take the fellow in hand and chastise him as you 
please, since I am angry." 

As the others seconded his request I said : " I see 
then that I must speak ; but I fear that I too shall 
appear to take the book more seriously than is proper, 
in resentment at the insolent rudeness of the scurril- 
ous wag, who has a way of presenting Socrates with 
* grass ' and asking how comes it that he puts his 

° Homer, II. vii. 170-181 ; cf. Mor. 544 d. Hector chal- 
lenged the Greeks to single combat. Nine heroes volunteer, 
and Nestor selects the champion by lot. The scholiast 
answers an objection similar to Aristodemus'. 

6 Aristodemus is gently reminded that Plutarch is the 
director. 

c Homer, II. vii. 182-183. 

d Homer, II. x. 243 (and Od. i. 65) ; quoted also in Mor. 
55 b. 

* Cf. Mor. 10 d and 551 b with the note. 
vol. xiv H 193 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1108) ovk els to ovs ivrlOrjaiv epojTtovTos. aAA' lacos av 
eirl tovtois kglI yeAdoeie tis evvorjoas rrjv Zoj/cpa- 
tovs TTpaoTTjra Kal xdpiv 

vrrep ye /xeVrot navTos EAAyjvcov arparov 

tcov aXXojv cjyiAooocjycov , ev ols AripLOKpiTos eloi 1 /cat 
YIXoltojv /cat HtlAttojv /cat 'E/xTreSo/cA^? /cat Hap- 
fjLtvlSrjs /cat MeAiooos ol KaKcos aKrjKooTes, ov 

(XOVOV 

alo^pov aiojTTcLv 2 

aAA' ovSe ooiov evSovval Tt /cat v<f>eAeo9ai 3 rrjs 
C a/cpa? vnep avTcov Trapprjotas, els rovro So^rjs 
cf>iAooo<f>Lav irp o ay ay ovtcov. /catrot to fxev tfiv ol 
yovels fierd tcov decov rjpuv eScoKav, rrapa 8e tcov 
(j>iXoo6(f)OJV StKrjs /cat vopLOV avvepyov olop^eda Aoyov 
eiridvpucov KoAatJTTjv AajHovres ev Ifiv to 8e ev tftv 
eoTt koivcovlkcos £,rjv /cat cJ)lAikcos /cat ococppovcos 
/cat SiKaiws, cov ovdev diroAeiTrovoLv ol irepl yaoTepa 
Tayadov elvai fiocovTes, ovk av 8e tols dpeTas ojjlov 
Trdoas TeTprjfjbevov ^aA/cou npidp^evoi oiya ttjs rjSo- 
vrjs, 7rdor]s TiavTaypQev e^eAadeiorjs' evSelv 8e 
avTols tov rrepl decov /cat 0t>^? 4 Aoyov cos rj fiev 

1 €tat nos : eWi EB. 

2 alaxpov oiaynav B : alaxpo followed by a blank of 4 letters 
and 7rav E. 

3 vfaXeadai EB : v<f>Ua9at Wyttenbach ; v^iodat a conjec- 
ture in the margin of Turnebus' Aldine. 

4 0€a>v Kal tpvxfjs] <pvxvjs xal Seojv E ac . 

a From the Philoctetes of Euripides : Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag.) Eur. 796. The verse runs : 

"It were shame 
To hold my peace and let barbarians speak." 

194 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1108 

food in his mouth and not in his ear. But this per- 
haps might even make you laugh when you think of 
Socrates' unruffled wit ; 

Yet in defence of all the Grecian host 

— of all the other philosophers, among whom Demo- 
critus, Plato, Stilpon, Empedocles, Parmenides, and 
Melissus are singled out for abuse — not only 

Is silence shameful a 

but to yield in the slightest and withhold the most 
outspoken language would be downright impiety in 
vindicating men who have brought philosophy to 
such high repute. Consider : life was bestowed on 
us by our parents with the aid of heaven ; but the 
good life, in our view, we owe to the philosophers, 
who gave us the reasoning that helps justice and law 
in curbing our lusts ; and to live the good life is to 
live a life of participation in society, of loyalty to 
friends, of temperance and honest dealing. But none 
of this is left to us b by those who keep shouting that 
the good is to be found in the belly c ; that they would 
not give a copper with a hole in it for all the virtues 
in a lump apart from pleasure, supposing pleasure 
totally banished from every one of them d ; and that 
the account they need of the gods and of the soul is 
an account that tells how the one is dissolved and 

6 The argument was used against the Academics : cf. 
Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 10 (31) : by destroying apprehension 
the Academics destroy philosophy and virtue and overthrow 
the very foundations of our life. 

c Metrodorus, Frag. 40 (ed. Korte) ; cf. 1125 a, infra and 
1087 d and 1098 d, supra. Setting up pleasure as the end 
is the ruin of the social virtues above all : cf. Cicero, Acad. 
Pr. ii. 46 (140). 

d Epicurus, Frag. 512 (ed. Usener). 

195 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1108) (X77oAAl>tou SiaXvdelaa, tols Se ovdevos 1 fieXei tojv 
J) Kad* rjfjL&s. tols fJL€V yap a'AAot? (j)i\oa6<f>ois iy- 

KoXoVGLV OVTOL StO, TO GO(j>OV OJS TO t^TJV dvaLpOVGLV, 

€K€ivoi 8e tovtois on tfqv dyevvojs 2 /cat 6r]pLO)8a)s 

SlSdaKOVGL. 

3. " KatVot ravra jiev iyKCKparat tols 'Em- 

KOVpOV AoyOt? KOLL 8ia7T€(f)olT7]K€V CLVTOV TTJS (f)l\o- 

aocf)ias' 6 8e KojAcot^? on <f>ojvds rivas epiqixovs 
TTpaypLarajp ajroGTTOJV /cat p*€pi} Xoyojv /cat orrapa- 
yfiara KOJ<f>d rod 3 fiefiaiovvros koX ovvepyovvros 
TTpos votjglv /cat it lor iv eXtcojv djorrep dyopdv rj 

TTLVCLKOL T€pdrOJV GVVTlOtjOL TO /3tj8AtW, tO"T€ 8r)7TOV 

rravros fiaXXov vpuels," ec/yrjv, " rd GvyypdjjLjjbara 

tojv TTokaioov 8id x et P°S ^X OVTe<s ' ^ OL 8e So/cet 

KaOdnep 6 AuSo? €</>' avrov dvoiyeiv ov 6vpav fxiav, 

E dXXa reds 7t\€lotolls tojv drropLOJv kolI fieyiarais 

7T€pLJ3dAA€LV TOV *YiTTLKOVpOV . 

* "Ap)(€TOLL yap drro ArjjjLOKpLTOV, /caAa, /cat rrpe- 
novTa StSao/caAta /co/xt£o/xeVoi> Trap* avTov. KaLTOL 

TToXvV XpOVOV OLVTOS eOVTOV dv7]y6p€V€ Arj[JLOKpLT€LOV 

6 ^TTLKOvpog, ojs a'AAot T€ XeyovoL /cat AeovTevs, 
ets* tojv err* dt<pov 'EnLKOvpov pLaOrjTcov, rrpos Av- 
Ko<f>pova ypd<f)OJV TL/Aaodat T€ (J)7]gl tov ArjpLOKpLTOV 
vtto 'J^TTLKovpov Std to rrpoTepov difjaodaL ttjs opdrjs 

1 ovdevos E : ovSevos B. 

2 dycvvcjs E C B : dyeva>s E ac ? 

3 KO)(t>a tov EB : Kcocfra Si^a tov Pohlenz ; Kaxfca Xoyov or 
KO)(f>a Xoyov rod Post. 

a Cf. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, 65. 
6 Cf. Epicurus, Frags. 361-364 (ed. Usener) ; Cardinal 
Tenet i. 

c Cf. Mor. 548 c. 

d Cf. Mor. 520 c for the " freak market " at Rome. 

196 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1108 

perishes a and the others care nothing for our affairs. b 
Thus these people charge the other philosophers with 
making life impossible by their wisdom, whereas the 
other philosophers charge them with teaching us to 
live ignobly and like the brutes. 

3. " Now these views permeate all of Epicurus' 
arguments and are found everywhere in his philo- 
sophy ; but the case is otherwise with the views 
attacked. Colotes detaches certain sayings shorn of 
their real meaning and rips from their context muti- 
lated fragments of argument, suppressing all that 
confirmed them and contributed to comprehension 
and belief, piecing his book together like the freaks 
on display in a market d or depicted in a painting, e 
as you who are of this company are of course well 
aware," I said, " versed as you are in the writings of 
the ancients. As I see it, he is opening the door f to 
his own ruin, like the Lydian, and not just one door ; 
no, most of his charges, and the gravest, demolish 
Epicurus. 

" He begins with Democritus, 9r who thus receives 
for his teaching a handsome and appropriate fee. 
And this although Epicurus 71 long proclaimed him- 
self a Democritean, as is attested among others by 
Leonteus, one of Epicurus' most devoted pupils, who 
writes to Lycophron that Democritus was honoured 
by Epicurus for having reached the correct ap- 

• Cf. 1123 c, infra, 

f Cf. Mor. 636 f. The proverb does not apparently occur 
elsewhere. The Lydian is no doubt Candaules : the door 
behind which he hid Gyges to see the queen disrobe was the 
same behind which she hid Gyges to murder his master 
(Herodotus, i. 9. 2, 12. 1). 

Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Demo- 
kritos, a 53. 

* Cf. Frag. 234 (ed. Usener) with the note. 

197 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1108) yvcouecos, Kal to ovvoXov rrjv n pay \xar eLav ArjjjLo- 

Kpireiov rrpooayopeveodai 8id ro irepiireoelv avrov 

rrporepov rals dp%als rrepl cjyvoecos. 1 6 8e Mrjrpo- 

8copos dvriKpvs ev rcp 2 '7repl c/>lXoo ocf) Las e'LprjKev cos 

E €L pur) TTpOKaOrjyrjoaro ArjfjuoKpLros ovk dv TrpofjXuev 

^TTtKOVpOS €7TL TTjV UO(f)LaV. ClAA' €L Kara T(X A^- 

fjLOKpLTov Soy/xara tfiv ovk eoriv, cos olerai KcoAco- 
tt)s, yeXolos rjv errl to pbrj l^rjv ayovri ArjpiOKpLrcp 
KaraKoXovdcov 6 'l&TTiKovpos. 

4. " 'EyAcaAet 8e avrco rrpcorov on rcov npa- 
ypbdrcov eKaorov elircov z ov /jl&XXov rolov rj rolov 
1109 €ivai ovyKeyyKe rbv fiLov. dAAa rooovrov ye A17- 
pLOKpiros diro8el rod vopuL^etv pbrj pbdXXov elvai 
rolov rj rolov rcov 7rpayfidrcov eKaorov chore Upco- 
rayopa rco oocf)iorfj rovro eirrovri /xe/xa^a^at Kal 
yeypa<f>evai 7roXXd Kal iridava npos avrov. ols 
ov8e ovap evrv^cov 6 KcoXcbrrjs eo<j)dXr] rrepl Xe^iv 
rod dvopoSy ev fj 8ioplt ) erai purj jjl&XXov ro ' 8ev ' rj 
ro i pLr]8ev ' elvai, ' 8ev ' fiev ovopbd^cov ro ocopia, 
' pb7]8ev ' 8e ro Kevov, cos Kal rovrov (f>voiv riva Kal 
viTooraoiv 18 Lav e^ovros. 

'O 4 S* ovv 86£as ro ' jjbr]8ev puaXXov elvai rolov 

fj rolov ' 'T&TTLKovpelcp Soyfian Key^pr\r ai rep ' ira- 

B eras' elvai ras 8C aloOrjoecos (f)avraoLas dXrjdels.' 

1 7T€pl (/>vo€cos E C B {-oiv E ac ?) : Hartman would delete ; 
Goerbing would place the words before 7rpay/Ltaretav, West- 
man after yvdbaecos. 

2 iv ra> added by Menagius. 

3 €L7rwv Xy lander : imwv EB. 

4 6 B : oE. 

a Frag. 33 (ed. Korte). 

6 Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Demo- 
kritos, b 156. 

198 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1108-1109' 

proach to knowledge before him, and that indeed his 
whole system was called Democritean because Demo- 
critus had first hit upon the first principles of natural 
philosophy. Metrodorus a states outright in his work 
On Philosophy that if Democritus had not shown the 
way Epicurus would not have attained to his wisdom. 
Yet if the principles of Democritus make it impossible 
to live, as Colotes supposes, Epicurus cuts a ridiculous 
figure as he follows in the footsteps of Democritus 
down the road to no more living. 

4. " Colotes first charges him with asserting that 
no object is any more of one description than of 
another, 6 and thus throwing our life into confusion. 
But so far is Democritus from considering an object 
to be no more of one description than of another that 
he has attacked the sophist Protagoras c for making 
this assertion and set down many telling arguments 
against him. Colotes, who is innocent of the slightest 
acquaintance with them, d mistook an expression in 
which Democritus e lays it down that ' aught ' is no 
more real than ' naught,' using the term ' aught ' of 
body and ' naught ' of empty space, meaning that 
space like body has a real existence of its own. 

" But whatever we think of that, whoever held that 
nothing is any more of one description than of another 
is following an Epicurean doctrine/ that all the im- 
pressions reaching us through the senses are true. 

c Cf. Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker^ Prota- 
goras, a 15. 

d Literally " who had not read them even in a dream." For 
the phrase see W. Headlam on Herondas, L 11, Solon, Frag. 
25. 2-3 (ed. Diehl 8 ), Simplicius on the Physics (p. 29. 2, ed. 
Diels), and Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Or. ii, p. 576. 

e Cf. Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, 
Demokritos, a 49. 

f Epicurus, Frag. 250 (ed. Usener). 

199 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1109) et yap Svolv XeyovTtov rod pbev avarrjpov elvai rov 
olvov rod 8e yXvKVv ov8eTepos i/jevSerai rrj aladrj- 

G€L, TL fJL&XXoV 6 olvOS aVOTTJpOS T) yXvKVS €OTL ,* 

/cat purjv Xovrpch ye rep avTco tovs puev ojs Oeppitp 
tovs 8e cos ifjvxpcp Xpco/xeVous 1 I8elv eoTW oi pbev 
yap i/jvxpov ol Se deppidv emfSaXXeiv KeXevovoi. 
rrpos Se JiepoviKTjv 1 rrjv Arjiordpov 2 tcov Aa/ceSat- 
fjLovlcov Tiva yvvaiKcov acj)iKeo6ai Xeyovoiv cos 8e 
eyyvs aXXiqXcov TrpoarjXOov, ev9vs a7TooTpa(f)rjvai 
rrjv B jjuev to paipov cos eoiKe ttjv Se to fiovrvpov 
8vo)(epdvaoav . etirep ovv purj pbdXXov eoriv rj ere pa 
rrjs ere pa? dXrjdrjs aladrjais, elhcos eon /cat to vScop 

C pur] fJL&XXov elvai ipvxpov fj deppidv Kal to pivpov /cat 
to fiovTvpov firj (jl&XXov evcoSes rj SvocoSes' el ydp 
avTo to* cf>aivopievov eTepov eTepco tj)doKei tis, dpi- 
cfroTepa 5 elvai Xeycov XeXrjOev. 

5. " At Se TToXvdpvXrjTOL 6 ovpipieTp tat /cat dp- 
jjiovlai tcov Trepl ra aloQrfrr\pia iropcov at Te ttoXv- 
pn^iai tcov OTrepfjLaTOJv, a 8tj rraoi ^u/xot? /cat d- 
opLaTs /cat xpoais 1 evSieoirappbeva Xeyovoiv eTepav 
eTepco 8 7Toi6tt)tos Kiveiv aioOrjoiv, ovk dvTiKpvs els 
to l jjl7] piaXXov ' Ta TTpdypuaTa ovveXavvovoiv av- 
toIs ; tovs yap olopievovs ifjevSeodai ttjv aioOrjoiv 
otl Ta evavTia Trddiq yivopieva tols xP a) l Ji ^ VOL ^ ^ L7TO 

D tcov avTcTw opcooi TrapapLvOovpLevoL SiSdoKovcriv cos 

1 BepovtKTjv nos : PeppovUrjv EB (i.e., po was superscribed 
over fiepvLKTjv or fizpeviKrjv). 

2 Arj'Crdpov Rasmus (Deiotarl Xylander ; ' Avmrdrpov 
Reiske) : drj'Cravpov EB. 3 rrjv] rov B ac ? * ? . 

4 avro to nos (to clvto Wyttenbach) : av to EB. 

5 dfjL^orepa EB : apLcfrorepov Benseler. 

6 7To\v9pv\r)TOL Diibner : TroXvdpvXkqTOL EB r (ttoXKv- B ar ). 

7 ^poat? nos : ^potats EB. 

8 irepco E : irepas B (irepajv Aid.). 
200 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1109 

For if one of two persons says that the wine is dry 
and the other that it is sweet, and neither errs in his 
sensation, how is the wine any more dry than sweet ? 
Again, you may observe that in one and the same 
bath some treat the water as too hot, others as too 
cold, the first asking for the addition of cold water, 
the others of hot. There is a story that a Spartan 
lady came to visit Beronice, a wife of Deiotarus. & No 
sooner did they come near each other than each 
turned away, the one (we are told) sickened by the 
perfume, the other by the butter. If then one sense- 
perception is no more true than another, we must 
suppose that the water is no more cold than hot, and 
that perfume or butter is no more sweet-smelling 
than ill-smelling ; for he who asserts that the object 
itself is what appears one thing to one person and 
another to another has unwittingly said that it is 
both things at once. 

5. " As for the old story of the ' right size ' and ' per- 
fect fit ' c of the passages in the sense organs, and on 
the other hand the multiple mixture of the ' seeds ' 
that they say are found dispersed in all savours, odours, 
and colours so as to give rise in different persons to 
different perceptions of quality, do not these theories 
actually compel objects in their view to be no more 
this than that ? For when people take sensation to be 
deceptive because they see that the same objects have 
opposite effects on those resorting to it, these thinkers 
offer the reassuring explanation that since well- 

° Otherwise unknown. 

6 Four Galatian kings or princes of the name are known. 
They belong to the first century b.c. 

c C/. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, 47, 49, 50, 53, Letter 
to Pythocles, 107, and Frag. 284 (ed. Usener). Korte assigns 
the whole of chapter 5 to Metrodorus (Frag. 1). 

201 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1109) avaTT^vpfxevcjov koli ovpLpbefJuyfjievcov 1 o/jlov tl 2 irdv- 
tojv, dXXov 8e dXXco jre^VKoros evapjxoTTeiv , ovk 
eon rfjs avrrjs irao* ttolottjtos iiracfyrj koll dvri- 
Xr]ifjis ovSe rrdai Tot? Repeal Kivel rrdvras Jjoolvtojs 

TO V7TOK€LfJL€VOV y dXXd €K€LVOL$ (EKOLCFTOL fJLOVOLS IvTVy- 

XavovTes iTpos a ovfJLf.teTpov 4, €xovgl ttjv olloOtjolv, 
ovk 6pdd)s hiap,dxovrai rrepl rod ^/o^arov rj 7rovrjp6v 
rj XevKov rj fjurj XevKov etvou to 7rpayp,a y rots' avrcbv 
oIojjlzvol fieficuovv alaOrjoeis ra> rds dXXrjXwv 5 dvai- 
pelv Set 8e aloOrjoet puev jJLrjSefJua p,d")(€o6ai* — 
rrdoai yap aTTrovrat nvos y olov €K Trrjyrjs rrjs 
E TToXvpLi^ias eKaorrj Xafjbfidvovoa to 7Tpoo(f)opov koli 

OLK€LOV , SXoV 8e fJUTj KOTTf/Op^LV aTTTOjAeVOVS {JL€- 

pdjv, fJLrjSe to olvto Selv oleodai Trdoyziv diravTas, 
dXXovs kclt dXXrjv ttolott^to koll Svvapuv aVTOV 
Trdoj(ovTas . 

' r '£lpa 8rj 8 OKoirelv tlvzs pu&XXov dvdpcoTroi to 
* (JL7j 9 [jl&XXov ' iirdyovcn tols rrpdypbaoiv rj ot ttcLv 
p,€v to alodrjTov KptifJLa TTavTohairdjv ttolottjtcuv 
drro^aivovoL 

ov\jl\xlktov ojare yAzvKos vAioTrjpiov, 

eppetv Se o/xoAoyoucrt tovs Kavovas olvtois koI 

1 GVfjLfjL€{jiLyiJL€va)v E : (jv[i[iiyvv\iivoiv B. 

2 rt E : tol B (and so B at Mot. 579 c, 872 c, 1059 d, 1 1 12 f, 
1113 c, and 1125 d). 

3 irdai added by Reiske after cVa^, placed here by Poh- 
lenz. 4 a ovjjLfjLtTpov VAVyP : aau/x/t. B*. 

5 dAArJAa^ EB* : d'AAa^ B lss » 2 yp. 

6 jLt^Se/xta fidx^odai Diibner (/^Se/ua hiapidx^odai Reiske) : 
ixrjhk Siafxax^crdai EB. 7 belv oteadat E : ol€g0 ai Selv B. 

8 wpa Sr] Wyttenbach : apa 817 E ; apa 8ei B. 

202 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1109 

nigh everything is mixed and compounded with every- 
thing else, and since different substances are naturally 
adapted to fit different passages, the consequence is 
that everyone does not come into contact with and 
apprehend the same quality, and again the object 
perceived does not affect everyone in the same way 
with every part. What happens instead is that 
different sets of persons encounter only those com- 
ponents to which their sense organs are perfectly 
adjusted, and they are therefore wrong when they 
fall to disputing whether the object is good or bad 
or white or not white, imagining that they are con- 
firming their own perceptions by denying one an- 
other's. The truth of the matter is that no sense-per- 
ception should be challenged, * as all involve a contact 
with something real, each of them taking from the 
multiple mixture as from a fountain what agrees with 
and suits itself; and we should make no assertions 
about the whole when our contact is with parts, nor 
fancy that all persons should be affected in the same 
way, when different persons are affected by different 
qualities and properties in the object. 

" It is time to consider the question : who are more 
chargeable with imposing on objects the doctrine 
that nothing is more this than that, than those who 
assert that every perceptible object is a blend of 
qualities of every description, 

Mixed like the must entangled in the filter, 6 
and who confess that their standards would go glim- 

° Cf. Epicurus, Cardinal Tmets xxiii and xxiv. 
b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag. % Adesp. 420. 



9 fir) E C B : fia E ac ? 
10 vAlgttJplov Emperius : avX^r-qpiov EB. 



203 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1109) TTavTairaoiv ot'xecr#at to Kpirrjpiov, eirrep 1 elXiKpives 
aiudrjTov otlovv /cat pbr) iroXXd e/caarov omeXirrov. 

6. " "Opa Se 2 a irepl tov olvov rfjs deppLOTrjTos 
ev rep HvjXTroatq) HoXvollvov 3 aura) 4 ScaXeyofievov 

F *YmiKOVpOS 7T€7rOt7jK€. XlyOVTOS ydp, ' OV (f)f]S 

etrat, 5 c3 'FiTTLKOvpe, ras vtto tov olvov Staflep^ita- 
oias ; \ vneXape, ' tl Set 6 to kolOoXov deppuavTLKOv 
aTTO(f)aiveodai top olvov etVat; ' /cat /xera ofMKpov, 
' (f>aiv€Tai fjbev yap S07 to kcl96Xov ovk elvou deppuav- 
tlkos 6 olvos, Tov8e Se' tivos 6 tooovtos elvai 7 9ep- 
fjbavTiKos av prfieiq! /cat ttoXlv olItlclv virenribv 
dXiifjeis T€ /cat hiaoiTopas aToputov, eTepojv Se ovpu- 
1110 [Jii^eis /cat Trapat^ev^eLS alTiaodpuevos iv ttj irpos to 
owpLa /caTa/xi^et tov olvov, eVtAe'yet, ' Sto St) kol96- 
Xov pbev ov prjTeov tov olvov etrat deppuavTLKov, ttj? 

Se TOLaVTTfS (f>VG€(JL>S /Cat T7JS OVTOJS 8LCLK€LpL€Vr)S 6ep- 
pLOLVTLKOV TOV TOOOVTOV , Tj TTJohe TOV TOGOVTOV €LVCLL 
ifjVKTLKOV. €V€LOL ydp /Cat TOtaUTat €V Tip TOLOVTCp 
d6pOLG>(JLOLTL (f>VO€LS €% COV dv ijjV^pOV OVOTCLLT) 7] at 

dv rrapd 8 erepat? tt apathy etaat ifjvxpaoLas (/>volv 
dTTOTeXeaeLav o6ev e^anaTcopbevoL oi p,ev i/jvktlkov 

TO KadoXoV (f)OLOLV CLVOLL TOV olvOV OL Se deppLCLVTLKOV.' 

f O or] Xeycov e^rjiraTrjodaL tovs ttoXXovs to 

1 eiVep Emperius (dv, eZirep Madvig) : dvnep EB. 

2 Se E : 8?j B. 

3 HoAvaivov Turnebus, Xylander : TroXvhivov EB. 

4 avTto Usener : aura) EB. 

5 (j>rjs €lvoll Basle edition of 1542 : cfrrjolv EB. 

6 rt Set nos (tl Se'; tovto a eVetore Pohlenz ; ris Se [reading 

204 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1109-1110 

mering and the criterion of truth quite disappear if 
they permitted any sense-object whatsoever to be 
purely one thing and did not leave every one of them 
a plurality ? 

6. " Consider the discussion that Epicurus in his 
Symposium a presents Polyaenus as holding with him 
about the heat in wine. When Polyaenus asks, * Do you 
deny, Epicurus, the great heating effect of wine ? ', 
he replies, ' What need is there to generalize that 
wine is heating ? ' A little later he says, ' For it ap- 
pears that it is not a general fact that wine is heat- 
ing, but a given quantity of wine may be said to be 
heating for a given person/ Again, after assigning 
as one cause the crowding and dispersal of atoms, 
and as another, the mixture and alignment of these 
with others, when the wine is mingled with the body, 
he adds in conclusion, 6 ' Therefore one should not 
generalize that wine is heating, but only say that this 
amount is heating for this constitution in this condi- 
tion, or that that amount is chilling for another. For 
in an aggregate such as wine there are also certain 
natural substances of such a sort that cold might be 
formed of them, or such that, when aligned with 
others, they would produce a real coolness. Hence, 
deceived by this, some generalize that wine is cooling, 
others that it is heating/ 

" If then the man who asserts that the majority 

° Frag. 58 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Mor. 652 a and the Aristo- 
telian Problems, iii. 5 (871 a 28 ff.) and iii. 26 (874 b 23 ff.). 

6 Frag. 59 (ed. Usener). 

on-o^atWrat] Usener ; tls ov Basle edition of 1542 ; rls odv 
dvdyKrj Reiske) : tls oe EB. 

7 etvai Basle edition of 1542 : el EB. 

8 rj at aV napd nos : et Se'ov ye EB (rj at els SeW ye Pohlenz ; 
rj at ye Usener). 

205 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1110) _ ( 

td depjjicuvov OepfjLavTLKov fj to i/jvxov i/jvktlkov vtto- 
XapbfidvovTas , el [irj vo/xt'£ot to jjltj puaXAov elvai 

TOIOV fj TOIOV €KCLGTOV dhCoXovdeiV OLS elpTjKeV > CLVTOS 

e^rjiranqrai . 

UpoGTidrjoi Se otl ' rroXXaKis ovSe rjXdev els to 

GCOJJLCL depfJLaVTLKTjV eTTlcjxEptOV fj l/jVKTLKTjV SvVafJLLV 6 

olvos, dAAct KivrjdevTos tov oyKov koli yevopievrjs 

TGOV GCDpLOLTCOV {leTOLGTOLOeaJS at 7TOlOVOai TO OepfJiOV 

OLTOfAoi vvv puev ovvrjXdov els to olvto /cat irapeGypv 

V7TO TrXlfjdoVS depjJLOTTjTa /Cat TTVpOJGlV TO) OcbfJLCLTL, 

vvv Se eKireoovoai KaTeifjv£av.' 

7. " "On 1 Se tovtols rrpos rrdv eort 2 xprjadai to 
KaXovpuevov /cat vofju^ofxevov iriKpov yXvKV Kadap- 
tlkov vttvcotlkov (f)OJTeiv6v, cos ovSevos e^OVTOS 
C avTOTeXrj TroioTTjTa /cat Svvapuv ovSe SpcovTOS /xaA- 
Xov fj iraoxovTOS otclv eyyevrjTcu 3 tols crcbfAaaiv, 
dXXrjv Se ev clXXols Sia<f>opdv /cat Kpacriv Xapb^dvov- 
tos, ovk dSrjXov* eoTiv. avTos yap ovv 'Em'/coupo? 5 
ev too SevTepco tcov 7Tpos Qe6(f>paoTov ovk elvai 
Xeycov ret xpoopLdTa ovfufyvr) toXs ocojxaaiv, aAAa 
yevvaodai* /caret iroids Tivas relets /cat Oeoeis 1 trpos 

TTjV OlplV, OV jJbdXXoV (f)7jGl KCLTCL TOVTOV TOV X6yOV 

axptofJuaTicFTOv croj/xa elvai fj* ^pto^Lta e^oy. 

'AvcoTepoo Se /caret Xe£iv raura yeypa<j>ev 

dXXd /cat x°°pls tovtov tov puepovs ovk otSa ottgos 

Set ret ev too cr/coret raura oVra <j>rjoai ^pco/xara 

1 on Reiske : en EB. 

2 rrpos 7T&v ion Reiske : rrpo€7Taviorr) EB. 

3 iyyivqrai Reiske : iyyivcuvrai EB. 

4 dS-qXov Reiske : aorjXos EB. 

5 imKOvpos E : 6 irriKovpos B. 
6 yewaodai E : yevaoS 'at B. 

7 razees kclI Oeoeis] Oeoeis Kal rd£eis E ac . 
8 rj E C B : E ac omits. 

206 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1110 

are deceived in supposing that what heats is heating 
or what cools is cooling should refuse to recognize 
* Everything is no more this than that ' as a conclu- 
sion from his premises, he is himself deceived. 

" He proceeds to add/* 'And often the wine does 
not even possess the property of heating or cooling as 
it enters the body. Rather, the bodily mass is so set 
in motion that the corpuscles shift their position : the 
heat-producing atoms are at one time concentrated, 
becoming numerous enough to impart warmth and 
heat to the body, but at another time are driven out, 
producing a chill.' 

7. "It is not hard to see that this reasoning may 
be applied to every object called or commonly held 
to be bitter, sweet, cathartic, soporific, or luminous : 
that none has a self-contained quality or potency or 
is more active than passive on entering the body, but 
acquires different properties as it blends with different 
bodies. Accordingly Epicurus b himself in the second 
book of his Reply to Theophrastus, when he says that 
colours are not intrinsic to bodies but a result of 
certain arrangements and positions relative to the 
eye, is asserting by this reasoning that body is no 
more colourless than coloured. 

" Earlier in the work he writes w r ord for word as 
follows c : ' But even apart from the discussion on 
this head, I do not see how one can say that these 

a Frag. 60 (ed. Usener). 

b Frag. 30 (ed. Usener). Epicurus was probably answering 
Theophrastus' attack on the Democritean view of perceptible 
qualities (De Causis Plantarum, vi. 2 ; De Sensu, 68-83 
[where 72-82 deal with colour]). See Zeller, Die Philosophic 
der Griechen, vol. ii. 2 4 , p. 853. 

c Frag. 29 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Lucretius, ii. 746-747, 795- 
798. 

207 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1110) €X€LV. KCLLTOL 7ToXXaKL£ depOS OfJLOLOJS gkotojSovs 

D TT€piK€yy\ievov ol [lev alodavovrai xP^pLaTCOv Sta- 
(fropas 1 ol Se ovk aloOdvovrai St' dpbfiXvTrjTa rfjs 
Si/jews* ere Se eloeXdovTes etV OKOTeivov oXkov ov- 
Sepuav oipiv ^pco/xaros" opcopuev, dvapieivavTes Se 
JJLLKpOV 6pa)jJL€v. } ov fJbdXXov ovv e^ety V PV ^X €tv 
Xpcofia prjOrjaerai rtov acopbdrcov eKaoTOV. el Se to 

XP&fAa 7Tp6$ TL y KOI TO XeVKOV €OTOU TTpOS TL KOLl 

to kvolvovv, el Se raura, /cat to yXvKV /cat to jti- 
Kp6v y djoTe /caret Trdorjs 7tol6tt]tos dXr^dojs to p,r] 
pudXXov elvai rj purj elvac KdTiqyopeZodaf toIs yap 
ovtco irdoxovoiv earat tolovtov, ovk ecrrat Se Tots* 
jj/rj Trdaxovoi. 
E " Tov ovv j36p/3opov /cat tov rapa^ov 2 ev & cfrrjOL 
yiveodai tovs to t paqSev pudXXov ' e7TL(f)6eyyopbevov9 
rot? irpdyp,aoiv y eavTOV /caraa/ceSawucrt /cat tov 
KaOrjyepiovos 6 I^coXcottj^, 

8. " *Apa ovv evTavda piovov 6 yevvalos 

cLXXojv tarpo? avTOS eA/cecrty 3 ftpveov 

dvoLTTefirjvev ; ov piev ovv*' aAA' ert pc&XXov ev ra> 

SevTepcp tlqv eiriTipiripbdTOJV XeXrjde tco A^/xo/c/otra) 

tov 'EiTTiKovpov e/c tov ^rjv ovve^codchv . to yap 

vopuo XP° L V V € *vaL /cat vopup yXvKV ' /cat vopicp 

1 Sia^opas" Aid. : $ia<f>opas EB. 

2 rdpaxov Wyttenbach (tttjXov Amyot ; rv<j>ov van Herwer- 
den) : t followed by a blank of 8 letters E, 6 B. 

3 cXkgglv Nauck : lA/cccrt EB. 

4 ov fjb€v ovv Bern. : ovfievovv EB. 

a For the inclusion of this sentence in the fragment of 

208 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1110 

objects in the dark have colour. True, it often hap- 
pens that when objects are enveloped in air of the 
same degree of darkness, some people perceive a dis- 
tinction of colour while others whose eyesight is weak 
do not ; again, on first entering a dark room we see 
no colour, but do so after waiting a short time/ a 
Therefore no body will any more be said to have colour 
than not. If colour is relative, white and blue b will 
be relative ; and if these, then also sweet and bitter, 
so that of every quality we can truly say, ' It is no 
more this than it is not this ' ; for to those affected in 
a certain way the thing will be this, but not to those 
not so affected. 

1 'Accordingly the slime and confusion in which 
Colotes says those people become mired who say of 
things ' no more this than that ' are slime and con- 
fusion that he dumps on himself and his master. 

8. " Is it here alone that our friend turns out to 
be a 

Healer of others, full of sores himself ? c 

Not at all ; in his second charge he fails even more 
signally to notice that along with Democritus he ex- 
pels Epicurus from the company of the living. He 
says that Democritus' d words * colour is by conven- 
tion, sweet by convention/ a compound by convention, 

Epicurus see R. Westman, Plutarch gegen Kolotes : seine 
Schrift "Adversus Colotem " als philosophiegeschichtliche 
Quelle (Acta Philosophica Fennica, Fasc. vii, 1955), Helsing- 
fors, 1955, pp. 141-143. 

b Plutarch is thinking of the colour of the sea : cf. Cicero, 
Acad. Pr. ii. 33 (105). 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Eur. 1086 ; quoted also in 
Mor. 71 f, 88 d, and 481 a. 

d Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Demo- 
kritos, a 49, b 9, 117, 125. 

209 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1110) ovyKpioiv 1 /cat ra d'AAa, ' irefj Se to kzvov /cat 2 ra? 

oltojjlovs ' dvTeiprjpiivov 3 cprjolv vtto ArjfjLOKptrov 

F rats* alaO^aeoiy /cat top e/x/xeVovra tlo Xoyq) tovtoj 

/cat xptojAZVOv ov8 y av oa)tov x cos avOptorros 5 ioriv 

r) £77 SiavorjOrjvai. 

YlpOS TOVTOV dvT€lTT€lV p,€V Ov8tV €^OJ TOV Ao~ 

yov, etTretv Se on ravra twv 'RiTiKovpov Soy/xdrajv 
ovtcds d^copioTa eoTLV cos to o)(rjpia /cat to fiapos 
avTol ttjs oltojjlov Xeyovoi. tl yap Ae'yet ArjpioKpi- 
tos ; ovoias aTreipovs to ttXtjOos aTopiovs re /cat 
d8iacj>dopovs , 6 ert Se olttolovs /cat aTradels, iv tw 
K€va> (f)€pecj9ai SteoTra/o/xeVas" orav Se 77eAdaa>crtv 
1111 aXXrjXous r) ovpuTreocooiv rj TrepnrXaKcooi <j>aiveo6ai 
tcov ddpoi^opbevcov to p,ev v8cop to Se Trvp to Se 
c/>vt6v to Se avdpoj7TOV, elvai Se iravTa ra? aTopuovs 
I8eas ' vtt avTov /caAotyxeVas", €T€pov Se pi/qbev 
e/c /xev yap rot? pur) ovtos ovk etvat yeVeatv, e/c Se 
tojv 6Vra>v parjhev dv yeveodai tco pb7]T€ Trdo^eiv 
fjLrjre /xerajSdAAetv Tas aTopiovs vtto OTeppoTrjTos' 
66 ev ovt€ xpoav i£ d^pcooTcov ovtc <j>voiv rj i/jv)(r)v 
e£ aTToiajv /cat aTTadcov* VTrdp^eiv . ey/cA^re'o? ovv 
6 ArjpbOKpLTos ovyl rd ov^aivovTa rat? dpxais 

1 ovyKpioiv EB : TTiKpov Sandbach ; Azvkov or iftvxpov 
lieiske. 

2 ere?? 8e to Kevov koX (to which diraoav is prefixed by West- 
man, /cat ra aAAa by us) supplied by Wyttenbach to fill a 
blank of 25 letters in E, 26 in B. 

3 <ivT€ipr)(jL€vov nos : ciprj/jievov EB. 

4 auro> Xy lander : auro> EB. 

5 avdpQ)ir6s supplied by Pohlenz (avdpu)7Tos r) £a>oV ? nos) to fill 
blank of 12 letters in E, 10 in B. 

6 aoia<f>66povs Emperius : oia<j>6povs EB. 

7 Travra E : Trdvras B or B 1 . 

210 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1110-1111 

and so the rest, ' what is real are the void and the 
atoms ' are an attack on the senses ; and that anyone 
who abides by this reasoning and puts it into practice 
could not even conceive of himself as a man a or as 
alive. 

" I cannot deny the truth of this, but I can affirm 
that this view is as inseparable from Epicurus' as 
shape and weight are by their own assertion b insepa- 
rable from the atom. For what does Democritus c 
say ? That entities infinite in number, indivisible 
and indestructible, destitute moreover of quality and 
incapable of modification, move scattered about in 
the void ; that when they draw near one another or 
collide or become entangled the resulting aggregate 
appears in the one case to be water, in others fire, a 
plant, or a man, but that everything really is the in- 
divisible ' forms,' as he calls them, and nothing else. 
For there is no generation from the non-existent, 
and again nothing can be generated from the exis- 
tent, as the atoms are too solid to be affected and 
changed. From this it follows that there is no colour, 
since it would have to come from things colourless, 
and no natural entity d or mind, since they would 
have to come from things without qualities or the 
capacity to be affected. Democritus is therefore to 
be censured not for admitting the consequences that 

° Cf. Aristocles in Eusebius, Praep. Evang. xiv. 19. 5. 

b Frag. 275 (ed. Usener). 

c Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Demo- 
kritos, a 57. 

d Literally " nature " ; for the word cf. Aristotle, On 
Democritus \ Frag. 1, p. 144. 23 (ed. Ross). 

8 dnadrnv supplied by Turnebus (in his text), Vulcobius and 
Xylander (ai/jvxmv Turnebus [in the margin], Amyot, and 
Westman) to fill a blank of 7 letters in E, 6 in B. 

211 



PLUTARCH *S MORALIA 

* _J ojJLoAoywv dXXd Xapufidvwv dpxds cus ravra ovpbfie- 
firjKev. eSet yap dfJLerd^Xrjra firj deodac rd irpcora, 
Oepuevov Se Srj 1 ovvopav on ttoiot7]tos ot^erat 7rdor)s 
yeveois' dpvelaOai Se ovvopcovra ttjv droTriav dvai- 
axwrorarov coot aVato^wTOTara 2 6 'HrriKovpos 
cj>rjGtv dpxds (Jlcv vrroriOeodai rds avrds, ov Ae'yet 3 
Se ' vopap xpoirjv ' koX yXvKV kcll rriKpov* kolI rds 
dXXas TTOLorrjras. el p,ev ovv to ' ov Xeyei ' 5 tolov- 
tov eartv * ovx opuoXoyel,' rcov eWcap,eva)v rt rroiel' 
/cat yap rrjv irpovoiav dvaipeov evoefteiav aTToXnrelv 
Xeyei, Kal rrjs rjSovfjs eveKa ttjv <j)iXLav alpovpbevos 
vrrep tlov cf)iXa)v rd? fjueyloras dXyrjSovas avaSe'^e- 
odai, Kal to ptev tt&v aireipov VTroTideodai, to Se 
avoj Kal KaTO) jjltj dvaipelv. eoTi Se ovSe ev olvcp 
C Kal yeXojTi irdvv TTpoofJKov to tolovtov, 6 KvXiKa 
fiev XafiovTa y Kal uielv b'oov dv edeXrj Kal dirohovvai 
to Xelnov ev he tco Xoyto juaAtora Set tov aocf)ov 
tovtov p,vr)iioveveiv air o(f>6 ey p,aT os , ' &v at dp^at 
ovk dvayKalaiy ra TeXrj dvayKala! ovk ovv 1 dvay- 
Kalov V7To6eG6ai> pu&XXov Se vcfreXeoOai* ArjjJLOKptTOV, 
aTOjAovs elvai twv oXojv dpxds' depbeva) Se to Soypua 
Kal KaXXo)TnoapLevcp rats rrpdiTais iriOavoTiqaiv 

1 Se ft? Wyttenbach : U pij EB (hi ttyj Post). 

2 avaioxwroTarov o)or CLvaioyyvTOTOJTa nos (avaioyvvTOTOJTOV 
wot avaioxvvTOTGLTOv Pohlenz) : avaioxyvTOTdT E (a t [?] over 
the third a and an apostrophe erased) ; avaioxvvTorara B. 

3 Xeyei E : Xeyeiv B. 

4 TTiKpov nos : XevKov EB. 6 Xeyei E : Xeyeiv B. 

6 ovhe . . . tolovtov our supplement : ovs followed by a 
blank of 48 letters E, 37 B. 

7 ovk ovv Reiske : ovkovv EB. 

8 vfieXeoOai Wyttenbach : a<f>eXiod ai EB. 

a Plutarch's interpretation of 1 108 e, supra. 
6 Frag. 368 (ed. Usener). 

212 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1111 

flow from his principles, but for setting up prin- 
ciples that lead to these consequences. For he should 
not have posited immutable first elements ; having 
posited them, he should have looked further and 
seen that the generation of any quality becomes im- 
possible. But to see the absurdity and deny it is the 
purest effrontery. Epicurus accordingly acts with the 
purest effrontery when he claims a to lay down the 
same first principles, but nevertheless does not say 
that ' colour is by convention ' and so the qualities 
sweet, bitter and the rest. If ' does not say ' means 
' does not admit ' it is so, he is following his familiar 
practice ; thus he b does away with providence but 
says he has left us with piety ; he c chooses friends 
for the pleasure he gets, but says that he assumes the 
greatest pains on their behalf ; and he d says that 
while he posits an infinite universe he does not elimi- 
nate ' up ' and ' down/ Not even over the wine and in 
carefree merriment is it exactly proper e to accept a 
cup, drink only as much as you please, and hand back 
the rest ; but above all in one's reasoning one should 
remember this wise saying f : ' Where the beginning 
is not forced on us, the conclusion is.' There was no 
necessity to assume, or rather to filch from Demo- 
critus, the premise that the first elements of all things 
are atoms. But once you have laid down the doctrine 9 
and made a fine showing with its initial plausibilities, 

c Frag. 546 (ed. Usener). For pains endured for the sake 
of friends cf. 1103 a, supra. 

d Frag. 299 (ed. Usener). 

e The words " Not even . . . proper " are a conjectural 
supplement of a blank in the mss. In pledging a health (pro- 
posis) the pledger drank from the cup and handed it to the 
other, who was expected to drain the cup. 

/ We have not found the saying elsewhere. 

g Frag. 288 (ed. Usener). 

213 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1111) clvtov irpoa€K7TOT€ov earl to 8vax€pes, rj SeiKreov 
O7TC0S diroia acofjuara Travrohcmas TTOior^ras avrw 
fiovcp rep ovveXdelv irapeox^v. olov evdvs to kclXov- 
fievov depfjidv vplv iroOev d<£t/CTat /cat tt&s eTTtyeyove 
D rats' aTopois, at 1 pr]T€ rjXdov e^ouaat deppborrjra 
pi/qre iyevovro 6epp,al ovveXdovoai; to puev yap 
e^ovros 7TOi6rrjra, to 8e irdaxeiv ttc^vkotos, ov8e- 

T€pOV 8e TOZS CLTOpLOLS VTTO\py€lV <f>aT€ 7TpOOTJKOV 

elvai Std ttjv dcfrdapoiav. 

9. ' ' Tt ovv; ov-ftl kcu nAdVam owejSatvc /cat 
'AptOTOTe'Aet /cat Eevo/cpdret xpvoov e/c purj xP V(J °v 
/cat Xldov e/c p,rj XlOov /cat rdAAa yevvav €K Teoadpcov 
cl7tXcov /cat TrpcjTCJV aVavTa; ' 2 irdvv p,h> ovv aAA' 

€K€LVOLS p,€V €l)6vS T€ OVVICLOIV at d/O^at TTpOS TTJV 

eicdoTOV yeveoiv tooirep avpufioXas peydXas (frepov- 
aat tcls iv avTals 7TOLOTrjTas , /cat otclv ovveXOcoow 
E els to avTO /cat ovp,7T€oojoi y £rjpots vypd /cat i/jvxpd 
Oeppuots /cat crreped paXdaKols, acopuaTa Kivovpeva 
7radr]TLKcos z vtt'* dXXrjXcov /cat pueTa^dXXovTa St' 
oXojVy eTepav d(/) y iripas Kpdaeajg ovvovttotiktzi 
yeveoiv. rj 8e aTopos avTrj 5 T€ /ca#' iavTrjv epr)- 
p,6s ioTL /cat yvp,vr] Trdo-qs yovipov Swdpuecos, /cat 

7rp09 dAA^V 7Tp0O7T€O0VOa fipCLOpOV V7TO OKXrjpOTTjTOS 

/cat dvTLTVTrlas, dXXo 8e ov8ev eox €V ov8e eiroLrjoe 
TrdOoSy dXXd ttolLovtou /cat iraiovoi tov aVavra XP°~ 

1 at Usener (el Bern.) : av EB. 

2 anavra Pohlenz : airavraiv EB. 

3 7radr)Tu<a>s Reiske : iradrjTLKols EB. 

4 vn Xylander : 077' EB. 5 avrrj E : clvtt) B. 

214 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1111 

you must drain the disagreeable conclusions along 
with it, a or else show how bodies without quality have 
given rise to qualities of every kind by the mere fact 
of coming together. Take for example the quality 
called hot. How do you account for it ? From where 
has it come and how has it been imposed on the 
atoms, which neither brought heat with them nor 
became hot by their conjunction ? For the former 
implies the possession of quality, the latter the natural 
capacity to be affected, neither of which, say you, can 
rightly belong to atoms by reason of their indestructi- 
bility. 

9. " - What of it ? Did not Plato too and Aristotle 
and Xenocrates b find themselves producing gold 
from something not gold, stone from something not 
stone, and so with everything else, producing it from 
four simple and primary components ? ' c Quite so ; 
but on their view the first principles, on coming to- 
gether to generate this thing or that, come provided 
at the outset with their own qualities, no inconsider- 
able provision ; and when they meet and combine, wet 
with dry, cold with hot, and hard with soft, since they 
are bodies that interact on each other's qualities and 
that change throughout, they jointly bring into being 
a variety of objects corresponding to the variations 
in the mixture. Whereas an atom, rf taken alone, is 
destitute and bare of any generative power, and when 
it collides with another is so hard and resistant that 
a shock ensues, but it neither suffers nor causes any 
further effect. Rather the atoms receive and inflict 

° Cf. Aristophanes, Plutus, 1085 and Mor. 525 d with the 
note. 

6 Frag. 52 (ed. Heinze). 

c The words of an imaginary adversary. 

(i Frag. 286 (ed. Usener). 

215 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1111) voVy ovx 07TCOS t,coov rj \jjv*xr)v rj </>vglv dAA' ovSe 
TrXfjdos ££ iavrcov kolvov ov8e acopov eva rraXXo- 
fjievcov del Kal 8uGTap,eva)v 8vvdp,€vai irapaGyelv . 
F 10. ' f 8e J^ojXcorrjg , coairep dypapLpbdrcp j8a- 
GiAel TTpoaoiaXeyoixevos , TrdXiv e^drrrerai rod 'E/x- 
TreSoKAeovs cos 1 ravro rrveovros' 

dXXo Se' tol epe'ar <f)vois ovSevos ioriv eKaarov 2 
dvrjrcov, ov8e tls ovXopievr] Oavdroio yevedXrf* 
dXXa fjiovov pZ^is re SiaAAa^i? re payevroov 

€GTL, (f)V(JlS S' €7TL TOLS 6vopbdt,€Tai dvdpOJTTOlGL. 

ravra iycb puev oi>x opco kcl9' 6 rt 4 irpos to tfiv vtt- 

1112 evavriovrai 5 rots V7roXap,fidvovGi p,rjT€ yeveoiv rod 

p,rj ovtos elvai pxyre (j)6opdv rod ovros, aAAa ovtcjov 

TLVCOV GVVOOCp TTpOS aAA^Aa TT]V y€V€GLV, 8iaXvG€L Se 

dir* dXXrjXojv tov ddvarov e7roi>o/xd£e(7#ai. on yap 
dvrl rrjs yeveGeoos eiprjKe rrjv <f>VGiv, dvriQels tov 
ddvarov avrfj 6 8e8r)Xa)K€v 6 5 EjLt7reSoa:A / ^s' 7, et Se ol 
pLL^ets 6 rds yeveGets ridepbevoi rag Se (f>9opds 8ca- 
Xvg€ls ov I^cJogiv ov8e 8vvavrai t,rjv, ri ttolovglv 
erepov ovroi; Kairoi 6 p,ev *JLp,iT€8oKXfjs rd gtol- 
^eta koXXcov Kal Gwappborroov deppori^Gi Kal piaXa- 
kottjgl Kal vyporrjGL pu£iv avrois Kal GvpLc/yvtav 

1 us added by Pohlenz. 

2 €KaaTov EB : iovrcov Aristotle, Metaphysics, A 4 (1015 a 1) ; 
airavrayv Placita. 

3 ovXofxevT] 6. yeveOXrj EB : ovXofxevov 9. reXevrij Placita, 

4 Kad y on Stephanus : koBoti EB. 

5 vTTevavriovrai Basle edition of 1542 : vir€vavTiovod ai EB 
(re vera). 

6 avrfj Xylander, Stephanus : aoTrjp EB. 

7 cfjLTreSoKXrjs B : eju,7reSo/cA followed by a blank of 2 letters 
E. 

8 [ligeis E : jLtt^ct B. 

216 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1111-1112 

blows for all time, and so far are they from being able 
to produce an animal or mind or natural being a that 
they cannot even produce out of themselves a col- 
lective plurality or the unity of a heap in their con- 
stant shaking and scattering. 

10. " But Colotes, as though addressing an un- 
lettered king, fastens in turn on Empedocles b as one 
inspired with this same doctrine c : 

This too I'll tell thee : 
No nature is there of a mortal thing 
Nor any curst fatality of death. 
Mixture alone there is and dissolution 
Of things commingled, and men call them nature. 

I for one do not see in what respect the words lead to 
any difficulty in living for those d who assume that 
there is neither generation of the non-existent nor 
destruction of the existent, but that ' generation ' is 
a name given to the conjunction of certain existents 
with one another, and ' death ' a name given to their 
separation. That he used ' nature ' in the sense of 
* generation ' Empedocles has indicated by opposing 
death to it. But if those who say that generation is 
a mixture and death a dissolution do not and cannot 
live, what else do the Epicureans do ? Yet, when 
Empedocles cements and joins the elements together 
by the operation of heat, softness, and moisture he 
somehow opens the way for them to a ' mixture ' that 

° Cf. Cicero, De Nat. Deor. i. 39 (110) : " quae etiam si 
essent [that is, individua corpora], quae nulla sunt, pellere 
se ipsa et agitari inter se concursu fortasse possent, formare, 
figurare, colorare, animare non possent." See also Sextus, 
Outlines of Pyrrhonism, iii. 187. 

b Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empe- 
dokles, b 8. 

c The view that qualities are conventional, and only the 
ultimate principles real. d Frag. 283 (ed. Usener). 

217 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1112) 

t> ivajTiKTjV dfjcojoyeirajs evhihojoiv, ol Se rds drpe- 

tttovs kg! aovfJLTraOeLS aro/jLovs els to avro ovveXav- 

vovres ££ olvtow fjbev ov8ev y avrcuv oc 7roAAas ttoiovol 

koX avvex^ls nXrjy as. 'r) yap TrepcTrXoKr) KOjXvovoa 

TTjV OidXvOlV fJL&XXoV e7TlT€LV€l TTJV OVyKpOVOtV, 0)GT€ 

purjSe fjLi^LV elvai jXTjoe koXXtjglv dXXd rapayrfv Kal 
p>dxrjv kot avrovs rrjv 1 Xeyofjbevrjv yeveotv €i 2 8e 
OLKapes at aropLoi TrpooTreoovoai* vvv jiev drrlaoi Sta 
rrjv avTLKpovGiv, vvv 8e rrpooiaoi rrjs TrXrjyfjs €kXv- 
0€LGr)S> nXelov* rj oirrXdoiov ^copt? dcriv dXXrjXojv 
Xpovov, ov ipavovoai Kal TrXrjacd^ovoai, cjgt€ fjLTjoev 
e£ avrtov aTTorzXtloOai jjurjSe difjvxov, aioOrjois Se 
C Kal ifjvxr) Kal vovs Kal (frpovrjocs ovSe fSovXopbtvois 
iiTLVoiav SlSojglv ojs yevoir dv iv Kevco Kal droits, 
<Lv ovre /ca#' eavra ttoiottjs iorlv ovre rrddos r] 
jj,eraj3oXr) ovveXdovrajv, dXX' ovSe ovveXevcns r) 
ovyKpaoiv rroiovoa Kal jjll^lv /ecu ovfufrvtav dXXd 
7rXrjyds Kal aTTOTTrjSrjoeis . ojore rols rovra>v b 86- 
y/xacrt to ^rjv dvaipelrai Kal ro £a>ov elvat, Kevas Kal 
drraOeZs Kal dOeovs Kal dipvxovs, en 8e djiiKrovs 
Kal dovyKpdrovs dpxds vrrorcOefJievoLS. (11.) ttcjs 
ovv aTToXeirrovoi (fyvoiv Kal *}jvxr)v Kal £,cpov; ws 
opKov, ojs evxvv, ojs Overlap-, ojs TrpooKVvrjOLV, prj- 
fiari Kal Xoyoj Kal raj 6 <f)dvai Kal rrpoorroLeZodai 
Kal dvofjsd^etv a rals apx^Zs Kal rols ooyfiaoLV 
dvaipovoiv . 

1 kolt avrovs rrjv E : kolO* avrovs rrjv B re vera (icad* avrovs 
Aldine). 

2 el Xy lander : ol EB. 

3 at drofiot TTpovTreoovcrai supplied by Westman to fill a 
blank of 20 letters in E, 18 in B. 

4 7rAeio^ EB : rrXeiov' Usener. 

5 rovrojv E : roiovrojv B. 6 ra> E : ro B. 

218 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1112 

coalesces into a natural unity ; whereas those a who 
herd together unyielding and unresponsive atoms 
produce nothing out of them, but only an uninter- 
rupted series of collisions among the atoms themselves. 
For the entanglement that prevents dissolution pro- 
duces rather an intensification of the collisions, so 
that ' generation ' is by their account neither mixture 
nor cohesion, but confusion and conflict. On the other 
hand, if the atoms after an instant of collision rebound 
for a while from the impact, and for a while draw 
near when the blow is spent, 5 the time that they 
are separated from one another, without contact or 
proximity, is more than twice as long, so that nothing, 
not even an inanimate body, is produced out of them ; 
while perception, mind, intelligence and thought can- 
not so much as be conceived, even with the best of 
will, as arising among void and atoms, things which 
taken separately have no quality and which on meet- 
ing are not thereby affected or changed ; indeed 
even their meeting is not one that leads to fusion or 
mixture or coalescence, but only to shocks and re- 
bounds. Thus by the doctrines of these men life and 
living things are abolished, since the primal elements 
on their hypothesis are void, impassive, godless, and 
inanimate, and moreover incapable of mixture or 
fusion. (1 1 .) Then how can they claim to leave room 
for a thing's nature, for mind, for a living being ? As 
they do for an oath, for prayer, for sacrifice, for wor- 
ship : in their manner of speaking, in word, by 
affirmation, by pretending, by naming things that by 
their ultimate principles and tenets they abolish. 

a Frag. 286 (ed. Usener). 

b A blow could be overcome either by another blow or (as 
here) by the atom's own weight : Epicurus, Letter to Hero- 
dotus, 61. c Cf. Mor. 921 d. 

219 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1112) 

j\ JtU de OT] TO 7T€(pVKO£ aVTO (pVGLV KOLl TO )/€- 

yovos yeveoiv ovopbdt^ovoiv, coorrep ol £vXelav 2 ra 
£vXa Kal GVfJL(j)a)VLav KaXovvres eK<f)opiKCJS ra avfi- 
(j)OJvovvra y ttoOzv eTrrjXOev avrtp rocavra TTpofSdX- 
Xeiv epajrrjiJLaTa 3 ra> 'E/XTreSo/cAei; ' rl KOTrrofiev,' 
(f)rjoiv, ' r)[jLas avrovs, 07rov8d^ovT€? vrrep r)p,u)v 
a^raJv kcll opeyofievoi tlvojv 7rpayp,aTa)v Kal (f)vXar- 
t6/jl€Vol rtva Trpdypbara; ovre yap rjpbels iop,ev oiire 
aAAoi9 4 \poj\ievoi ^ajfjbev.' ' dXXd ddppec,' (fralr) tls 
dv, ' cu (f)tXov K.ojXa)rdpLov ovSets ere kojXvzi ottov- 
Sd^ew virep aeavrov, SiSdoKcov on " KcoAcorou 
<f>voiS " avros 6 Ka>Ao)T7]9 iarlv dXXo 8e ovdev, 
E ov8e y x pr\G$ai rols Trpdyp.aoi (ra 8e Trpdypbara 
vplv r)8ovat elotv) 5 VTroSetKvvajv cLs ovk eoriv dpbrj- 
tojv envois ovSe oapicov ov8e TrXrjoidoews , apL7)T€S 
Se eloi Kal pevpa i<al yvvalKes.' ov8e yap 6 ypapb- 
pbariKos Xeycov to ' fitrjv 'HpaKXrjeirjv ' 6 avTOv 
elvai tov 'HpaAcAea, 7 ov8e oi ras ovp,(j)a)vLas Kal 

TOS SoKOJG€LS 8 €K(/)Opds pLOVOV €LVai <f)doKOVT€S OU^6 

Kal cf)dcyyovs Kal Sokovs virdpyziv Xeyovoiv ottov 
Kal ijjvxrjv Tives dvaipovvTes Kal (jypovrjuiv ovt€ to 
Lfr\v avaipelv ovtz to (f)povelv Sokovoiv. ErnKovpov 

1 d Wyttenbach : ol EB. 

2 gvXelav van Herwerden : ^vXlav EB. 

3 ipajrrj fiara E : prjpiara B. 

4 ovre dXXots EB : ovt€ TaAA* ols Post ; ovr d'AA' ols Pohlenz. 

5 clow] Benseler would omit. 

6 *}IpaK\r]€Lr)v Bern. : rjpaKXeLrjv EB (the same error occurs 
at Mor. 944 f), 

220 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1112 

" But if by ' nature ' they merely mean a thing 
that naturally is and by ' generation ' a thing gener- 
ated, just as by a mode of expression men call pieces 
of wood * wood-cutting ' and concordant notes a 
1 concord,' what put it into Colotes' head to ask such 
questions of Empedocles as this ? ' Why do we wear 
ourselves out, taking ourselves seriously and seeking 
certain realities and avoiding others ? For neither do 
we exist nor in our lives make use of other realities.' 
1 Why never fear,' one might answer, ' my dearest 
Collikins ; no one keeps you from taking yourself 
seriously when he teaches that Colotes' " nature " is 
nothing but Colotes himself, or your dealing with 
" realities " (" realities " a for you and your company 
being pleasures) when he points out that there is no 
" nature " of cakes or odours or intercourse, but that 
there are cakes and perfumes and women.' No more 
does the grammarian who says that * Heraclean 
might ' b is Heracles himself ; nor do those who de- 
clare that ' concords ' and * rafterings ' are mere forms 
of speech deny the existence of notes and rafters c — 
indeed we see that some people who abolish both 
mind and thought suppose that they abolish neither 
living nor thinking. d When Epicurus e says, ' the 

° A play on pragmata (" realities " or " affairs ") ; the 
Epicureans rejected political activity. 

6 A stock example of periphrasis : cf Life and Poetry of 
Homer, ii. 29. 

c Sextus (Outlines of Pyrrhonism, iii. 99 and Against the 
Mathematicians, ix. 343) speaks of " rafterings " being 
nothing more than the things raftered. 

d The Epicureans themselves : cf 1112 b-c, supra. 

e Frag. 76 (ed. Usener). 

7 After 'Hpa/cAea Amyot would supply avaipel rov 'Hpa/cAta. 
8 So/ccuo-ei? EB* : So/ojcrei? B 2?8S . 

221 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1112) 8e XeyovTos, ' r) tcov ovtcov envois Gayfiard eoTi /cat 

tottosJ TTorepov ovtcos a/couo/xev 1 cos dXXo tl ttjv 

F <f>VGLV rrapd tcl ovtcl ^ovXofxevov Xeyeiv r) tcl 2 ovra 

orjAovvros eWepov he jjirjdev, coorrep dfieXei /cat Kevov 

<j)VOlV aVTO TO K€VOV, Kdl V7] Ata TO TT&V* TTCLVTOS 

<f>voiv 6vojjbdl,€LV elcode; /caV el tls epoiTO, ' ri Xe- 
yets, co 'Em/coupe ; to fiev ti 4 Kevov elvcu, to 5 he 
cpvcnv Kevov; ' > ' (jlcl Ata/ <f>r)oeL Q ' ' vevofJuoTOu he 
7T(.os rj ToiavTTj tcov SvofxaTcov ojiiXia 

vojjLLp o eTTicprjfju /cat clvtos. 

tl ovv erepov 6 'Eip,7re8oKXrjs TreTTOLrjKev hchdtjas* 
ort cf>vois rrapd to cpvofievov ovdev eoTLV ovhe ddva- 
1113 tos rrapd to dvrjoKov, dXX coorrep oi rrocrjTal rroX- 
XaKis dveihcoXorroiovvres Xeyovav, 

ev S' "Epts, ev he Kvhoijjbds ofjitXeov, ev S' oXorj 

ovtcos yeveoiv Tiva /cat cf>6opdv kolXovoiv oi rroXXol 
errl tols ovviGrafievois /cat hiaXvopLevois ; togovtov 
S' 10 eherjoe rov Kivelv ra ovra /cat p.dyeodai rot? 
fyaivoiievois coore jit^Se ttjv cf>covrjv eKJSaXelv e/c t^s 
ovvrjdeiaSy dXX ooov els ra rrpdyiLara pXdrrrovoav 
drrdrrjv rrapelyev dc\>eXcov aunts' a77o8owat rots* dvd- 

1 oLKovofxev EB : aKovwfxev Hartman. 

2 t) ra Reiske (?) /ioVa Tatrra Pohlenz) : tcl EB. 

3 to rrav Stephanus (to, -rravra Aid. 2 ) : to iravra. EB. 

4 ti E : toi B. 

5 to Madvig : to. EB. 

6 <j>rj(J€L EB C : <f>VG€l B ac . 

222 



REPLY TO COLOTKS, 1112-1113 

nature of existing things is atoms and void,' do we 
take him to mean that ' nature ' is distinct from 
1 existing things,' or simply to indicate ' existing 
things ' and nothing more, just as it is his habit for 
instance to use the expression ' the nature of void ' for 
1 void ' and indeed ' the nature of the universe ' for 
' the universe ' ? And if someone should ask, ' What 
do you mean, Epicurus ? That here is one thing, the 
" void," and there another, the " nature of void " ? ', 
he would say, ' Certainly not ; such usage of terms 
has somehow become conventional among men, 

And I too speak as they do, by convention.' a 

Then is this not precisely what Empedocles has done ? 
He teaches that there is no such thing as nature 
apart from what is naturally produced or death apart 
from what dies, but that just as the poets often create 
imaginary beings and say, 

Here Tumult, Strife, and dismal Death attend, b 

so it is common usage to give such names as ' genera- 
tion ' and * destruction ' to the things undergoing 
combination or separation. So far was Empedocles 
from upsetting the world and contradicting appear- 
ances that he did not even banish the expression 
from common speech, but removed only the harmful 
misunderstanding that it causes about the things 
named and then restored to the terms their current 

a See 1113 b, infra. 
b Homer, II. xviii. 535. 

7 8' em^-qfit Reiske : he rj rt <f>r)iii EB. 

8 8i8afas Basle edition of 1542 (vr) Aw SiSafa? Bern.) : rj 
8i8a£a<? EB. 

* 0A017 ktjp Reiske from Homer : SXoov Krjp EB. 
10 8' supplied by Pohlenz. 

223 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1113) [iaui to vevofjiLGfJiivov Iv tovtois' 

ol 8\ ore fjbev 1 Kara <f>coTa payev cf)dos aldepos 

LK7) 2 

rj Kara drjpwv dyporepwv yevos rj Kara Odpuvojv 
rj€ kclt olcovcbv, Tore pL€V to Xeyovoi* yeveodai, 

B €VT€ §' OLTTOKpLvOaJGL, 4 ' TOL S' 5 CLV SvoSalpLOVCL 7TO- 
TfJLOV 

fj Oepus 6 ov 3 KaAeovoi, yo/xeo 8 S' errt^jitt 9 /cat 
clvtos. 

tclvt clvtos 10 6 KcdAcot^? Trapadepievos ov ovvelhev 11 

OTl (fxJJTCLS fJL€V KOLL drjpCLS KOLL OdfJLVOV? 12 KOL OLLOVOVS 
6 'EpL7T€dOKAfjS OVK dvfjpTjK€V, (L yl (f)7]OL payvv- 

[jLevow Ttov OTOi^eiojv aVore Aetata 6, tovs Se ttj ovy- 
Kpioei TavTrj /cat Sta/cptWt ' <\>voiv ' two, /cat ' tto- 
Tfjiov SvoSaifJiova ' /cat ' ddvaTov dXoiTTjv ns irnKaTrj- 
yopovvTas fj G(j)d\XovTai Stoa^as" ovk d^eiXero to 
XprjoOat rat? eldio jievais <j>covals rrepl aurcDv. 

12. " 'Ejitot fievTOL So/cet pLT) tovto Kivelv TO €K" 

C (fiopiKov 6 'TZjJLTreSoKXrjs dAA', <hs rrpoTepov etp^rat, 

TrpayfiaTiKajs Sta^epeoOat rrepl ttjs i£ ovk ovtojv 

yeveoetos , rjv c/)volv Tives koXovol' SrjXol 8e fidXiara 

1 ore fjiev E : ore B. 

2 fjuyev cf>dos afflipos lkt) Mullach : fiiyev </>a>s aldepi followed 
by a blank of 7 letters E, 8 B (pwyivT els aldep* Ikcovtcii Diels). 

3 to Aeyovai Reiske (rdSe [roBe Bern.] <j>aal Xylander) : rov 
followed by a blank of 8 letters EB. 

4 aiTOKpivQ&oi Panzerbieter : aTTOKpidcooi EB. 

5 rd 8' Stephanus (to S' Reiske) : tciS' EB. 

6 fj (or rj ; fj Diels) Oipus Mor. 820 p : ehat EB. 

224 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1113 

use in these lines : 

When what is mixed comes to the light of day 
As man or as a beast or plant or bird, 
Men say 'tis born ; but call the parts disjoined 
Unhappy fate. They speak not as they should. 
But I too speak as they do, by convention. 

Though Colotes cites these lines himself he fails 
to see that Empedocles did not abolish men, beasts, 
plants, and birds — since he says that they are pro- 
duced by the mixture of the elements — but rather, 
once he had informed those who go further and 
use for this combination and separation the terms 
1 nature ' and * unhappy fate ' and ' vengeful death ' b 
how they go wrong, he did not disallow the use of 
the current expressions about them. 

12. " Yet for my part I hold that Empedocles is 
not here bringing up a point about verbal expression 
but, as I said earlier, 6 is controverting a point of fact, 
generation from the non-existent, which some call 
' nature/** He shows this especially in the following 

° Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empedo- 
kles, b 9. The last line is also quoted in Mor. 820 f. 

6 Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empedo- 
kles, b 10. 

c 1113 a, supra, 

d For " nature " in the sense of generation or genesis cf. 
Aristotle, Metaphysics, A 4 (1014 b 16-17) and Cherniss, 
Aristotle'' s Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy (Baltimore, 
1935), p. 109, note 446. 

7 ov supplied by Meziriacus. 

8 KaXiovai, vofxco Reiske : KaXeovaiv, o/jlcos EB. 

9 €TTi(j>rnii Stephanus : imfafu EB. 

10 ravr clvtos nos (a Meziriacus ; tolvtcl Reiske) : EB omit. 

11 ovvclScv E : ovvolhev B. 

12 ddfivovs E (not ddfivas) B. 

13 dXolrrjv J. G. Schneider : dkoLTrjv EB. 

vol. xiv I 225 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1113) Sta TOVTCOV TtQV €7rwv 

vrynioi' ov yap a<f>iv 8oXtxd(f>pov€S elat p,ipi\xvai* 

ol l 8rj yiveodai rrdpoS ovk iov eXTTi^ovrnv 

rj ti 2 Kara9p7jaK€LV re i<al e^oXXvodai dnavTrj. 9 

ravra yap rd k'lrr] \xiya fiocovros eon rols chra 
eypvoiv <hs ovk dvaipel yeveoiv dXXd rrjv €K (jltj 
ovtos, oi)8e <f)dopdv dXXd rrjv iravrrj, rovreari rrjv 
els to firj ov diroXXvovoav . inel tco ye /3ouAo/xeVa> 
[irj dypiojs ovtojs pLy)8e rjXidicos dXXd irpaorepov 
D (WKO(f)avT€LV to fi€Ta TavTa em TovvavTiov dv alrid- 
aaodat napdoxoi, tov 'EjAireSoKXeovs XeyovTOS 

ovk dv dvrjp* ToiavTa oo<f>6s <f>peol 5 pbavTevaaiTO 
cos 6(j>pa fiev T€ filOJGl, to 8rj fitoTov KaXeovvi, 
Tocf>pa fiev ovv eloiv /cat a<f>iv 6 irdpa 8eiva! Kai 

eoOXdy 
irpiv be nayev re ppoToc /cat enet Avoev, ovoev ap 

elol. 

TavTa yap ovk apvovpuevov p,r) elvat tovs yeyovoTas 
Kal L,a)VTas £gtiv, elvai 8e puaXXov olofievov Kal tovs 
/x^SeVco yeyovoTas Kal tovs 7]8rj TedvrjKOTas. dAA' 

OfJLOJS 10 6 Ka)Xd)T7]S TOVTO (Jb€V OVK €yK€KXrjK€, Xey€i 

8e KaT avTov ovSe 11 voorjoeiv rjfJbds ov8e TpavfiaTt,- 

odrjoecrdai. Kal 7rd)s 6 7rpo tov filov Kal \xeTa tov 

E ptov eKaoTtp Xeycov irapelvai ' 8etva Kal iordXa * 

1 ot EB 1 * : at B l88 . 2 rt E : rot B. 

3 airavrr] Xy lander : ttolvttj EB. 

4 dv7]p Stephanus, Xylander : dv-qp <f>p€ol EB. 

5 (f>p€oi E C B : n-avTcvoaiTo E ac apparently. 

6 elaiv Kai, a<f>Lv E : elal Kal o<f>i B. 

7 Setvd] SetAd Bergk. 
8 irdycv re Reiske : irayevrt EB. 

226 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1113 

lines a : 

Fools ! For they have no thoughts that range afar 
Who look for birth of what was not before 
Or for a thing to die and wholly perish. 

These are the words of one who says in ringing tones 
to all who have ears to hear that he does not abolish 
generation, but only generation from the non-exist- 
ent ; nor abolish destruction, but only out and out 
destruction, that is, the destruction that reduces to 
non-existence. Indeed anyone who prefers a more 
moderate sort of cavilling to that simple-minded 
fierceness will find in the subsequent passage a 
handle for the opposite charge. There Empedocles b 
says : 

No sage in his prophetic soul would say 

That, while men live (this thing they call their ' life '), 

So long they are, and suffer good and ill ; 

But both before the joining of their frame, 

And once it is disjoined, why, they are nothing. 

For these are not the words of one who denies the 
existence of men who have been born and are living, 
but rather of one who takes both the unborn and the 
already dead to exist. Colotes, however, has found 
no fault with this, but says that on Empedocles ' view 
we shall never so much as fall ill or receive a wound. 
But how could one who says that before life and after 
life each person suffers ■ good and ill,' leave no suffer- 

° Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empedo- 
kles, b 11. 

b Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empedo- 
kles, b 15. 

9 eVet Xvdev Reiske (co? XvOev Xylander) : \v04vt EB. 

10 ofjicos Pohlenz : oXojs EB. 

11 ovht Aid. 2 , Basle edition of 1542 : ovtev EB. 

227 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1113) 7T€pl tovs t^covras ovk aTroAeiirei to rrdoxeiv; tlolv 
ovv dArjdtos eVerou to purj TpavpuaTi^eoOaL fi7]8e 
vooelv, w KcuAcora; vpuv tols i£ o,to\lov Kal Kevov 
ovjXTTeiT^yooiVy tov ovSeTeptp fieTeoTiv aloOijcFecos. 

KCLl OV TOVTO OeiVOV , aAA OTL jJLTJOe rjdovrjv TO 

TTOirjOOV VfJUV eOTL, T7JS fJbeV OLTOfJUOV fJLTJ Se^O^eV^S 

TO. TTOLTJTLKa TOV Se K€VOV fJLTJ 7TaO*)(OVTOS V7T* CLVTCOV. 

13. " 5 E7T€t Se 6 fJL€V KojAoJTTJS €(/>e| TJS TO) A77- 

jjLOKpiTco tov YlappbeviSrjv eftovAeTo ovyKaTopvo- 
oeiv, eydj Se virepfids to\ eKeivov to. tov 'EjJLrreSo- 
KAeovs TrpoeAafiov 1 Sea to jjl&AAov aKoAovdelv toIs 
F irpujTois eyKArjfjLaoiv avTols, dvaAdfiajpiev tov Ylap- 
[j,€vi8r)v. a pL€V ovv avTov (f)rjoiv aloxpd oo$Lo p,ara 
Aeyeiv 6 "KojAojttjs, tovtois eKeivos 6 dvrjp ov (f>tAiav 
eirobqoev d8o£oTepav, ov cf)iArj8ovlav dpaovTepav, 
ov tov koXov to dyojyov i<f>' eavTo kcll St' eavTo 
TijJLiov d^elAev, ov ra? rrepl decov Solas' ovveTapa^e- 
1114 to Se irav ev elirdjv ovk ot8a ottojs £,fjv rjfias k€kojAv- 
k€. kcu yap 'Em/coupo? otov Aeyrj to irav aireipov 
elvai Kal dyevrjTOV 2 Kal dcf)9apTov kcu pjryre av£6- 
fxevov \iyyre fieiovpLevov, cog irepl* evos twos 8iaAe- 
yeTai tov ttovtos. iv dpxjj Se rrjs TrpaypuaTetas 

V7T€L7rd)V T7JV TO)V OVTOJV </>VOlV OWjJLaTOL €IVCU Kal 

Kevov, ojs puds ovorjs els 8vo TreTroiqTai ttjv 8iai- 
peotv, ojv daTepov ovtojs p>ev ovOev ioTiv, 6vop,d- 
£eTcu Se v</>' vjjbtov dvo.<j>es Kal Kevov Kal doojpbaTOV 
wore Kal vpuv ev to nav eoTiv, el purj fiovAeode 

1 TTpoiXafiov Wyttenbach : TTpooXaficbv EB lss ; ovXXafitov B n . 
2 dy€V7)rov E : ayivvqrov B. 

3 d)S 7T€pl E : c5(T7T€/0 B. 

• Cf. Aristotle, Physics, i. % (185 a 9-10), i. 3 (186 a 6-7) ; 
Eudemus, Frag. 43 (ed. Wehrli). 

228 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1113-1114 

ing to the living ? Who is it, Colotes, who really find 
themselves impervious to wounds and disease ? You 
yourselves, compacted of atom and void, neither of 
which has any sensation. You may not object to this, 
but there is worse to come : there will be nothing to 
give you pleasure either, since your atom does not 
receive the causes of pleasure and your void does 
not respond to them. 

13. " Since Colotes did his best to demolish Par- 
menides next after Democritus, whereas I skipped 
that passage and dealt first with his treatment of 
Empedocles because it has a better connexion with 
the first set of charges taken by themselves, let us 
now return to Parmenides. As for the ' shameful ' 
sophistries a that Colotes imputes to him, the great 
philosopher did not use them to lessen the high repute 
of friendship or to embolden the lust for pleasure ; he 
did not strip virtue of her native beauty or of being 
valued for her own sake ; he did not play havoc 
with our beliefs about the gods. Yet by saying that 
' the universe is one ' b he has somehow prevented us 
from living. So Epicurus c too, when he says that 
1 the universe ' is infinite, ungenerated and imperish- 
able, and subject neither to increase nor diminution, 
speaks of the universe as of some one thing. When 
he premises at the beginning of his treatise d that 
1 the nature of things is atoms and void,' he treats that 
nature as one, dividing it into two parts, one of them 
actually nothing, but termed by you and your com- 
pany ' intangible,' ' empty,' and ' bodiless.' So that 
for you too the universe is one, unless you mean to 

b Cf. Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsohratiker, Par- 
menides, a 7, 8, 23 and 49. 

c Frag. 296 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Letter to Herodotus, 41, 39. 
d The thirty-seven books On Nature : Frag. 74 (ed. Usener), 

229 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1114) Kevals <f>a)vals rrepl Kevov xPV G ^ ai > VKLapuaxovvTes 
rrpos tovs apxatovs. 

'AAA' arreipa vrj Ata irXrjOei rd croj/xara /card 
B KrrtKovpov ear i, Kal yiverai tcov <\>aiv o\ievtov (ekcl- 
otov e£ eKelvoov! opa puev oias vrroriQeoQe irpos 
yeveoiv dpxds, arret piav Kal Kevov &v to p,ev d- 
irpaKTov drraOes acd)fJLo,rov, rj Se cltclktos dXoyos 
arrepiXrjrrTos , avrrjv 1 avaXvovaa Kal rapdrrovoa 
rep jjbrj Kparelodai firjSe opi^eoOai Std rrXrjOos. dAA' 
6 ye UappbeviSris ovre ' rrvp ' dvfiprjKev ovre ' vSa>p ' 
ovre ' Kprjfjivov ' ovre ' rroXeisJ cos <\>r\Gi K.coXcott]s , 
ev EuooWtj Kal 'Acrta KaroiKovpLev as '' os ye Kal 
SiaKOGfxov 2 77€7ro 177TOU, Kal crTot^£ta puyvvs TO XapL- 
irpov Kal GKOTeivov eK tovtcov to, <j)aiv6jieva rrdvra 
Kal oid tovtujv arroreXel. Kal yap rrepl yrjs etprjKe 
C 77oAAd Kal Trepl ovpavov Kal rjXtov Kal oeXrjvrjs Kal 
dorpcov Kal yeveoiv avdpcorrcov dcfrrjyrjTai 3 Kal ovSev 
apprfTOVy cos dvrjp ap^olos ev <f>voioXoyia koX ovv- 
dels ypacf)r]v ISiav, ovk dXXorpiav Siacfropcov,* tcov 
Kvpicov rraprJKev. 

'E77€t Se Kal YlXaTQJVOS Kal HcoKpdrovs €Tl 
rrporepos ovvelSev ojs ^X €l rt ho^aoTov rj envois, 
€^€6 Se Kal vor\Tov y eon Se to puev So^aoTov dj3e- 
[iaiov Kal rrXavrjrov ev rrdOeoi ttoXXois Kal fieTa- 
fioXals tc?) <f>9iveiv Kal av^eaOai Kal rrpos d'AAov 
dXXaJS €X €LV KaL H 7 } ^ uel rrpos tov o.vtov cboavrcos 

1 avTrjv B c : avrrjv EB ac . 

2 biOLKOGfjiov Turnebus : Sua kogjxov EB. 

3 a(j>TJyr)Tai, Wyttenbach : d^p^rai EB. 

4 aXXorpiav oia<f>opcx)v A pelt (aXXorpias oui(f>6pr)Giv Post) : dX- 
Xorpiav biacfropav EB. 

230 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1114 

use empty vocables about the empty void, shadow- 
boxing with the ancients. 

1 But for Epicurus,^ ' you exclaim, ' the number 
of bodies is infinite and every single object in the 
world of sense is generated from them.' Observe 
right here the sort of first principles you people adopt 
to account for generation : infinity and the void — 
the void incapable of action, incapable of being acted 
upon, bodiless ; the infinite disordered, irrational, in- 
capable of formulation, disrupting and confounding 
itself because of a multiplicity that defies control or 
limitation. But Parmenides for one has abolished 
neither ' fire ' nor ' water,' neither ' a precipice ' nor 
' cities lying in Europe and Asia ' in Colotes' words, 
since he b has actually made a cosmic order, and by 
blending as elements the light and the dark produces 
out of them and by their operation the whole world 
of sense. Thus he has much to say about earth, 
heaven, sun, moon, and stars, and has recounted the 
genesis of man ; and for an ancient natural philo- 
sopher — who has put together a book of his own, and 
is not pulling apart the book of another — he has 
left nothing of real importance unsaid. 

" But since even before Plato c and Socrates he 
saw that nature has in it something that we apprehend 
by opinion, and again something that we apprehend by 
the intellect, and that what belongs to the world of 
opinion is inconstant and passes through a wide range 
of accidents and changes, since for sensation it grows 
and decays and differs for different persons and is 
not, even for the same person, always the same : 

° Frag. 269 (ed. Usener). 

b Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Parme- 
nides, b 8. 53-61. 

c Cf. Plato, Tim. 27 d— 28 a. 

231 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1114) rfj alodiqoei, rov vorjrov Se erepov elSos, eon yap 
ovAopLeAes 1 re koX drpepues r)& dyevrjrov, 2 

D COS CLVTOS €Lp7)K€, KCLL OfJLOLOV eavrcp KCLl jJLOVLfJLOV Iv 

rep elvaiy ravra ovKO(j>avrcov e/c rrjs (f>covfjs 6 KcoAoj- 
rrjs kcll rep prjfJLGLTL Slcokcov ov rep Trpayp,aTi rov 
Xoyov GLTrAtos cfyrjaL irdvra avaipelv rep ev ov vtto- 
riOeodaL rov YlappbevLSrjv. 6 Se dvatpet \xev ov8e- 
repav (j>vaiv, eKarepa Se 0,77081807)9 ro irpoor)Kov 
els p>ev rrjv rov evos f<al ovros ISeav rideraL to 
vorjrov, ov fxev cos dihiov kclL ac/>8aprov, ev Se ojjlolo- 
ttjtl rrpos avro koX rep pur) he^eodai Sta(f)opdv rrpoo- 
ayopevoas, els Se rr)v draKrov kcll cfyepopLevrjv to 
aloOrjrov. cov kcil KpLrrjpLov ISelv 3 eorLV, 

rjjjbev AArjUeLTjs evTreLueos arpeKes rjrop, 

E rod vorjrov kcll Kara ravra e^ovros cbaavrcos arrro- 
puevov, 

r)8e 7 ftporcov 86£as als 8 ovk evL 9 iriarLS dArjOrjs 

1 eon yap ovXofieXes EB (E has a marginal sign that indi- 
cates a quotation but does not tell where it begins ; B has 
none). The verse of Parmenides begins with ovXov fiovvoyevcs 
in Clement and Simplicius, with fiovvov iiovvoycves in [Plu- 
tarch], Strom. Proclus cites ouAo/licAcs-, omitting what pre- 
cedes. Westman would read povvov r ouAo/xeAe's- in the line 
of Parmenides. 

2 dyevTjrov E (dyewrjrov B) with the rest of the citations 
and Simplicius, JDe Caelo, and Physics (p. 120. 23, ed. Diels) : 
arcAcoTov Simplicius elsewhere on the Physics. 

3 Io€lv] lBlov Wyttenbach. 

4 r)ixkv Rasmus (rj /xev Xylander) : 17 /xev EB. 

5 €V7reL0€os EB with Clement, Sextus, and Diogenes Laert.: 
€vkvkX4os Simplicius ; evfoyyios Proclus. 

232 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1114 

whereas what belongs to the world of the intellect is 
another kind of thing, for it is 

Entire, unmoving, and unborn 

to quote his own a words, and is like itself b and en- 
during in what it is, c Colotes quibbles about the 
language and attacks the manner of expression, not 
the matter, when he says that Parmenides makes a 
clean sweep of all things by laying down one as being. 
Parmenides d however abolishes neither the one world 
nor the other. He gives each its due, and puts what 
belongs to the world of the intellect under the head 
of ' one ' and ' being,' calling it ' being ' because it is 
eternal and imperishable, and ' one ' because it is 
uniform with itself and admits of no variation, while 
he puts what belongs to the world of sense under the 
head of disordered motion. Of these we may further 
observe the criteria : 

The unerring heart of most persuasive Truth, * 

which deals with what is intelligible and forever un- 
alterably the same, 

And man's beliefs, that lack all true persuasion 1 

a Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Parme- 
nides, b 8. 4. 
6 Ibid, b 8. 22. 

c Ibid.] b 8! 29-30. d Ibid., a 34. 

• Ibid., b 1. 29. 
' Ibid., b 1. 30. 

6 a.Tp€Kes fjTop Xylander from Diogenes Laert. ix. 22 (arpe- 
fiks fjrop the other citations) : drpeK followed by a blank of 7 
letters EB. 

7 rjSe Stephanus (rj 8e Xylander) : 7) Sc EB. 

8 ah EB : rats the other citations (rrjs Diogenes Laert.). 

9 ovk hi EB and the other citations : ovkctl Diogenes Laert. 

233 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1114) Std to rravToSarrds pueTaftoAds /cat rrddrj /cat dv- 
ofjLoiorrjTas he^opievois ofiiAeiv rrpdy/JLacn. /catVot 
rrtos dV drreAirrev aluOinaiv /cat S6£av, aladrjrdv p,rj 
arroAirrd)v fJbrjSe So^clcjtov ; ovk eGTiv elrrelv. dAA' 

OTL TO) jJL€V OVTOJS OVTL TTpOGTJKei 8ia[JL€V€LV iv TO) 
€LVai y TOLVTCL 06 VVV [llv €OTL VVV he OVK 6GTLV, €^- 

tararat Se del /cat jLtcraAAaacret ttjv (favotv, eTepas 
toeTO 1 jjL&AAov fj TTJs €K€lvov tov ovtos del o€tcr#at 
rrpoGrjyoptas. rjv ovv 6 rrepl tov ovtos ojs ev eirj 
Aoyos ovk dvaipeais toov rroAAwv /cat aladrjTO)v s 
F aAAd StjAojgis clvtcov ttjs rrpos to votjtov Siacfiopas. 
tjv eTi pL&AAov evheiKvvpievos YlAaTOJV ttj rrepl Ta 
ecSrj TTpayfjLaTeLa /cat auro? avTiArjifjiv to) KojAojtt] 
irapevye . 

14. " A to /cat rd rrpos tovtov elprj pieva SoKel [jlol 
Aafielv icfre^fjs. /cat rrpoyrdv ye ttjv ernfieAeLav /cat 
1115 TToAvjJbdOetav tov </uAoa6(f)ov GKeifroj/Jieda, Aey ovtos 
otl tovtois Tots Sdy/zacrt tov 2 nAdrajvos' errrjKoAov- 
drjKCLGiv ' ApLGTOTeArjs /cat SevoKpaTrjs /cat Qeo- 
(f>paGTOs /cat rrdvTes ol YlepirraTrjTiKoi. rrov yap 
d)v Trjs doLKTjTov to fitfiAiov eypa<f>es, Iva tolvtcl 
uvvTidels rd cy/cAr/jLtara pbrj toZs eKeivow gvvtci- 
yfiaGiv evrvxijS pLrjSe dvaAdfirfs els x € ^P a ^ 'Aptaro- 
TeAovs rd rrepl ovpavov /cat rd rrepl iffvxfjs, Qeo- 
(f>paGTOv Se Ta rrpos tovs ((>vglkovs, ' HpaKAecSov^ 
Se tov ZjO) podGTprjv, to rrepl tow ev "AtSou, to 
rrepl toov c^vglkcos drropovpLevojv, At/catd/^ou Se rd 
rrepl ijjv*xr}S, ev ols rrpos Ta Kvpiojrara /cat fieyiGra 



(Zero Wyttenbach (statuit Xylander) : too-re EB. 
2 tov E ; B omits. 



234 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1114-1115 

because they consort with objects admitting all man- 
ner of changes, accidents, and irregularities. Yet 
how could he have left us with sensation and belief, if 
he had left us with no object of sensation and no 
object of belief ? The question is unanswerable. No, 
since what truly is should persevere in being, whereas 
these things, that meet the eye, now are, and now 
are not, forever abandoning their nature and taking 
on another, they required, so it seemed to him, a desig- 
nation differing from that which is applied to the first, 
which always is. Thus his contention, that being is 
one, was no denial of the plural and perceptible, but 
an indication of their distinction from what is known 
by the mind. Plato too, in conveying this distinction 
even more clearly in his theory of ideas, has afforded 
Colotes an opening for attack. 

14. "I therefore intend to deal next with the 
attack on Plato. And first let us consider the dili- 
gence and learning of our philosopher, who says that 
these doctrines of Plato were followed by Aristotle, 
Xenocrates, Theophrastus, and all the Peripatetics. 
In what wilderness did you write your book, that 
when you framed these charges you failed to look at 
their writings or take into your hands Aristotle's 
works On the Heavens and On the Soul, Theophrastus' 
Reply to the Natural Philosophers , a Heracleides' b Zoro- 
aster, On the Underworld, and Disputed Questions in 
Natural Philosophy, and Dicaearchus' c On the Soul, 
in which they constantly differ with Plato, contra- 

a See Regenbogen in Pauly-Wissowa, Suppl. vii (1955), 
col. 1539. 14-23. 

6 Frag. 68 (ed. Wehrli). 
c Frag. 5 (ed. Wehrli). 

3 'HpaKvWSou Reiske : iJpa/cAcirou EB. 

235 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ tcov (fivaiKcov VTrevavTiovfievoi rep YIXoltcovl /cat 
fAaxo/JLevoL 1 otareAoucrt; /cat /x^v tcov aXXtov Hepi- 
TrarrjTiKcbv 6 KopvtfxxLQjaTOS l^rparcov oiire 'Apt- 
ororeAei Kara ttoXXcL GVpLtfxspeTCLL /cat YIXoltcovl tols 
evavrias ecrpjK€ Solas' rrepl KLvrjoecos, rrepl vov /cat 

TTtpi ifjVXrjS KCLL 7T€pl y€V€G€COS, TeXeVTCOV T€ 2 TOV 

Koopuov avrov ov £><pov elvai <f>iqoi, to Se /caret 
c\>vglv eireaOai TO) /caret Tvyy\v apxty yap ivSiSovai 

TO CLVTOpLOLTOV €LTOL OVTCOS 7T€paiv€o6ai TCOV tf>VGLKCOV 

rradcov Zkolgtov. tols ye pbrjv ISeas, 77ept cov ey/caAet 
Tip UXoltojvl, 7TavTaxov klvlov ' ApLGTOTeXrjs /cat 
iraoav €7raycov drropiav clvtclZs iv tols tjOlkols vtto- 
C pbvrjfJiaGLV, iv tols (/jvglkols, Sta, tcov i£coT€pLKcov 
SLaXoycov, tf)LXov€LKOTepov ivioLS eSo^ev rj cJ)lXogo<J>co- 

T€pOV kx^LV Tip 86yp,CLTL TOVTCp , 3 COS" 7TpodefJL€VOS T7JV 

HXgltcovos VTrepeirreLv* cf>LXoGotf>iav' ovtco puaKpav 
rjv tov aKoXovdelv. tlvos ovv eu^epetas- eart ret 

OOKOVVTCL TOLS dvSpOLGL pLTJ pLddoVTOL KaTOLlfjevSeodoLL 
TO, pL7] SoKOVVTCL, /Cat 7T€7T€LGfJL€VOV eXey)(€LV €T€pOVS 

avToypatpov i^eveyKelv dp,adias eXeyxov /ca#' olvtov 
/cat dpaovTTjTos, opboXoyelv YIXoltcovl (f>doKovTa tovs 
8Lac/)€popL€Vovs /cat aKoXovdelv tovs dvTiXeyovras ; 

1 jLtaxo/xevot E : /aa^ou/xevot B. 

2 re added by Pohlenz (6e by Wyttenbach). 

3 €X€lv tw boyixan tovtco Rose (place before <f>i\ov€LKor€pov ? 
nos) : €K tcov Boypudroov rovroov EB (i.K7TOLeiv iavrov TOOV Soyfjid- 
roov rovroov Bignone ; iKKpoveiv rr]V Trior iv toov ooyfidroov rovroov 
Pohlenz ; KaraKeprojxelv roov Soypidroov rovroov During). 

4 v7T€p€LTT€iv Reiske : VTT€piheiV EB. 

a Frag. 35 (ed. Wehrli) ; cf. Frag. 13. 
236 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1115 

dieting him about the most fundamental and far- 
reaching questions of natural philosophy ? Strato a 
indeed, foremost of the remaining Peripatetics, is on 
many points not in accord with Aristotle, and has 
adopted views the reverse of Plato's about motion 
and about intelligence, soul, and generation ; and 
he says in the end that the universe itself is not 
animate and that nature is subsequent to chance, 6 
for the spontaneous initiates the motion, and only 
then are the various natural processes brought to 
pass. As for the ideas, for which our Epicurean de- 
nounces Plato, Aristotle, who everywhere assails 
them and brings up against them every sort of objec- 
tion in his treatises on ethics and on natural philo- 
sophy and in his popular dialogues, was held by some d 
to be more contentious than philosophical in his atti- 
tude to this doctrine and bent on undermining Plato's 
philosophy — so far was he from following him. How 
frivolous can a man be ! Not to inform himself of 
these men's views, then to father on them views that 
they did not hold, and in the conviction that he is ex- 
posing others to bring out in his own hand an exposure 
of his own ignorance and recklessness when he asserts 
that men who differ with Plato agree with him and 
that men who attack him are his followers ! 

6 Cf. Plato, Laws, x, 888 e 5, 889 a, and the whole discus- 
sion that follows, especially 892 b-c, 896 e 8-9, 897 b, 898 c. 

c For comments on this whole passage see I. During, Aris- 
totle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition (Gothenburg, 
1957), pp. 323-325. 

d Cf. Aristotle, On Philosophy, Frag. 10 (ed. Ross) : 
44 . . . and in the dialogues he proclaims loudly and dis- 
tinctly that he is unable to enter into this doctrine [of the 
ideas], even if someone should imagine that he is opposing it 
out of contentiousness (. . . firj SvvaoOcu tco SoyfiaTi rovrco 
GVfiTTadelVy kov ris avrov oojtcu 8lgl <j>i\ov€iKiav avTiXeyziv). 

237 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1115) 15. ' ' 'AAAa 8r) IIAaTOJz; <f>rjal tovs lttttovs vcf)* 
rjfjicjv fJLaraLQJS lttttovs elvai 8o^dt > eo6a J i 1 Kdl tovs 

J) avOpCQTTOVS avOpCOTTOVS.'f KCLL TTOV TOVTO TO)V IIAa- 

tojvos ovyypapLp,aTa)v aTTOKeKpvp J p J evov evpev 6 Ka>- 
Xwttjs; rjfiels yap ev ttcLoiv dvayivu>OKO\iev koX 

TOV dvdpOJTTOV dvdpOJTTOV KOI TOV LTTTTOV LTTTTOV KCLl 
TTVp TO TTVp VTT* OLVTOV So^a^OpueVOV fj Kai ho^dOTOV 
OVOfJLOL^eL TOVTOJV eKaOTOV. O O Ota 07] OOCplCLS OVO 

aKapes aTriy^cov ws ev koll ravrov eAa/3e 4 to fir) etvai 

TOV'dvdpiOTTOV Kai TO €LVOLl fJLT] OV TOV dv9pO)TTOV. 

' Ta> IlAciTCDVt Se davpLaoTa)s eSoKeL 8ia<f>epeLV 
to pirj elvai tov pur) op elvaL' toj pcev ydp dvaipeoLV 
ovoias Trdorjs, Tip 8e eTepoTryra SrjAovcrOcu tov 
fxedeKTod Kai tov [jl€T€)(ovtos , rjv ol piev voTepov els 
yevovs Kai el8ovs Kai kolvcos 5 tlvwv koX 18lojs 6 
E XeyopLevojv ttolcov Sta^opdv eOevTo puovov, dvo)Tepoj 
8e ov TrporjXOov, els XoyiKOJTepas dnoplas epLTre- 
oovt€S. k'oTi 8e tov puedeKTod TTpos to p^eTeypv 
Aoyos* ov atTia T€ TTpos vXrjv e%eL Kai TrapaSeiypua 
Trpos eiKova Kai Svvapus TTpos Trddos. & ye 8r) 
fjbdXiOTa to Kad* avTo koX TavTov del 8ia(f>epei tov 
81 eTepov Kai fJbrjSeTTOTe d)oavTws k\ovTos' otl to 
pbev ovTe carat TTOTe jjltj ov ovTe yeyove Kai Std 
tovto TrdvTOJS Kai ovtojs ov eoTt, Tip 8e ov8e ooov 
air* aXXov ovpbfiePrjKe p,eTeyeiv tov elvai fiefiaiov 
eoTiv, aAA e^ioTaTai ol aoueveiav, aTe ttjs vArjs 
Trepl to el8os oXiodavovarjs 8 Kai Trddrj TroXXd Kai 

1 So^afco-flat added by us, XiyeaOav by Madvig, and vo/xife- 
odai (after fiaralws) by Reiske. 

2 avOpamovs added by Reiske. 

3 o 8' Stephanus : 6b* EB. 4 eXafie E C B : vTreXafe E ac ? 

5 kolvcos Pohlenz : koivcov EB. 

6 thins Pohlenz : ihicov EB. 7 tw Reiske : to EB. 

238 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1115 

15. " ' But Plato says that it is idle to regard 
horses as being horses and men men.' And where in 
Plato's writings did Colotes find this tucked away ? 
I for one in reading them find that he everywhere 
regards man as man, horse as horse, and fire as fire ; 
indeed this is why he terms each of them an ' object 
of opinion/ But our friend, as one separated from 
wisdom by not so much as a hair, took ' man is not ' 
to be one and the same as ' man is non-being.' 

" But in Plato's view there is a world of difference 
between ' is not ' and ' is non-being,' for by the former 
is meant the denial of any kind of being, by the latter 
the otherness a of the participant and what it partici- 
pates in, an otherness that later philosophers brought 
under the head of a mere difference of genus and 
species b or between characters shared and characters 
not shared, c and went no higher, as they became 
involved in problems more purely dialectical. The 
relation of the partaken in to the partaker is that of 
cause to matter, model to copy, power to effect. And 
it is chiefly by this relation that the absolute and 
always identical differs from what is caused by some- 
thing else and is never in the same state. The former 
will never be non-being and has never come to be, 
and is therefore in the full and true sense ' being ' ; 
whereas the latter has no firm hold even on such 
participation in being as it incidentally has from 
something else, but is too weak to preserve its iden- 
tity, inasmuch as matter sits loosely to its form and 

a Cf. Plato, Sophist, 255 d-e, 25% d-e. 
b As Aristotle. 

« As the Stoics : cf. Mor. 1077 d and von Arnim, Stoicorum 
Vet. Frag, ii, Frags. 395 and 398. 

8 oAiodavovGrjs Bern. : oXiaOatvovoy)? EB. 

239 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA - 

(1115) 

•p jJLerafioAas eirl rrjv et/cdva rfjs ovaias, cooTe Kivel- 
o6ai /cat oaXeveodai, Se^o/xeV^s*. 

' " Clone p ovv 6 Xeyoov HXaTOOva jjurj elvai rrjv 
€lk6vcl rrjv HAdrwvos ovk dvaipel rrjv cos eiKovos 
aiodrjoiv avrrjs /cat vnap^iv, aAAa evSeiKWTai Kad' 

aVTO 1 TWOS OVTOS KCLL TTpOS €K€LVO €T€pOV yeyOVOTOS 

8ia(f>opdv, ovtcos ovre c/>voiv oxire ")(pr)oiv ovre atodr]- 
aiv avOpojTTCov avaipovoiv oi KOivrjs twos ovoias 
1116 jjueTOxfj koll I8eas 2 yivofievov rjpbcov (ekclotov et/cova 
tov Trapao^ovTos ttjv ofJLOLOTrjTa Tjj yeveoei irpoo- 
ayopevovTes . ov8e z yap 6 Trvp fjurj Xeycov elvai tov 

7T€7TVp00lJb€VOV OiSrjpOV TJ TTJV OeXrjV7]V 7]AiOV, dXXd 

KaTa HappueviSrjv 

WKTicfraes 4 ' Trepl yalav dXcopbevov dXXoTpiov (/>cos, 

dvaipel oiSrjpov xprjocv r) oeXrjvrjs (ftvoiv, aAA' 66 pur) 
Xeyoi 5 ocopba fjorjSe 7re<f)COTiop,evov 3 rj8rj ju-a^erat rats' 
aladrjoeoiv, coorrep 6 ocopua /cat t^cpov /cat yeveow 
/cat a'iodrjoiv pur) aTToXiTTcov . 6 8e tclvtcl virdpyew 
too 6 /xerea^/ceVat /cat b'oov a7roAet7rerat tov ovtos 
del /cat to elvai irape^ovTos avTols vttovocov ov 
rrapopa to alodrjTov aAA' ov 1 irapopa to votjtov, 
B ov8e dvaipel ret ywopbeva /cat (fraivopueva Trepl rjpbds 
tcov naOcov, aAAa 6Vt jSejSatorepa tovtcov eTepa /cat 
pbovipuooTepa Trpos ovoiav ecrrt too pafjTe yiveodai 
psryre dnoXXvodai (irjre Trdoyew purjOev evSettcvvTai 

1 auro E : iavro B. 

2 /cat Ihias Bern, (rj IScas Reiske) : koX tSea EB. 

3 oihk E : 6 he B. 

4 vvKTL<f>a€s Scaliger : vvktI <f>dos EB. 

6 AeyotEB*: Xdyeu B ls8 % 

6 xmapxeiv to> Aid. 2 , Leonicus : rd \mapx*w EB. 

7 aAA' ov Pohlenz : dAAd EB. 

240 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1115-1116 

admits into its copy of being many effects and altera- 
tions that lead to movement and instability. 

"As then one who says that Plato's image is not 
Plato does not deny the perception and existence of 
it as an image, but is pointing out the difference be- 
tween what is in its own right and what has come into 
existence as something distinct from the former and 
relative to it, just so neither do those persons deny 
the reality or use or perception of men, who term 
each of us, coming into existence as we do through 
participation in a certain common being and form, an 
image of what imparted its likeness to our formation. 
No more indeed does he who denies that a lump of 
ignited iron is fire, or who says that moonlight is not 
sunshine, calling it instead in the words of Par- 
menides a 

A light of alien breed 
That gleams at night and roves around the earth, 

abolish the use of iron or the reality of moonlight ; only 
if he should deny that the one is a body and the other 
luminous, would he be at war with the senses, as he b 
was who left in the world no body, no animal, no gene- 
ration, and no sense. But he who supposes that these 
things exist by participation and fall far short of 
what forever is and gives them their being, is not 
blind to what we see, but rather is not blind to what 
we know ; he does not deny the world of becoming 
and of objects present to our senses, but points out 
to those who can follow that there are other things 
more stable than these and more enduring in being 
because they neither begin nor come to an end nor 

a Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Parme- 
nides, b 14. 
6 Epicurus. 

241 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1116) Tors' eTrofJievoLS koll hihdo~Kei KadapojTepov rrjs hca- 

cf)Opds a7TTOfJL€VOS TOZS OVOfJbdGl TO, [JL€V OVTQk TOL he 

yivopieva upooayopeveiv % tovto he Kal tois vea>Te- 
pois GVfjLpe^r]K€' 7roAAa yap koI p,eyd\a irpdyjiaTa 
rrjs tov ovtos dirooTepovoi rrpoorjyopias, to Kevov, 

TOV XpOVOV, TOV TOTTOV, o\tt\(jOS TO TO)V AeKTtOV yeVOS , 

ev to kolI TaAr)6r) rrdvTa eveuTt. tclvtol yap 6Vra 
fiev pur) elvai, Tivd he elvai Aeyovot, xpojfJLevoc he 
C avTols cos" v(f)€OTO)ot Kal virdpyovoiv ev tw filco /cat 
TO) (J)iXoOO(f)€tV SiciTeAovoiv. 

16. " 'AAA' avTOV r)hea>s dv ipoipaqv top KaTiq- 
yopov el toZs eavTwv npdyfiaoi ttjv hia(j)opdv ovk 

eVOpCOCFL T0LVT7)V KCid* TjV Ta fiev fJLOVlfJLa Kal aTpeiTTa 

Tals ovoiais eoTcv, cbs Xeyovoi Kal to,? aro/xou? 
aTradeia Kal OTeppoT7]TL irdvTa ^povov ajoavTOJS 
eyeiv, Ta he ovyKpifxaTa irdvTa pevoTa Kal /xera- 
jSAt^tcx Kal yivopbeva Kal diroWvpieva etvai, fivptajv 
fiev elSojXojp aTrepypp,evojv del Kal peovTOJV, \ivplojv 
he cos* eiKos eTepojv eK tov irepie^ovTO^ emppeovTOJV 
Kal ava7T\if]povvTOJV to aOpotopia TroiKiXXopievov vtto 
ttjs etjaXAayrjs TavTiqs Kal \xeTaKepavvv\xevov , are 
D hrj Kal tcjov ev fiddei tov ovyKpip,aTos aTopLOJV ovhe- 
TTOTe \fj£ai Kivrjoeojs ovhe 7raAp,cov irpos aAA^Aa? 1 
hvvapbevojv , woirep avTol Xeyovoiv. 

'AAA' eoTL fjbev ev toZs Trpdy\xaGiv rj TOiavTrj 
hia<f)opd ttjs ovoias' oocfrojTepos he tov Y\\aTa)vos 

1 aXkqXas Usener : a\h)\a EB. 

° The Stoics. Their theory of " incorporeals is criticized 
by Plutarch at Mor. 1074 d. 

b " Something," the most inclusive Stoic term, comprises 
the corporeal, which alone " is," and the four incorporeals : 
void, time, place, and the meaning of words. See M. Poh- 
lenz, Die Stoa, vol. i, p. 64 ; vol. ii, p. 37. 

242 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1116 

suffer change ; and fixing the distinction more exactly 
by his use of terms he teaches them to call the one 
sort things that are and the other things that come to 
be. We find that the more recent philosophers a 
have also done the like ; they refuse to many impor- 
tant realities the name of being — the void, time, place, 
and the whole class of meanings without exception, 
which includes everything true. For these, they say, 
though they are not ' being,' are nevertheless ' some- 
thing ' b ; and they continue to make use of them 
in their lives and their philosophy as real and sub- 
stantial. 

16. " But I should like to ask the very man who 
brings this indictment if his school c does not see this 
distinction in their own system, whereby some objects 
are enduring and unchanging in their being, just as 
atoms too in their doctrine are forever the same be- 
cause they are too hard to be affected, while all aggre- 
gates of atoms are subjetc to flux and change and come 
into being and pass out of it, d as innumerable films 
leave them in a constant stream, and innumerable 
others, it is inferred, flow in from the surroundings 
and replenish the mass/ which is varied by this inter- 
change and altered in its composition, since in fact 
even the atoms in the interior of the aggregate can 
never cease moving or vibrating against one another, 
as the Epicureans say themselves/ 

" ' It is true,' you say, ' that this sort of difference 
in ways of being is found in the actual world. But 

c Epicurus, Frag. 282 (ed. Usener). 

d Cf. Lucretius, i. 464-482 and Diogenes of Oenoanda, 
Frag. 4. ii-iii (ed. Grilli). 

e Cf. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, 48. 

f Cf. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, 43, 50 ; Lucretius, ii. 
95-111. 

243 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(1116) 6 y ^7TLKOvpos fj TTOLvra ofJLolcos ovra rrpooayopevei, 

TO OLVCL(f>€S K€VOV TO aVT€p€LOOV OCOjJLCL TOLS d/O^d? TCt 

ovyKpipLaTa, kolvtjs Kdl puds 1 rjyovpievos ovoias 
[i€Te)(€W to dl&iov tco yivofjbevcp, to dva)Xedpov tw 

(/)6€LpOpL€Va), TOLS OLTTadels Kol 8iapK€LS KOL dpb€Ta~ 

fiXrjTovs Kal purjSeTTOTe tov elvai 8vvap,evas eKire- 
oelv privets ravrais als 2 iv ra> Trauye.iv koX juera- 
E fidXXeiv to elvaiy rats' pbrjSeva ypovov ojoclvtous 
ixovoous.' el 8e 8rj Kal cos 3 evt pbdXtOTa oi^/xapre 
tovtois 6 HXaTOJV, 6vopLaTa)v d><£etAe 4 ovyyvoeojs 
evdvvas viriyjeiv tols aKpifieoTepov iWqvit.ovai tov- 
tois Kal KadapwTepov SiaXeyopuevocs, ovy ojs dvai- 
pa>v tol TrpdyjxaTa Kal tov ^rjv i£dya>v r)p,as atrial 
eyeiv otl rd yivopbeva ytvopueva 5 Kal ovk SvTa, /ca- 
Odirep ovtoi, Trpoorjyopevaev . 6 

17. " 'AAA' irrel 7 tov luWKpaTTjv /xerd tov Hap- 

fJb€Vi8r]V V7T€p€pr)fJL€V, dvaXrjTTT€OS TjfUV icf)€^rjs 6 
7T€pl TOVTOV X6yOS * €X)dvS OVV TOV d</>' UpaS K€KLV7j- 

Kev 6 K.a)Xa)T7)s, Kal SirjyrjodpLevos otl ^p^a/^ov €K 

1 [lias nos : jxtj Se EB. 

2 als nos (<hv Wyttenbach) : <hs EB. 

3 Sr) kol cos Wyttenbach : Bikoliojs wsEB. 

4 a><f>€t,\e Diibner (wfetAti Turnebus ; d^etAct Aid. 2 ) : <3 
tj>[\€ EB. 

5 yivo^va added by Bignone. 

6 7rpocrqy6pevG€v Stephanus : 7rpoarjy6p€voav EB. 

7 ijT€l B 2 Turnebus : hrl EB 1 . 

8 dvaXr}7TT€os (rjpLiv added by us) ij>€^rjs 6 7T€pl tovtov Xoyos 

244 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1116* 

Epicurus a shows himself a better philosopher than 
Plato in applying " being " to all alike, to the 
intangible void and resistant body and to the 
elements and their aggregates, holding that a com- 
mon and single way of being is found in both the 
eternal and the generated, both the indestructible 
and the destructible, both the unaffected and en- 
during and changeless realities that can never be 
expelled from their being and those whose being lies 
in the fact that they are acted upon and changed 
and which never for an instant remain as they were.' 
Yet granting that Plato was entirely mistaken in 
this, it is for the crime of linguistic subversion that 
he should have been summoned to a rendering of 
accounts before these examiners whose Greek is 
more correct and style more pure b ; he should not 
have been charged with abolishing reality and usher- 
ing us out of this life because he styled a thing that 
becomes ' a thing that becomes,' and not like these 
people ' a thing that is.' 

17. " But since after Parmenides we skipped So- 
crates, we must next take up the discussion of him. 
At the very outset Colotes throws in his reserves c : 
after relating that Chaerephon returned from Delphi 

° Frag. 76 (p. 345, ed. Usener) ; cf. also the note to Frag. 
74 (p. 124, ed. Usener). 

6 Epicurus' style was notoriously bad (cf. Usener, Epicurea, 
pp. 88-90, 343). 

c For the proverb (literally " to move the piece from the 
sacred line ") cf. Mor. 783 b, 975 a, and Leutsch and Schnei- 
dewin, Paroem. Graeci, vol. i, p. 221 (Diogenianus, Centuria, 
iii. 36). It is derived from a game like draughts : see F. H. 
Colson, Classical Review, lvi (1942), p. 116. 

Pohlenz : avaX^irrios (-01 B ac ) followed by a blank of 35 
letters E, 31 B. 

245 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1116) AeX(f>cbv 7T€pl HajKpdrovs dvrjveyKe Xaipecfrwv ov 
lofiev drravres, tolvtol erreiprjKe 1 ' ' to fiev ovv rod 
F Xatoe^aWo? Sta to reXecos go^lotlkov /cat ^oprt- 
kov Strjyr/jua etvat TTaprjGopiev .' cjtopriKos ovv 2 6 
nAarcov 6 tovtov dvaypdifjas rov xprjapuov, Iva 
rovs dXXovs idoa>- <j>opriK(x)repoi he Aa/ccSat/xoVtot 
rov Trepl AvKovpyov xP r ] cr l J ' ov & Tats rraXaiordrais 
dvaypacfxiZs e^ovres' go^igtlkov he rjv hirjyrjpLa ro 
rov z Qe/MGTOKXeovs , & rreioas 'Adrjvalovs rr)v ttoXlv 
eKXirrelv KaT€vaviJLd)(r)G€ rov ftdpfiapov (j>opriKol he 
1117 ol rrjs 'EAAaSos 1 vofioderai rd pueyiora /cat nXeZora 
tcjv lepcov TTvdoxprjora* KadiGrdvres* el roivvv 6 
7T€pl HcoKpdrovs, dvhpos els dperrjv deoXrjrrrov ye- 
vofievoVy xprjGfjios dveve^dels cos oocfrov c^opriKos 
rjv /cat go^igtikos , rivi TTpooeLTTCDjJLev d^ioos ovopbari 
rovs vfierepovs ' fipopuovs ' /cat f oXoXvypuovs ' /cat 
Kporodopvfiovs ' /cat ' uefidoeis >b /cat emdeidaeis 
als TTpoGTpeTTeade* /cat KaOvjxveZre rov errl rjhovds 
rrapaKaXovvra ovvex^Zs /cat rrvKvds ; OS ev rfj rrpos 
'Avd£ap)(ov ernaroXfj ravrl yeypa<f)ev, l eyoo he i(f>' 

1 €7T€Lpr)K€ MeziriaCUS : 0L7r€ip7]K€ EB. 

2 ovv EB lss : yap B t (yap ovv Aldine). 

3 to rov nos : to EB. 

4 Trvdoxpyjora Turnebus : 7Tv9oxp?)cr{oL E ; Trvdoxpfjoria B. 

5 oefiaotis Turnebus : oopdaeis EB. 

6 it poor pentad € Turnebus : rrpor peneaOe EB. 

° A scholium to Aristophanes, Clouds, 144, gives it as 
246 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1116-1117 

with the oracle about Socrates that we all know," he 
comments : ' we shall dismiss this business of Chaere- 
phon's, as it is nothing but a cheap and sophistical 
tale.' Then Plato was cheap, who recorded b this 
oracle, not to mention the rest ; the Lacedaemonians 
were cheaper still, who preserved in their most 
ancient records the oracle about Lycurgus G ; that 
' business ' of Themistocles d was a sophistical tale, 
which persuaded the Athenians to abandon the city 
and won victory over the barbarian at sea. Cheap 
too are the lawgivers of Greece who established the 
greater number of rites of worship, and these the 
most important, on the authority of Delphi. If then 
the oracle that was brought back about Socrates, a 
man who had become a zealot for virtue, calling 
him wise, was a cheap sophist's trick, what epithet 
do they deserve, your ' roars ' of ecstasy and ' cries 
of thanksgiving ' and tumultuous ' bursts of ap- 
plause ' e and ' reverential demonstrations,' f all that 
apparatus of adoration that you people resort to in 
supplicating and hymning the man who summons you 
to sustained and frequent pleasures ? A man who in 
the letter to Anaxarchus n can pen such words as 
these : 

follows (cf. II. VV. Parke and I). E. Wormell, The Delphic 
Oracle, vol. ii [Oxford, 1956], no. 420, p. 170) : 
crowds So^oacAtJs", oo<f>a>Tepos 8* }LvpcnL$r)s, 
avhpcjv 8e tt&vtcdv ^ajKpaTrjs cro<f>a)TCLTOS. 

Great wisdom is by wSophocles possessed ; 

Still greater wisdom lias Euripides ; 

But Socrates is wisest of mankind. 
& Apology, 21 a. 
c Herodotus, i. 65. 3. 

d Herodotus, vii. 143 ; Plutarch, Life of Themistocles, 
chap. x. 1-3 (116 d-e). e Frag. 143 (ed. Usener). 

/ 1117 u, infra. « Frag. 116 (ed. Usener). 

247 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1117) rjSovds ovve^is napaKaXa) /cat ovk eir* dperds, 

Kevas /cat (jLarcuas /cat rapa^cjheis e^ovoas rwv 

B Kaprrcov rds iXTriSas.' aAA' o/xcu? 6 jjuev Mrjrpo- 

Scopos tov Tifjiapxov rrapaKaXcov <f)rjai ' rroi'qaojp.ev 

TL KdXoV €7TL KdXoLS, [JLOVOV OV KCLT(lSvVT€S TCLIS 

opLOiorradeiais /cat diraXXayevTes e/c rod ^aftat fiiov 
€is ra ^TTiKovpov ojs dXrjdcos Oeocfxxvra Spy Id.' 
KcdXojttjs 8e avros aKpocbfjuevos 'EmKovpov <f>voio- 
Xoyovvros d(f)vco tols yovauiv avrov Trpoaerreae, 
/cat TavTa ypd(f)€t oefJLVvvofJLevos avros 'ElTLKOVpOS' 
a>9 aejSo/xeVa) ydp ooi rd rore vcf)' rjficov Xeyopueva 
7Tpoo€7T€oev eTTiOvpb^pia d<f)VGLoX6yr}Tov rod 1 Trepi- 
7rXaKrjvat rjfuv yovdrcov i^aTrropbevov /cat rrdar^s 
T7)s eWtGfJbevrjs eTnXrjifjeoJS yiveodai Kara rds cre- 
C jSaaet? rtvwv 2 /cat Arras* inoUis ovv, $v)oi s l /cat 
rjfjLas dvdcepovv oe avrov* /cat avrtaejSea^at/ ovy- 
yvcoord vrj Ata rots' Xeyovoiv a>s ttolvtos* dv irpiaiv- 

1 rod Emperius : to EB. 

2 Tivtov Hirzel (rt/xtcuv ? Post) : Ti[iG)v EB. 

3 ere avrov Usener : ocavrov EB. 

4 navros Xy lander, Meziriacus : iravrts EB. 

° Where anticipation is not disappointed by the event, and 
the event does not lead to unpleasantness. 

h Frag. 38 (ed. Korte). 

c Perhaps religious language : cf. the Spartan prayer, 
that the gods grant ret /caAct errl rols dyaOols (Alcibiades II, 
148 c). 

d With Epicurus. " Sinking away " implies retiring into 
seclusion from surrounding dangers, and like " communion " 
was probably suggested by mystic rites. 

e Statues of gods were supplicated in this way, as by the 
chorus of maidens in the Seven Against Thebes of Aeschylus : 
cf. 95-96, 185, 211-212, 258. 

/ Frag. 141 (ed. Usener). 

248 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1117 

But I for my part summon you to sustained pleasures a 
and not to virtues, which fill us with hopes of future recom- 
pense that are fond and foolish and fatal to our peace of 
spirit. 

These are his words ; and yet Metrodorus b for one 
can use the following language in a summons to 
Timarchus : 

Let us crown an auspicious beginning with an auspicious 
end, c all but sinking away by a communion of experience d 
and exchanging this earthbound life for the holy mysteries 
of Epicurus, which are in very truth the revelation of a god. 

Colotes himself, for another, while hearing a lecture 
of Epicurus on natural philosophy, suddenly cast him- 
self down before him and embraced his knees e ; 
and this is what Epicurus f himself writes about it in 
a tone of solemn pride : ' You, as one revering my 
remarks on that occasion, were seized with a desire, 
not accounted for on scientific lines, 9 to embrace me 
by clasping my knees and lay hold of me to the whole 
extent of the contact that is customarily established 
in revering and supplicating certain personages. h 
You therefore caused me/ he says, ' to consecrate 
you in my turn and demonstrate my reverence/ * 
My word ! We can pardon those who say that they 

9 R. Westman (Plutarch gegen Kolotes, pp. 27-31) inter- 
prets " not accounted for by my lecture on natural philo- 
sophy." In any case such an isolated gesture of supplication 
is wrong, as it proceeds from a belief that the gods can be 
moved, and that Epicurus is a god of popular belief. 

h The gods and deified monarchs in particular. 

* The " consecration " (actually bestowed in the letter) 
takes the form of pointing out the only way for a man to be 
divine : to enjoy the felicity of a god. Colotes had merited 
such " consecration " by his reverence for the philosophical 
truth, not by his mistaken gesture. Though " imperishable " 
he still " goes about " very much a mortal. 

249 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1117) to rrjs 6\/j€QJS €K€Lvr)s ei/cova yeypa\x\ievr\v dedoa- 
odaiy rod puev TTpooiriiTTovTos els yovara koI irepi- 
TrXeKOfJbevov, rod Se dvTiXiTavevovTos Kal avrnrpoo- 

KVVOVVTOS. OV \xivTOl'TO depOLTTeVpLOL TOVTOy KOLL7T€p 

ev to) KojXwttj avvTeOev, ecr^e Kaprrov d^iov ov 
yap dvrjyopevdr] ao(f>6s dXXa p,6vov y ' d<f)9apTos p,ot 
TTepnrdreiy (fyqat, ' Kal rjfias d<f)9dpTOVS Slclvoov.' 
(18.) Toiavra puevroi prfpuara Kal KLvrjfJbara Kal 
7rddrj (jvveiSores avTols 1 erepovs <f>opTiKovs diroKa- 
Xovoi. 

D " Kcu Sfjra koli Trpodels 6 KtoXcorrjs rd oo(f)d 
ravra Kal KaXd irepl rcov alaOrjoeuyv , oti ' atria 
rrpooayopieda koI ov yppTov, koI tovs noTafJiovs, 
orav coot pbeydXoL, rrXoiois SiairepcopLev, orav Se 
evSidfiaroi yevojvrai, rols ttooLv,' emTTe^ijdvr^Kev' 
' dXXa yap dXa^ovas eireTrjSevoas Xoyovs, c5 2a>- 
Kpares' Kal erepa puev SieXeyov rols evTvyydvovoiv ', 
erepa Se eTTparres.' rrws yap ovk dXa^oves ol 
^coKpdrovs Xoyoi pL7]8ev avrov 2 elSevai (j)doKOVTOS 
dXXa puavOdveiv del Kal QrjreZv to dXrjdes ; el Se 
ToiavTais, d> KojAcora, HojKpaTovs (fiojvais nepi- 
erreoes ocas 'YjiTiKovpos ypd<f>ei irpos 'ISo/xeye'a* 

E ' ire (jure ovv dnap)(ds tj/jllv els ttjv'tov lepov oojjxa- 
tos Qeparreiav vrrep re avTov Kal tIkvojv ovtqj ydp 

1 avrols B : avrols E. 
2 avrov EB : avros nos ; avrov Post. 

a Metrodorus was the only one besides himself that Epi- 
curus proclaimed a " sage " : cf. Cicero, De Fin. ii. 3 (7) 
and Seneca, Ep. 18. 9. 

6 Cf. Epicurus' letter to his mother (Frag. 65. 29-40, ed. 
Arrighetti) : " . . . For these things that I gain are nothing 
small or of little force, things of a sort that make my state 
equal to a god's, and show me as a man who not even by his 

250 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1117 

would pay any price to see a painting of that scene, 
one kneeling at the feet of the other and embracing 
his knees while the other returns the supplication 
and worship. Yet that act of homage, though skil- 
fully contrived by Colotes, bore no proper fruit : he 
was not proclaimed a sage. a Epicurus merely says : 
* Go about as one imperishable in my eyes, and think 
of me as imperishable too.' b (18.) Yet with such 
language, postures, and emotions on their conscience 
they dub others cheap. 

''Again Colotes, after laying down these profound 
and noble truths about the senses, that ' we eat food, 
not grass, and when rivers are high we cross by boat, 
but when they have become fordable, we cross them 
on foot,' follows up with this : ' The fact is, Socrates, 
that your arguments were charlatans ; what you said 
to people in your dialogues was one thing, but what 
you actually did was something else again.' How 
could Socrates' conversations be anything but char- 
latanism when he said that he knew nothing himself 
but was always learning and searching for the truth ! 
But if, Colotes, you had met with expressions of Soc- 
rates' such as Epicurus c pens in a letter to Idomeneus 

So send us for the care of our sacred d person an offering 
of first-fruits on behalf of yourself and your children — 
for thus I am moved to speak, 

mortality falls short of the imperishable and blessed nature. 
For while I am alive, I know joy to the same degree as the 
gods." What is imperishable has no disease or trouble (cf. 
Lucretius, iii. 484-486, Colotes, 1113 d, supra) — and we may 
infer, no pain of body or mind — ; and whether the time is 
infinite or finite the pleasure is the same (Cardinal Tenet xix). 

c Frag. 130 (ed. Usener). 

d For Idomeneus see on 1127 d, infra. As we may infer 
from the term " first-fruits," used for example of the yearly 
offerings sent by many cities to Eleusis, he contributed 

251 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1117) fiot Xeyetv en epx 67 at > Tiaiv av prjpbaoiv dypoiKore- 
pois l\pr\(J<jo; Kcd pbrjv on HcoKpdrrjs dXXa puev 
eXeyev dXXa Se en parr e, davpbaorcos pbaprvpet gol 
rd enl A77A10J, rd ev IloTtSata, rd enl rcov rptd- 
kovtol, rd npds 'ApxeXaov, rd 77/309 rov Sfjpuov, rj 
nevia, 6 ddvaros' ov ydp d^ia ravra rcov HcoKpa- 
tlkcov Xoycov. eKelvos rjv, co pbatcdpie, Kara 2co- 
Kpdrovs eXeyxos erepa puev 1 Xeyovros erepa Se 
npdrrovros, el ro rjSecos £,rjv reXos eKdepuevos ov- 
rcos efilcooe. (19.) ravra fiev ovv npds rds f3Xao(f>r)- 
puias. 
F ' "Ore Se ols eyKaXel nepl rcov evapycov 2 evo^os 
avros eonv ov ovvelhev? ev ydp eon rcov 'Em- 
Kovpov Soypbdrcov rd p,rj8ev dpueranelorcos nenel- 
odai pbrjSeva nXrjv rov oocpov. enel roivvv 6 KooAco- 
rrjs ovk rjv oocfids ovSe puerd rds oefidoeis eKeivas, 
epcordodco npcoros* e/ceiva rd epcorrjpiara, ncos atria 
Trpoodyerai Kal ov x°P TOV enirrjSeios cov, Kal rd 
Ipbdnov rep ocopuan Kal ov rep klovl neper idr]ot, 
p,f]re ipbdnov elvai rd Ipbdnov paqre oiriov rd oiriov 
1118 dpueranelorcos neneiopbevos . el Se /cat ravra tt par- 
rel Kal rovs norapuovs y orav cool pteydXoi, noolv 
ov hiepxeraiy Kal rovs 6cf>eis chevy ei Kal rovs Xv- 
kovs, pb7]Sev elvai rovrcov olov cj>aiverai neneiopbevos 

1 \ikv B : E omits. 2 ivapywv E : ivaycov B. 

3 ovv€L$€v E : ovvolhzv B. 

4 epcordoOcu Trpcoros nos : epcurarco Trp&TOv EB (Bern, adds 
iavrov). 

regularly to the support of Epicurus. Since first fruits were 
offered to a god, and the support was for Epicurus' bodily 
needs, we have the expression " sacred person." 

a Cf Life of Alcibiades, chap. vii. 6 (195 a) and Plato, 
Symposium , 220 e 7 — 221 c 1. 
252 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1117-1118 

to what more unmannerly terms could you have re- 
sorted ? Indeed your charge that Socrates said one 
thing and did another is most wonderfully borne out 
by what he did at Delium, at Potidaea, 6 under the 
Thirty, by his bearing toward Archelaiis d and before 
the assembly at Athens, e and by his poverty and 
death. For nothing in all this could ever match his 
talk. The only thing that could really, my blissful 
innocent, have damned Socrates for belying his pre- 
cepts by his practice, is this : if he had set up pleasure 
as the supreme good and then lived as he did. (19-) 
So much in reply to the abuse. 

" Colotes has not seen that he is himself liable to 
his charge of distrusting the plain evidence of the 
senses. For it is one of Epicurus' tenets f that none 
but the sage is unalterably convinced of anything. 
Now since Colotes was no sage, not even after that 
demonstration of reverence, let him be the first to 
whom these questions of his are put : How comes 
it that he eats food and does not eat grass (well 
suited as he is to such provender) and wraps his cloak 
about himself and not around the pillar, though he 
is not unalterably convinced that either the cloak is 
a cloak or that the food is food ? But if he not only 
does all this, but also does not cross rivers on foot 
when they are high and keeps out of the way of 
snakes and wolves, not from an unalterable convic- 
tion that any of these things is such as it appears, but 

6 Cf Life of Alcibiades, chap. vii. 4-5 (194 e) and Plato, 
Symposium 220 d 5-e 7. 

Cf Plato, Apology, 32 c 3-d 8. 

d Cf Frag, xviii. 15 (vol. vii, p. 117. 14-19, ed. Bern.). 

e Cf Plato, Apology, 32 a 9-c 3. 

f Frag. 222 (ed. Usener). The Academics used the same 
argument against the Stoics : cf Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 47 
(145). 

253 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1118) dfJb€ra7T€Lurcos dXXa irpdrTiov e/caora Kara to <£at- 
vofjbevov, ovSe Soj/cpdVet 8tj7tov6€V ipLiroScbv rjv rj 
rrepl rcov alodrjoeajv 8q£cl tov y^prjoOat tols (f>aivo- 
fievocs ofJLOLCDS. ov yap K.coXa)rrj puev 6 dpros apros 

€<f>CLlV€TO KCLL X^pTOS 6 ^doTO? OTL TOVS ' 8l07T€T€LS ' 

dv€yvd)K€i liavovas, 6 8e HajKpdrrjs vtto dAa^ovelas 
dprov (xev cos* x°P TOV > X°P TOV $* ws dproVy <j>avTa- 
B a lav eAau/3av€. Sdy/xaat yap rjpuov /cat Xoyotg 
ovtol xpojVTau fieArLOOLV ol oocf>ol, to S' aloddveadai 
/cat TVTTOvadai 77po? Ta (f)atv6fjL€Pa kolvov ion Trddos 
dXoyois TrepaivofjLevov alriais. 6 8e ras alodrjoeis 
Aoyos irrayofjievos ojs ovk a/comets ov8e do(f>aAels 

ITpOS TtIgTLV OVGaS OVK dvaip€L TO (f)alv€odaL TtOV 

TTpayfJidrojv rjfJLLV eKaorov, aAAa xpa>^eVot9 Kara 
to (fraLVOfjievov irrl rds npd^ets rats aloOrjoeoL to 
7TiOT€V€iv ojs dArjOeoL ndvrr\ /cat aota77TOJTOt9 ov 
818ojolv avrats' to yap dvayKalov dpKel /cat xpeLco- 
8es air* avrcoVy on fieAnov erepov ovk eoriv rjv 8e 
TToOet cf)iA6oo(f)0£ ^XQ Xafielv lmoTV)p,r]V irepl eKa- 
orov /cat yvGiGiv ovk k\ovai. 

20. " Ylepl jiev ovv Tovrojv /cat 7raAtv 6 KojAojt^s' 
C elrrelv trape^ei, ravra iroAAoZs ey/ce/cA^/cojs". iv ots* 
8e Kop,i8fj ScayeAa /cat </>Aaupt^€t top HojKpdrrjv 
t,7)Tovvra ri avdpa)7r6s €otl /cat veavievop,evov , ojs 
(frrjoiv, otl [ArjSe avTos avrov 1 elSeirj, SfjAos puev 
ioTLV avTos ovSeiroTe 7rpos tovtoj yevopievos. 6 8e 

1 avrov added by Pohlenz. 

a See Usener, Epicurea, p. 104. 25-26, 27-28. 
b Cf. Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 32 (103). 
c Cf. Plato, Phaedo 64e1,67a4. 
254 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1118 

in each instance guided by the appearance, then 
surely Socrates too was not precluded by his views 
about the senses from dealing with appearances in 
the same way. For reading the heaven-sent a Canons 
did not make bread appear bread to Colotes and grass 
appear grass, whereas Socrates' charlatanism gave 
bread to him the appearance of grass and grass the ap- 
pearance of bread. For it is only in doctrine and argu- 
ment that these sages have the advantage over the 
rest of us ; to perceive with the senses and to receive 
impressions when confronted with appearances hap- 
pens to everyone, since it is the work of causes that 
have nothing to do with reasoning. The inductive 
argument by which we conclude that the senses are 
not accurate or trustworthy does not deny that an 
object presents to us a certain appearance, but for- 
bids us, though we continue to make use of the senses 
and take the appearance as our guide in what we do, 
to trust them as entirely and infallibly true. & For we 
ask no more of them than utilitarian service in the 
unavoidable essentials/ since there is nothing better 
available ; but they do not provide the perfect know- 
ledge and understanding of a thing that the philo- 
sophical soul longs to acquire. d 

20. " Now of these matters Colotes will give us 
occasion to speak again, 6 as he has brought these 
charges against many. We pass to the downright 
derision and scurrility of his attack on Socrates for 
seeking to discover what man is and ' flaunting ' (as 
Colotes puts it) the boast that he did not even know 
himself/ In all this we can see that Colotes for his 
part had never given himself to the problem. Whereas 

d Of. Plato, Phaedo, 65 a 10-c 3, c 11-d 2, e 4, 66 b 6-7, 
e 2-3, 68 a 1-2. e 1120 f— 1121 e, 1123 b— 1124 b, infra. 
' Plato, Phaedrus, 230 a. 

255 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1118) 'Hpa/cAetTos cog fjueya tl /cat oe/JLvdv Sta7r€77pa- 
yfjbevoSy ' iSitprjadfJbrjv/ cfrrjaiv, ' epiecovTov,' 1 /cat tcov 
ev AeA^ots 1 ypa^drcov deiorarov eSo/c€t to ' yvchdi 
oavroVy o 8rj /cat 2a>/cpaVet rfjs 2 diroplas kcll tprjTri- 
oecos tclvttjs dpxty iveScoKev, cos ' ApLororeXrjs £v 
tols YiXcLTcavLKois eiprjKe- KcoXcqttj 8e yeXolov 80- 
D K€L. tl ovv ov /carayeAa /cat rod Kadrjyefiovos 

TOVTO CLVTO TTpCLTTOVTOS OGCLKLS ypd(f)OL KCLL StaAe- 
yOLTO 7T€pl OVGLCLS lpVxfj$ KCLL TOV dOpOOV T7JS KCLT- 
a PX*i S >* €L Y^P T ° *£ d(JL(/)OLV, OJS CL^LOVGLV CLVTOL, 
OcbfACLTOS TOLOVO€ KCLL l/jV)(rjS , avdpCOTTOS €OTLV, 6 

l^tjtcov ifjvxfjs (f>vuLV dvdpctmov t^rjreL <f>v<jLV €/c rrjs 
KvpLLorepas dpx^js. otl 8e avrrj Xoytp SvcrdecbprjTOS 
alodrjoeL 8e dXrj7TTOs £otl, fjurj irapd HcoKparovs, 
oo(/)lcttov /cat dAa^oVo? dvSpos, dXXd Trapd tcov 
ao(f)cov Tovrcov Xaficofiev, ot p>€XP L T ^ v 7T€ P L crap/ca 
Trjs ipvxfjs Svvdjjuecov, ats depfjuorrjra /cat /xaAa/co- 

T7)TCL /Cat TOVOV 7ra/D€^et TCp (JcbjJsCLTL, TTjV OVOLCLV 

E ovfJL7Tr]yvvvT€s avrfjs* €K tlvos depp^ov /cat nvev- 
(JLCLTLKOV /cat depcbSovs OVK €$;lkvovvtcll TTpOS TO 
KvpLwroLTov dXXd dirayopevovoL* to yap cS /cptVet 

1 ifiecovrov B : e/x€ wihov E. 

2 rfjs added by Pohlenz. 

3 Karapx^js] 7rpoKaTapxrjs Cronert. 4 clvttjs] avrols E ac . 

a Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Hera- 
kleitos, b 101. 

6 Of. Plato, Apology, 21 b 7-8, 22 a 4, 23 b 5, 29 c 7. 

Frag. 1 (ed. Rose) ; On Philosophy, Frag. 1 (ecL Ross). 

d Frag. 314 (ed. Usener). 

* The " aggregate " may be the body (so Westman, op. 
cit. p. 231), body and soul, or the complex of four components 
that constitutes the soul (cf. 1118 e, infra). " Initiation " 
may refer to initiating the movement of the soul. The Epi- 
curean Zeno of Sidon wrote a book Uepl irapeyKXCocois ko! 
256 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1118 

Heracleitus ° said as of some great and lofty achieve- 
ment ' I searched myself out ' ; and ' Know Thyself ' 
was held to be the most godlike of the Delphic in- 
scriptions, being moreover the command that set Soc- 
rates to wondering and inquiring so, 6 as Aristotle has 
said in his Platonic writings. Colotes, however, finds 
the question absurd. Why then does he not deride his 
master d too, who did this very thing as often as he 
wrote or spoke about the constitution of the soul and 
the ' initiation of the aggregate ' ? e For if (as they 
themselves hold) the combination of the two parts, a 
body of a certain description and a soul, is man/ then 
one who seeks to discover the nature of soul is seeking 
to discover the nature of man, starting from the more 
important source. And that the soul is hard to appre- 
hend by reason and cannot be discerned by sense let 
us not learn from Socrates, that sophist and char- 
latan, 6 ' but from these sages, who get as far as those 
powers of the soul that affect the flesh, by which it 
imparts warmth and softness and firmness to the 
body, when they manufacture its substance by com- 
bining their own varieties of heat, gas and air, ft but 
quit before they reach the seat of power. For that 
whereby it judges, remembers, loves, and hates — in 

tt}s rod ddpoov irpoKarapxris " On the Swerve and the Original 
Initiation of the Aggregate " (Cronert, op. cit. p. 23). 

f Westman (op. cit. p. 158), points out that this is a refer- 
ence to the definition (Epicurus, Frag. 310, ed. Usener) 
" man is such a conformation as this together with animate- 
ness " (avdpajTTOS 6<m roiovrovl fj,6p(f)ajfjLa [jlct c/Lt'/ru^ta?). The 
definition evidently corrects Democritus' " man is what we 
all know " (Frag, b 165, ed. Diels-Kranz). 

Cf. Arrian, Epicteti Diss. ii. 20. 23 (Usener, Epicurea, p. 
246. 34). 

h Cf. Lucretius, iii. 231-236 and R. Heinze, T. Lucretius 
Carus De Rerum Natura Buck ///(Leipzig, 1926), pp. 42 f. 

vol. xiv k 257 



PLUTARCH'S MORATJA 

(1118) Kal flV7]jJbOV€V€L K(ll (f)l\€l KCU fJblO€t, KCLL dXcOS TO 
(f)p6vifJbOV KOL XoyiOTLKOV €K TIVOS (fraCFlV 1 ' OLKOIT- 

ovoybdaTov ' 7toi6t7]to<; imyiveoOai. /cat otl p,€V 
auj^vvofidpj]? €Gtlv dyvoias tovti to ' d/caroi'o- 
jjuaoTov ' e^o/JLoXoyqais ovk €X €lv dvopudoai (j>a- 
okovtojv o jjltj SvvavTai KaTaXafielv , LOfJbev ' ex^TCo 
Se ovyyvcofJLTjv ' /cat tovto, cos Xeyovoi. ^atVerat 
yap ov (f)0,v\ov ov8e pdSiov ovSe tov tv^ovtos elvat 
KCLTapLaOeLV dXXd ivSeSvKos drropco tlvl tottco /cat 
F oeivcos dTroK€KpvfJbjJbevov , to ye ovojjlol pbrjSev iv to- 

(JOVTOIS 7TpOS SrjXoJOLV OLK€lOV €GTLV. OV HcOKpaTrjS 

ovv dfieXTepos, ogtls €tr] t^rjTcov iavTov, dXXd rrdvTes 
ols erreioi tl tcov dXXcov rrpo tovtov ^rjTecv 6 tl 2 
tt]v yvcooiv dvayKaiav eypv ovtcos evpedrjvac ^aAe- 
ttov eoTiv. ov yap dv eXirLaeiev eTepov Xafielv em- 
ott^ixt^v ov Sta7re(/)€vy€ tcov iavTov to KvptcoTaTOV 
KaTaXafielv . 

21. " 'AAAa 8l86vt€S avTco to pbrjSev ovtcos a- 
-)(pi)OTOv elvai pbrjSe cfropTLKov cos to tpqTelv avTov, 
1119 epcopueOa tls avTTj rod fiiov ovyyyols ioTiv r) rrcos 
ev tco tfiv ov hvvaTai Siafjuevetv dvrjp ot€ tv)(ol rrpos 
iavTov dvaXoyc^opievoSy ' <f>*P € T ^ ^ v °vtos o 3 eyco 
Tvyydvco; rroTepov cos Kpapua, to jJLefJLiyfJievov €/c re 
TTJs ipvxfjs /cat tov GcofxaTos, r) jjl&XXov rj ^X 7 ? r ^ ) 
ocopbaTi xpcofievr], Ka9d,7rep Irnrevs dvrjp Ittttco XP^' 
[jievos, ov to i£ L7T7TOV /cat dvSpos; rj ttjs faxys T ° 

1 <f>acnv Pohlenz : <j>r)alv EB. 

2 o tl nos : on EB. 

3 o B : oE. 

a Frag. 314 (eel. Usener) ; cf. Lucretius, iii. 241-245. 

b Cf. Diogenes Laert. x. 118: the Epicureans hold that 

258 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1118-1119 

short its thinking and reasoning faculty — is added to 
these, they a say, from a quality ' that has no name.' 
This talk of the thing * that has no name ' is, we know, 
a confession of embarrassed ignorance : what they 
cannot make out they assert that they cannot name. 
But let this too ' be excused,' b as they say. For the 
thing is evidently nothing ordinary, nor its under- 
standing easy and a matter for common capacities ; 
it has burrowed into some impenetrable nook c and 
lies most cunningly concealed, if indeed no word in 
the whole range of language is suited to express it. 
Then Socrates was not a fool in this endeavour to dis- 
cover who he was ; the fools are all those who take it 
into their heads to give priority to some other ques- 
tion over this, to which the answer must be found, and 
yet it is so difficult to find. For no one can hope to 
attain to the understanding of anything else when 
knowledge of that, which of all he owns comes first 
and foremost, has eluded his grasp. d 

21. " Still, conceding to him that nothing is so 
frivolous or cheap as the quest for knowledge of one- 
self, let us ask him how it can lead to the collapse 
of this life of ours, or how a man cannot continue to 
live who at some moment or other falls to reasoning 
with himself ' Let me see now, what am I in fact, this 
thing called I ? Am I like a blend, the combination of 
this soul with this body ? Or am I rather my soul 
using my body, as a horseman is a man using a horse, 
not a compound of horse and man ? Or is each of us 

the sage will not punish slaves, but will feel pity and excuse 
a good one. c Cf. Plato, Sophist, 239 c 5-7. 

* Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 229 e 5—230 a 1 : "I have not yet 
been able, as the inscription at Delphi has it, to know myself. 
Thus it appears to me absurd, when you are still ignorant of 
this, to examine what belongs to others." 

259 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1119) KVpLOJTCLTOV, c3 (/>pOVOU/Lt€V Kdl Xoyi^OfiedoL KOL 7Tp(XT- 
TOf.L€V } €Ka<JTOS Tj^ihv €OTt, TOL §6 XoiTTCL KOI iftvXVS 

[lopia Trdvra /cat acofzaros opyava rrjs tovtov hvvd- 
jiecos ; r\ to rrapdrrav ouk eoTiv ovuia tfjvxfjs dAA' 

B CLVTO TO GCOfJLOL K€KpafJL€VOV CCT^/CC 1 T7JV TOV <j>pOV€LV 

/cat tfiv ovvajjuv; ' dAAd tovtols /zev ovk dvoupel tov 
fiiov 6 HajKpdrrjs, a orj rrdvTes ol (f>voiKoi ^tjtovglv, 
€K€tva Se rjv ra iv Qalopco oeivd /cat rapa/crt/cd Ttov 
TTpaytidroav, avTov olopuevov oelv dvadecopeZv ' ecre 
Tvc/mjovos ion drjpiov rroXvirXoKcorepov /cat fxdXXov 
Ittit€Qv\l\l£vov z €lt€ deias tlvos koX drv(f)ov p,oipas 

<f>VG€L fJL€T€-)(OV .' dXXd TOVTOIS y€ Tols €7TlXoyi- 

ojJLols ov tov fiiov dvrjpec, TTjv Se ipb^povTrjoiav €K 

TOV fiiOV KCLL TOV TVtfioV* €^TjXaVV€ KOL TOLS eTTa^^t? 

/cat vrrepoyKovs KaToirjoeis 5 /cat /xeyaAa^ta?. rauTa 

G ydp 6 Tv(f)(X)V ioTLV, OV TToXvV VfJLLV* €V€7T0L7]O€V 7 6 

Kadrjyejjbwv /cat deols rroXefiajv /cat deiois dvhpdai. 

22. " Merd Se HcoKpdTrjv /cat UXaTcova rrpoo- 
/xd^erat HtlXttcovl' /cat rd puev dXr]8tvd SdyjLtara /cat 

1 €gxv k€ placed here in E : before SvvafiLv in B. 

2 avrov E : avrov B. 

3 imredviiiicvov Reiske (from Phaedrus, 230 a 4) : imredv- 
ficvov E ; imrcdeifidvov B. 

4 rv<j>ov Diibner : rv<f>ov EB. 

5 Karoir]G€i,s E : KaroiKyoeis B. 

6 vfjuv EB C (v in an erasure in B). 

7 €V€7T0L7]O€V E : £tT0LT)O€V B. 

° Cf. Aristotle, Protrepticus, Frag. 6 (ed. Ross) ; Eth. Nic. 
ix. 4 (1166 a 22-23) ; Metaphysics, H 3 (1043 a 34-37, b 2-4, 
10-13). The view that a man is his soul is found in the Phaedo, 
115 c-e; cf also L. Alfonsi, "1/ Assioco pseudoplatonico," 
in Studi Mondolfo (Bari, 1950), p. 266. 

b Cf Plato, Phaedo, 85 e— 86 d ; Dicaearchus, Frag. 7-12 
(ed. Wehrli) ; Galen, De naturalibus facultatibus, i. 12 (vol. ii, 
pp. 27-28, ed. Kuehn, p. 120. 22-25, ed. Helmreich) ; and 

260 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1119 

not the soul, but the chief part of the soul, by which 
we think and reason and act, all the other parts of 
soul as well as of body being mere instruments of its 
power ? ° Or is there no substance of soul at all, and 
has the body unaided acquired by its composition the 
power of thought and life ? ' b But it is not with these 
questions (you say), to which all students of natural 
philosophy seek an answer, that Socrates abolishes 
the possibility of living ; it is the enormities in the 
Phaedrus c that make a chaos of our lives, where he 
believes that he ought to consider himself to see 
1 whether he is a beast more intricate and puffed 
up than Typhon, or whether by nature he enjoys a 
lot that is divine and free from the fumes of infatua- 
tion.' d But he did not surely by these reflexions 
make life impossible ; he cleared it rather of the 
crack-brained vapourings of folly and delusion — of 
the ponderous load of silly conceits and noisy boast- 
ing. For this is what Typhon signifies, and your 
master e has implanted plenty of him in you with his 
war against the gods and godlike men. 

22. " After Socrates and Plato he assails Stilpon, 
and without setting down the man's real teaching 

Be moribus animae chap, iv (vol. iv, p. 782, ed. Kuehn, p. 44, 
ed. von Mueller): Heracleides, Frag. 72 (ed. Wehrli). 

c 230 a. 

d Typhon (the " smoulderer ") is described (under the 
name Typhoeus) by Hesiod in the Theogony, 820-861) as a 
son of Gaia with a hundred serpent's heads who was smitten 
by Zeus' thunderbolt and when he fell filled the valleys of 
Aetna with the flame. Plutarch plays on his dazed stupor 
when smitten, on his loud and varied voices, and on his (and 
the mountain's) weight and size ; Plato on his half-serpentine 
shape (" intricate " renders polyplokoteroto, literally lk with 
more folds ") ; both play on his vanity (in attacking the gods) 
and on his vapourings (typhus is both smoke and vanity). 

e Frag. 558 (ed. Usener). 

261 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1119) tovs Aoyovs tov dvSpos, ols iavrov re KaTeKoopbet 
kcli TrarptSa /cat <f)iAovs Kal tcov fiaoiAecov tovs rrepl 
avrov OTTOvhaoavras , ov 1 yeypa<j)ev y ovSe oaov rjv 
(f)p6v7]fjLa rfj ifsv)(fj fxera TrpaorrjTos kcll pberpLona- 
deias, tov Se ttcll^lov kcll xP ( ^ > l Jbevo ^ y^AcoTL 2 irpos 
tovs uocj)iGTc\s Aoyapicov Trpov ftaAAev 3 avrols, ivos 
fjLvrjaOels Kal rrpos tovto parjSev ei77<w 4 p,r)8e Avoas 
ttjv TTLOavorrjra rpaycohiav errdyeL tlo HtlAttcovl kcll 

D TOV fitoV aVCLLpelodcLL (f)T]OLV VTT* avrov AeyovTos 

crepov irepov pbrf KarrjyopelodaL. ' ttcos yap /3ta>- 
oopL€0a [jltj Aeyovres dvdpcorrov dyadov purjSe dvdpco- 
ttov oTparrjyov aAAa dvOpconov dvOptoTTov kcll x^pls 
dyadov dyadov Kal orparrjyov orrparrjyov, fjurjSe 
LTTTTeis jxvplovs fJL7]Se ttoAlv ixvpdv, aAAa ltt7T€ls 

LTT7T€L? Kal [JLVpLOVS fJLVpLOV? Kal TCI dAAa* 6/JLOLOJS ; 

tls Se Sta ravra x € ^P ov Iftitooev dvOpcorrcov ; tls 
8e tov Aoyov aKovoas ov ovvrJKev otl rrai^ovTOS 
ioTLV evfJLovotos rj yvpuvaopua tovto irpo^dAAovTOS 
eTepoLS SLaAeKTLKov ; ovk avOptoirov, to KajAcora, 
jjLrj AeyeLV dyaOov ov8e limels puvplovs SeLVov €gtlv, 
E dAAa tov 6eov p,rj AeyeLV 6eov /xrySe vojjll^zlv, o 

7TpaTT€T€ U/Xefc, fJL7]T€ Ata TevlOALOV pLTJT€ A^/X^Tpa 7 

@€opuo(f)6pov elvaL p,i']T€ TlooeLStova (DuraAuiov 8 
o/JLoAoyelv ideAovTes. ovtos 6 ^ajpia/xos" tcov ovo- 

pidTCOV TTOVTjpOS €GTL Kal TOV (3lOV € jJLTT LTrArj O IV 6Al~ 

1 ov Stegmann : ot>re EB. 2 ye'Aom E : B omits it here. 

3 irpovfiaXXzv E : TrpovfiaXe yeXcoTL B. 

4 npos tovto firjSev zlirtbv E : p/qhkv elwwv npos tovto B. 

5 ijltj Turnebus : aXXy EB. 6 Ta aAAa E : raAAa B. 

7 /S.'qprjTpa Usener : hrjfxiqTpov EB. 

8 (J)vtoX}uov E : <J>olt6Xlllov B. 

a Demetrius Poliorcetes and Ptolemy Soter (Diogenes 
Laert. ii. 115). 

262 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1119 

and thought, which brought distinction to himself, 
his country, his friends, and the kings a who valued 
him, or his high mettle, joined with gentleness and 
equanimity, 5 Colotes mentions one of the little puzzles 
that Stilpon used to propound to the sophists to tease 
and have his sport with them, and without meeting 
the challenge or detecting and exposing the fallacy 
assails Stilpon in the highflown language of the stage, 
saying that he robs us of our life by the assertion 
that one thing cannot be predicated of another. ' For 
how shall we live if we cannot call a man good or a 
man a general, but can only on one side call a man 
a man, and on the other good good and general 
general, or if we cannot speak of ten thousand horse 
or a strong city, but only say that horsemen are horse- 
men and ten thousand ten thousand, and so with the 
rest ? ' What man's life was ever the worse for Stil- 
pon's remark ? Who that heard it did not recognize 
it as a pretty piece of foolery or a dialectical exercise 
propounded for others to solve ? What is grave, 
Colotes, is not to refuse to call a man good or horse- 
men ten thousand, it is to refuse to call or believe a 
god a god, and this is what you and your company 
do, who will not admit c that Zeus is 'Author of the 
Race,' d Demeter ' Giver of Laws/ e or Poseidon 
' Guardian of Growth/ f It is this disjoining of one 
word from another that works harm and fills your 

6 See the apophthegms in Mor. 468 a and 475 c (cf. also 
5 f) and the Life of Demetrius , chap. ix. 8-10 (893 a-b). 

e The Epicureans held that the gods do not concern them- 
selves with man ; Epicurus {Letter to Herodotus, 77) warns 
against using names of the gods that are inconsistent with 
their blessed state. 

d Cf. Mor. 766 c. 

• Cf. Mor. 994 a. 

/ Cf. Mor. 158 e, 451 c, 675 f, and 730 d. 

263 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1119) yojpias dOeov /cat Opaovrrjros orav ras ovvel^ev- 
ypuevas rols Oeois 77 'poorjy f opias 6,7too7t<jl)vt€S ovvavai- 
prjre 1 Ovglols, fivarrjpia, TTOfjards, eoprds. rlvi yap 
TTporfpoGia 2 dvGOfjuePy rtvi aajrrjpia; ttcos 8e cf>coa- 
. c/)6p€ia, ficLKxela, irporeXeia ydficov d£op,ev, purj 
reXeiovs 3 drroXiTrovres p,rj8e ^a/c^efe /cat (fraxxfropovs 
F /cat TTporjpoGiovs* /cat crojrrjpas; ravra yap dirrerai 
twv KVpicordrajv /cat pueylorajv ev Trpdypbaoiv k\ovra 
ttjv aTrarrjv ov uepl (j>a>vds nvas ov8e XeKrcov ovv- 
ra^iv ov8e ovopudrajv ovvrjOeiav chs et ye /cat ravra 
rbv fiiov dvarperrei,, rives jjl&XXov vpucbv TrA^/AUcAouat 
nepl rrjv 8idXeKrov, ot ro rcov XeKrcov yevos, ova Lav 
rep Xoycp irapeypvy dp8rjv dvaipelre, ras <j>cx)vds /cat 
rd rvyydvovra puovov drroXnTovres , rd 8e fiera^v 
or] puacv '6 jjuev -a Trpdypiara, St' oov yivovrai jxadrjaets, 
1120 StSaovcaAtat, TTpoXrji/jets, vorjoets, oppual, ovyKara- 
OeaeLS, ro irapdirav ov8e elvat Xeyovres ; 

23. " Ov [Jbrjv dXXa ro em 6 rod YiriXrroovos roiov- 

1 avvavaiprjre Usener : (jvvavaipcire EB. 

2 7Tpor}p6(na Xy lander, Reiske : 77y>OTeAeia EB. 

3 reXtiovs added by Reiske, who also suggests ya/z^Atous. 

4 7rporjpoGLovs Reiske : TTporjpeolovs EB. 

5 7Tapexov Usener : Trapixovres EB. 

6 i-rrl Basle edition of 1542 : m EB. 

a The sacrifice was offered to Demeter and Persephone to 
ensure the growth of the crops : cf. L. Deubner, Attische 
Feste (Berlin, 1932), pp. 68 f. 

6 For festivals of this name cf. A. Mommsen, Feste der 
Stadt Athen (Leipzig, 1898), p. 408, note 5, and M. P. 
Nilsson, Griechische Feste (Leipzig, 1906), pp. 34 f. 

c Nothing is known of this festival : cf. M . P. Nilsson, op. 
cit. p. 469. 

d Cf. M. P. Nilsson, op. cit. pp. 306 f. ; L. Deubner, op. 
cit. p. 149. 

e A sacrifice preceding the marriage ceremony. 

264 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1119-1120 

lives with a godless negligence and recklessness, 
when you tear away from the gods the appellations 
attached to them and by that single act annihilate 
all sacrifices, mysteries, processions and festivals. To 
whom shall we offer the Sacrifice Before the Plough- 
ing, a the Sacrifice for Deliverance ? b How shall we 
hold the ceremonies of the Bearing of Light, of the 
Revels/ and of the Prenuptial Rites, 6 if we leave 
ourselves no Lady of Nuptials/ no Reveller, 9 ' no 
Bearer of Light/ no Guardian of the Ploughing/ and 
no Deliverer ? j These views affect matters of the 
highest and gravest import, and the error in them in- 
volves reality, not a set of vocables or the conjunction 
of meanings k or the accepted usage of words ; in- 
deed if mere linguistic confusion of this sort is ruinous 
to our lives, what school is more at fault in its views 
about language than yours, 1 who make a clean sweep 
of the whole category of meanings, which impart 
to discourse its substantial reality, and leave us with 
nothing but vocables and facts, when you say that 
the intermediate objects of discourse, the things 
signified, which are the means of learning, teaching, 
conception, understanding, appetition, and assent, do 
not exist at all ? 

23. " Stilpon's point however is this : if we 

f The word teleios (literally " fulfiller ") is added by 
Reiske. Hera had the epithet as presiding over marriages. 

An epithet or name of Dionysus. 

h An epithet of Hecate and Artemis. 

1 An epithet of Demeter {cf. Mor. 158 e). 

* An epithet of Zeus {cf. Mor. 1049 a, 1076 b) and many 
other gods. 

k Cf. 1116 b, supra. The Stoics held that meanings con- 
stitute a distinct kind of incorporeal entity between words 
and corporeal objects. 

1 Frag. 259 (ed. Usener). 

265 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1120) tov eoTiv el Trepl dvOpojTrov to dyadov rj 1 7T€pl 

LTTTTOV TO TpeyeiV KaTTjyopOVpieV y OV <f)7]OL TOLVTOV 

elvai Tip 2 Trepl ov KaTrjyopetTai to KaTryyopov- 
jjL€vov y aAA' eTepov 5 fxkv dvdpojTrcp tov tl tjv elvai TOP 
Aoyov, eTepov Se tw dyadcp- koI irdXiv to Ittttov 
elvai tov TpeypvTa elvai oiacfrepeiv . 4 eKaTepov yap 
aTraiTOvpievoi tov Aoyov ov tov clvtov aTroSioopiev 
virep dfJbc/yoLV. odev dpuapTaveiv tovs eTepov eTepov 
KCLTTjyopovvT as (hs ov d/Jbcf)OLV to elvai TavTov. 5 el 
fjuev ydp TavTov eoTi ra> dvdpojTrcp to dyadov /cat 
to) Ittttoj to Tpeyeiv, 77CU9 Kol oitlov Kal </>ap/xa/cot> 
B to dyadov /cat vr) Ata TrdAiv A<eovtos /cat kvvos to 
Tpeyeiv KaTrjyopovfjLev ; et 6 S' eTepov, ovk opdws 
dvdpojTTOV dyadov /cat Ittttov Tpeyeiv Aeyopuev. eiTrep 
ovv 1 ev tovtois e^errai^e 8 TTiKptos 6 UtiAttojv, tcov 
ev VTroKetfJievcp /cat /ca#' vTroKeipievov Aeyopievojv p,r)- 
Sepbtav aTToAtTrcbv ovilttAoktjv irpos to VTroKeipievov, 
aAAa eKaoTOv avTtov, el pur) KopuSfj tovtov qj ovp,- 
fiefirjKe AeyeTai, parjSe d>s ovpbfiefirjKos olofxevos 8elv 
ire pi avTod Aeyeodai, (f>a)vats tlul SvoKoAaivojv /cat 
TTpos tt)v crvvrjdeiav evioTap^evos , ov tov fiiov dvai- 
ptbv ovSe tol TrpdypuaTa SrjAos eoTi. 

1 nepl dv6pd)7TOV to dyaOov rj supplied by US. 

2 rat Turnebus : toEB. 

3 After erepov Madvig would add ovfr el Trepl dvOpdowov to 
dyadov elvai, dAA' eTepov. 

4 elvai hia<j>epeiv EB l8S : oiacj>epeiv elvai B*. 

5 d)s ov d/jL<f>o'iv to (o)S ov to Tt rjv Warmington) elvai ravrov 
our supplement of a blank of 26 letters in E, 30 in B. 

,; Karrjyopovfiev; el Wyttenbach (Karr/yopov/jLevov ; el Reiske) : 
KarrjyopovfjLev and a blank of 2 letters E ; KaTrjyopovfiev and a 
blank of 1 letter B ac ; KaTrjyopovpievov B c . 

'owE: B omits. 

8 e^errai^e nos : e^aifid^ei EB. 

266 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1120 

predicate good of man or running of a horse, the 
predicate (he maintains) is not the same as the sub- 
ject, but the formula that defines the essence of man 
is one thing, while that which defines the essence 
of good is something else again ; and again to be 
a horse differs from to be running, for when asked 
for a definition we do not give the same formula for 
each. Therefore they err who predicate one thing of 
another, as if the essence of both were the same. For 
if good is the same as man, and running the same as 
horse, how comes it that we also predicate good of 
food and of medicine, or again (for that matter) run- 
ning of a lion and of a dog ? But if they are different, 
we err when we say that a man is good and that a 
horse runs. If Stilpon then has here produced a 
biting piece of mockery, forbidding us to couple a 
things inherent in and predicated of a subject b with 
that subject, in the belief that none of them, unless 
completely identical with the thing of which it is an 
accident, should be expressed as an accident of it 
either, he is evidently making difficulties with certain 
vocables and raising objections against common 
usage , c but he is not annihilating our life or the reali- 
ties of which we speak. 

° For this sense of " coupling " (symploke) cf. Categories, 2 

(1 a 16-19) and Plato, Sophist, 262 c 6. " Running " and 

horse " are examples taken from Categories, 2 (1 a 18, b 5). 

6 For the distinction cf. Categories, 2 (1 a 20-b 9). What 
inheres in a substance and is predicated of it is an accident : 
cf. Pseudo-Archytas, p. 28. 10 (ed. Nolle). 

c Plutarch's solution is that Stilpon does not deny the con- 
nexion that exists between an accident and its substance, bnt 
objects to expressing it by means of " certain vocables," that 
is, the verb " is," which is properly restricted to the predica- 
tion of essential attributes. Cf. Aristotle, Physics, i. 2 (185 
b 25-32). 

267 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1120) 24, " FevofJbevos S' ovv 6 \{coXcoTr)S diro tlov 
C TTaXaicov rpeTrerai 7Tpos tovs kol9* iavrov cf)iXoo6- 
(f>ovs, ovSevos ridels ovofxa- kclitoi koXcos et^e /cat 
tovtovs eAey^etv eir* ovofJLaros rj [MrjSe tovs 77a- 
Acuovs. 6 Se tov Ha)Kpdrr)v /cat tov IIAaTOJva /cat 
tov Hap/JbeviSrjv togolvtoikls 6efj(,€vos vtto to ypa- 
(f)€iov SrjXos icrriv aVoSetAtaaa? 77^6? tovs L^covTas, 

OV fJL€TpL(XGaS V7T* CLlSoVS , fjV TOLS Kp€LTTOGLV OVK 

€V€tfM€. fiovXeToii Se npoTepovs fiev, cos vttovoco, 
tovs Y>.vpr)vaiKovs iXeyxeiv, SevTepovs Se tovs Trepl 
'Ao/cecrt'Aaov 'A/caST^at/cot;?. ovtol yap rjaav ol 
irepl TrdvTtov €7T€)(ovt€S ' e/cetvot Se ra 7ra^7y /cat tols 
(f>avTOLGLas iv avTols tl0€VT€s ovk coovto ttjv diro 

D TOVTCOV TTLGTLV €LVCIU 8capK7] TTpOS TOLS VTT€p TCOV 

TTpaypLOLTCov KaTafiefiaicooeis y aAA' coonep iv iroXiop- 
/cta tcop €ktos a7TOOTavT€s els to. ttolOt] /care'/cAetcrav 
clvtovs, to * cf>atv€Tat ' Tidejievoi, to S' ' ioTLV ' pcrj 1 
npooovno<\)aiv6p,€voi 7T€pl tcov £ktos. 

AtO </)7)GlV aVTOVS 6 VLcoXcOTTjS /XT] SvPCLodoU tf^V 

p,r\hk xprjvdai tols Trpayuaoiv etra KtopicohcoVy 

ovtol/ cfrrjoLV, ' dvOpcoTTOv etvat /cat Ittttov /cat rot- 

Xov ov XeyovaiVy clvtovs Se Toi)(ovo9ai /cat Ittttov- 

oOai /cat dv9 pcorrovod au/ rrpcoTOV olvtols tooirep ol 

OVKO<f)dvTCtl KCLKOVpyCOS XP i * ) l Ji ' €VO S T °^ OPOfJLCLOlV 

eVerat puev yap d/ze'Aet /cat raura tols dvSpdoLV, 
E eSet Se cos e/cetvot StSaa/covat SrjXovv to yLVojjuevov. 

1 jai) Dubner's supplement of a blank of two letters in E ; 
there is no blank in B (^/ccrt Reiske). 

a Frag. I b 69 (ed. Giannantoni) ; Frag. 218 (ed. Manne- 
bach). 

268 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1120 

24. " At all events after finishing with the ancients 
Colotes addresses himself to the philosophers of his 
own time, mentioning no names, though the proper 
course would have been to name these men too in 
his refutation, or not to name the ancients either. 
He who so often let drop from his pen the names of 
Socrates, Plato, and Parmenides evidently lost heart 
when he came to face the living ; he did not moderate 
his tone because he was respectful, or he would have 
shown the same respect to their betters. He intends, 
I suspect, to refute the Cyrenaics first, and second 
the Academy of Arcesilaiis. For this second school 
were those who withheld judgement on everything ; 
whereas the first, a placing all experiences and impres- 
sions within themselves, thought that evidence de- 
rived from them was insufficient warrant for certainty 
about reality and withdrew as in a siege from the 
world about them and shut themselves up in their 
responses, — admitting that external objects * ap- 
pear,' but refusing to venture further and pronounce 
the word ' are.' 

" Therefore, says Colotes, they cannot live and 
cannot cope with the world around them, and he 
proceeds to add in derision : ' This set do not say 
that a man or horse or wall is, but say that it is them- 
selves who are " walled," " horsed," and " manned." ' 
In the first place, like a pettifogger, he is unfair in 
the very terms he uses. & To be sure these conse- 
quences among the rest follow from the tenets of the 
school ; yet he should have presented the results as the 
school presents them in its teaching. For the terms 

6 Colotes uses such comic neologisms as roixovadat, " turn 
wall," i7T7TovadaL " turn horse," and avdpa)novaOai " turn man," 
instead of adopting the Cyrenaic illustrations, " sweetened " 
and the rest, as Plutarch does in the next sentence. 

269 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1120) yXvKaiveoOai yap Xeyovoi /cat TTiKpaiveodai /cat 
ijjv^eodai /cat OepLiaiveodai 1 /cat (frojTi^eodai, /cat 
GKori^eaOaiy tcov rradcov^ tovtojv Ikootov rrjv evdp- 
yeiav 2 oiKelav iv avrtp 3 /cat air epioTT clot ov e^ovros' 
el Se yXvKV to llIXi /cat niKpos 6 OaXAos /cat ipvxpa 
rj ^aAa£a /cat deppbos 6 aKpaTOS /cat cbujTeivos 6 
rjXios* /cat okot€iv6s 6 ttjs vvktos drjp, vtto ttoXXojv 
avTiLiapTvpelodai /cat Oiqpicov /cat OTrepLiaTajv 5 /cat 

dvOptOTTWV, TO)V LL€V OVO)(€paiv6vTiJOV TO LieXi, 6 TOJV 

oe rrpooieLiivcDV tt)v daXXiav /cat dnoKdOLievtov vtto 
ttjs %aAa^9 /cat KaTa\\svypiL€.vtov vtto olvov /cat 

F TTpOS 1 7]XiOV aLlfiXvOJTTOVTOJV KOI VVKTOjp fiXeTTOVTCOV . 

odev eLiLievovoa toIs Trddeoiv r) 8o£a OLCLTrjpel to 
dvaLidpTrjTov , €KJ3atvovoa 8e /cat TToXvTrpayLiovovoa 
Tcp Kpiveiv /cat aTTOcfyaiveodai irepl tojv €Ktos avTTjV 
T€ TToXXaKis Tapdooei /cat iidyeTai Trpos CTepovs 
a77o tcov avTtov ivavTia TrdOrj /cat hia(j)6povs cf>avTa- 
crta? XaLifidvovTCts . 

25. '0 06 KojAojTTy? eoi/ce to auro Trdoyeiv 

rot? yeoKJTt ypdiiiiara fjuavOdvovot tcov Traiocov, ol 

tovs x a P aKT VP a9 * v ro ^ s TTvijtois eOil^oLLevoi Xeyeiv, 

otclv etjto yeypaLiLievovs iv eTepois lScooiv, aLi<f)L- 

1121 yvoovoi /cat TapaTTovTai. /cat yap ovtos, ovs iv 

1 koX ijjvx^oOai koX Qepixaiveodai added by Reiske. 

2 ivdpy eiav Pohlenz : ivepyeiav EB. 

3 avra) B c : auTai EB ac . 

4 Kal <f>a)T€ivos 6 -fjXios added by Madvig. 

5 G7T€pjxdra)v nos : 7TpaypLaT(x)v EB. 

6 to /xeAt supplied by Xylander to fill a blank of 6 letters 
in E, 9 in B. 

7 7700? E : TOV B. 

270 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1120-1121 

they use are ' sweetened,' ' turned bitter,' ' chilled,' 
1 heated,' ' illumined,' and ' darkened,' each of these 
experiences possessing within itself, intrinsic and un- 
challenged, the manifest character that guarantees 
its truth ; whereas the view that honey is sweet, the 
foliage of the olive bitter, hail cold, neat wine heating, 
sunlight luminous, and night air dark, encounters 
evidence to the contrary from many witnesses — 
animals, grains, and men alike ; for to some honey 
is disagreeable , a some will feed on olive leaves, 5 some 
are scorched c by hail, some chilled by wine, d and 
some that in sunlight are purblind see well at night. 
Accordingly when opinion keeps within the bounds of 
our responses it continues free from error ; but when 
it strays beyond and meddles with judgements and 
pronouncements about external matters, it is forever 
getting embroiled with itself and falling into conflict 
with others in whom the same matters give rise to 
contrary experiences and dissimilar impressions. 

25. "It would appear that Colotes is in the pre- 
dicament of boys who have just begun to read : they 
are accustomed to reciting the characters written on 
their tablets, but are perplexed and at a loss when 
they see characters outside the tablets and written 
on other objects. So with him : the reasoning that 

As to the jaundiced, who find it bitter (Sextus, Outlines 
of Pyrrhonism, i. 211). 

6 As goats : cf. Sophocles, Frag. 502 (ed. Pearson, with 
the note) and Diogenes Laert. ix. 80 ; for sheep cf. Aristotle, 
History of Animals, viii. 10 (596 a 25) ; for calves, Theo- 
critus, iv. 44-45. 

c For grain scorched by cold cf. the Aristotelian Problems, 
xxiii. 34 (935 a 19, 24-25). Theophrastus restricts the word 
to the shrivelling of the leaves of trees by cold winds : cf. 
Hist. Plant, iv. 14. 11-12, Be Causls Plant, ii. 1. 6, v. 12. 2-6. 

d Cf. 1109 e— 1110 b, supra. 

271 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1121) tols 'KmKovpov ypd\L\iaaiv doTrdt^T ai /cat ay ana 
Xoyovs, ov ovvi-qaiv ov8e yivojuK€i Xeyojxevovs fief? 
irepcov. ol 1 ydp elocoXov ttpogttltttovtos rjfjuv rrepi- 
(frepovs, irepov Se /ce/cAacrjiteVou, tt)v puev alodr)oiv 
aXrjdchs rvrrovaOai Xeyovres, tt pooarro^aiveoO ai Se 
ovk echvres otl orpoyyvXos 6 rrvpyog iariv, rj Se 
KO)7rrj /ceVAaarat, rd rrddrj ra avrd)v /cat ra (fravrd- 
afjuara fiefiaiovGi, ra Se 2 €ktos ovtojs eyeiv opboXoyeiv 
ovk edeXovoiv dXX cos e/cetVots to IrnTovodai /cat 
to TOLXovodai XeKTeov, ov)( Ittttov ovSe toZ^ov, 
B ovtojs dpa to GTpoyyvXovodai /cat to GKaXrjVovodai 
ttjv oifjcv, ov GKaXy]v6v ovhe oTpoyyvXov dvdyKT] 
tovtols ttjv KojTTrfv /cat 3 tov rrvpyov Ae'yetv to yap 

etSojXoV VCJS OV 7T€7TOV0€V Tj OlfjLS K€KXaOfJL€VOV €GTLV, 

rj kojttt] Se a<^>' rjs to eiSooXov ovk €gtl /ce/cAaoyxeVTy . 
Stacf)opav ovv tov rrddovs Trpos to vttok€L[jl€vov €ktos 

e^OVTOSy Tj fJL€V€LV €7TL TOV TTadoVS Set TTJV TTLGTLV Tj 

to etrat tw <f)aiv€odai TrpoGaTro^aLvojJLevrjv eAe'y^e- 

cr0at. to Se 8rj fioav avTovs /cat ayava/cretv vrrep 

ttjs alodrjoeajs ov Xeyovorjs* to €ktos etvat Oeppuov, 

C dXXd to ev avTrj rrddos yeyove tolovtov, dp* ov 

1 ol E : el B. 2 8e E : o' B. 

3 rovrois rr)v kcotttjv /cat added by Pohlenz (ttjv kcx)7tt]v koX 
Diibner ; rrjv kwtttjv is inserted after gkoX^vov by Reiske). 

4 ov Xcyovorjs nos : ov Xiyovai EB (cbs ov Xiyovoi Wytten- 
bach). 

° Frag. 252 (ed. Usener). 

b The Epicurean theory that vision is due to the impinge- 
ment on the eye of films sent out by the visible object is set 
forth in Epicurus' Letter to Herodotus, 46-48 and Lucretius, 
iv. 29-352. 

c For the Epicurean explanation of optical illusions see 
Frag. 247 (ed. Usener) and Lucretius, iv. 353-468. The dis- 
tant square tower seen as round and the straight oar seen as 

272 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1121 

he accepts with satisfaction when he finds it in the 
writings of Epicurus a he neither understands nor 
recognizes when it is used by others. For the 
school that asserts that when a round film b impinges 
on us, or in another case a bent one, the imprint is 
truly received by the sense, but refuses to allow us 
to go further and affirm that the tower is round or 
that the oar is bent, c maintains the truth of its ex- 
periences and sense impressions, but will not admit 
that external objects correspond ; and as surely as 
that other school must speak of ' being horsed ' and 
1 walled/ but not of a horse or wall, so this school of 
theirs is under the necessity of saying that the eye is 
rounded or be-angled, and not that the oar is bent or 
the tower round, for it is the film producing the effect 
in the eye that is bent, whereas the oar is not bent 
from which the film proceeded. Thus, since the 
effect produced on the senses differs from the external 
object, belief must stick to the effect or be exposed 
as false if it proceeds to add ' it is ' to it appears.' 
That vociferous and indignant protest of theirs in 
defence of sensation, that it does not assert the ex- 
ternal object to be warm, the truth being merely 
that the effect produced in sensation has been of this 
kind — , d is it not the same as the statement e about 

bent where it touches the water are stock examples : they 
appear as illustrations in Diogenes Laert. ix. 85 and Sextus, 
Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 118-119. Cf. also Lucretius, iv. 
353-363, 438-442, 501 f. ; Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 7 (19), 25 (79) 
with Reid's note ; for the tower cf. also Euclid, Optics, 
Prop. 9. 

d Plutarch is careful not to let the Epicurean sensation 
say anything : it is alogos (Sextus, Against the Mathema- 
ticians, vii. 210, viii. 9), that is, irrational, and unlike opinion, 
can make no statements, but only occur. 

e Of the Cyrenaics : cf. 1 120 e, supra. 

273 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1121) tolvtov eoTi rep Xeyofievco ire pi rfjs yevaeojs ore to 
€ktos ov (frrjow elvai yXvKv, irddos 8e tl kcli KivrjjJLa 
77-eoi avrrjv yeyovevai toiovtov; 6 Se Xeycov dvOpoj- 
TroeiSrj (jxxvraoiav XapLpdvew, el Se dvOpojiros ion 
fM7] aloddveodcu, nodev e'lXrj^e Tas dfiopfids ; ov 
irapd tojv XeyovTCov Kap,7rvXoei8rj c^avraolav Xapu- 
fidveiv, el Se KapuTrvXov eon /JLTJ 7TpOOa7TO(f)aLV€odaL 
ttjv oifjiv p,r]8' on orpoyyvXov, dXXd n <j)dvraop,a 
Trepl avrrjv kqI TV7TCop,a orpoyyvXoeiSes yeyove; 

Nrj Ala,' (fyrjoei rts" ' aAA' eytb rep irvpycp 
rrpooeXOwv koI rrjs kojtttjs di/japievos aTTO^avovfiai 
ttjv jjiev evdelav elvai, rov Se iroXvycovov , eKelvos 8e, 
koLv eyyvs yevrjrai, to 8oKelv koI to cfyaiveoSai, 
TrXeov Se ov8ev 6p,oXoyr)oei.' vol pbd Ata gov ye 
D fiaXXov, to fieXnore, to aKoXovdov optov /cat (f>vXdr- 
tojv, to TTaoav elvai <f>avTaolav opboioos d^ioinoTOv 
virep eavTrjSy virep d'AAou Se fArjSefJLiav dXXa incogs 
e^eiv. ool Se ol^eTai to irdoas virdpyexv dXr]6eis } 
olttlotov Se kclI ifjev8rj p,r]8 >e fjLLav , el TavTais fjiev olei 
8elv 7rpooa7TO(f)aiveo6aL Trepl tojv Zktos, eKeivais 1 Se 
ttXt)v avTov 2 tov irdoyeiv irXeov ov8ev eiriOTeves. 
el jjbev yap eTTLorjs e\ovoiv eyyvs Te 3 yevofievou kol 
pLCLKpdv ovoai npos ttlotlv, rj Trdoais 8lkouov £otiv 
tj p,r)8e Tatrrcus* eireodai ttjv tt pooaTTO$aivo\ievv)v to 

1 €K€ivais Basle edition of 1542 : ckclvos EB. 

2 7tXt)v avrov Pohlenz' supplement of a blank of 10 letters 
in E, 5 in B. 

3 re added by Reiske. 

The Epicureans held that a judgement about a distant 
view can be proved or refuted by a closer view : cf. Sextus, 
274 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1121 

taste : it does not assert that the external object is 
sweet — there has merely occurred in the taste an 
effect and movement of this kind ? A man says, ' I 
receive an impress of humanity, but I do not perceive 
whether a man is there/ Who put him in the way 
of such a notion ? Was it not the school who assert 
that they receive an impress of curvature, but that 
their sight does not go beyond to pronounce that the 
thing is curved or yet that it is round ; there has 
merely occurred in it an appearance and impress of 
rotundity ? 

1 Exactly,' someone a will say ; ' but for my part 
I shall go up to the tower and I shall feel the oar, 
and thereupon I shall pronounce the oar straight and 
the tower angular ; but this other fellow even at 
close quarters will grant only that he has this " view " 
and that there is this " appearance," but will grant 
nothing more/ Exactly, my good friend, since he is 
a better hand than you at noticing and holding to 
the consequences of his doctrine — that every sensa- 
tion is equally trustworthy when it testifies in its own 
behalf, but none when it testifies in behalf of any- 
thing else, but all are on the same footing. And here 
is an end to your tenet that all sensations are true 
and none untrustworthy or false, if you think it proper 
for one set of them to proceed to make assertions 
about external objects, whereas you refused to trust 
the others in anything beyond the experience itself. 
For if they are on the same footing of trustworthiness 
whether they come close or are at a distance, it is 
only fair to confer on all the power of adding the 
judgement ' it is ' or else to deny it to the former as 

Against the Mathematicians , vii. 211, 215-216 and Diogenes 
Laert. x. 34. 

275 



PLUTARCH'S MORAL! A 

(1121) etvai Kpioiv el 8e yiverai oia<f>opd tov irdOovs 
dirooTaoi /cat irpooeXdovoi, 1 iftevSos eoTi to fjbrjre 
E <f)CLvraoLav fxrjre aioOrjaiv erepas 2 irepav ivapyeoTe- 
pav VTrdpx^tv, KaOdnep as Xeyovoiv impLapTvprjoeis 
/cat avTcpLapTvprjoeis ovdev eloc rrpos rrjv aloQr)oiv 
dXXd rrpos ttjv 86£av coots el tclvtcus 3 erropbevovs 
dirocjzaiveodai rrepl tlov €ktos KeXevovoi, rrjs So^rjs 

KplJJLCL TO elvOLL, T7)S 8* alodrjoeCOS TTaOoS TO (fraLVO- 

pbevov rroiovvres > drro tov rrdvTOJS dXr]6ovs rrjv Kpi- 
oiv €77 1 TO SiCLTTLTTTOV TToXXaKLS pb€Ta(f>€pOVOLV . (26.) 

aAAa tclvtcl pbev oorjs ioTL pbeord Tapa)(rjs /cat pbdyrjs 
rrpos eavrd, ti Set Xeyetv ev tlo rrapovri; 

Tov Se * KptceoiXdov tov ' E77 iKovpov ov pberpuajs 
eoiKev rj S6£a TrapaXvirelv* ev tols Tore xpovois /xa- 
P Xlotcl tlov (f)iXoo6(f)cov dyarrrjOevTos. pb7]6ev yap 
avTov lSlov Xeyovrd (f>r]OLV vttoXtjiJjiv epbrroielv /cat 
86£av dvdpwTTOts dypapLpLaTots, are 8rj rroXvypdpb- 
piaTOS avTOS tov /cat p,epbovocopbevos . o Se 'Ap/cecrt- 
Xaos tooovtov drreoei tov KaivoTopblas nvd oo^av 
dyarrav /cat vrrorro te 108 'at rt 5 tlov rraXaccov coore 
eyKaXelv tovs Tore oocfyiords ore TTpoorpifierai Uto- 
1122 /cparet /cat HXdrcovi /cat UappLeviorj /cat 'Hpa- 

1 TTpoaeXdovoi E : cXdovoi B. 

2 iripas added after irepav by Meziriacus ; placed here 
by Bern. 

3 et ravrats Reiske : eV avrals EB. 

4 irapaXvirelv EB 2 : TTapaXnrtiv B 1 . 

5 rt added by Reiske. 

Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. 181, note on Frag. 247 ; Sextus, 
Against the Mathematicians 9 vii. 212 ; Diogenes Laert. x. 34. 
b Frag. 239 (ed. Usener ; cf. his note on p. 348. 14). 
c Colotes. 

276 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1121-1122 

well. Whereas if there is a difference in the effect 
produced on the observer when he stands at a distance 
and when he is close at hand, it is false to say that no 
impression and no sensation has in its stamp of real- 
ity a better warrant of truth than another. So too 
the ' testimony in confirmation ' and * testimony in 
rebuttal ' a of which they speak has no bearing on 
the sensation but only on our opinion of it ; so if 
they tell us to be guided by this testimony when we 
make statements about external objects, they appoint 
opinion to pass the verdict ' it is ' and sense to under- 
go the experience ' it seems/ and thus transfer the 
decision from what is unfailingly true to what is often 
wrong. (26.) But what need to dwell at present on 
all the confusion and internal inconsistency of their 
position ? 

" The reputation of Arcesilaiis, the best loved 
among the philosophers of the time, would appear to 
have annoyed Epicurus b mightily. Thus he c says 
that although this philosopher said nothing new, d he 
gave the unlettered the impression and belief that he 
did — our critic of course is widely read himself and 
writes with a beguiling charm. But so far was Arcesi- 
laiis from cherishing any reputation for novelty or lay- 
ing claim to any ancient doctrine as his own, that the 
sophists e of the day accused him of foisting his own 
views about the suspension of judgement and the 
impossibility of infallible apprehension on Socrates, 
Plato, Parmenides, and Heracleitus, who had precious 

d Arcesilaiis brought the same charge against Zeno : 
Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 6 (16). 

e No doubt the Theodoreans and Bion : cf. Bignone, 
Jj Arhtotele perduto e la formazlone filosofica di Epicuro 
(Florence, 1936), vol. i. 46, note 1, who compares Numenius 
in Eusebius, Praep. Evang. xiv. 6. 6 (ii, p. 274. 7, ed. Mras). 

277 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1122) /cActTO) T<Z 7T€pl TTJS €TTO)(fjS SoyflCLTCL Kdl T7]S 

aKaraXrji/jias ov8ev Seop,evois ', dXXd olov dvaycoyrjv 
/cat jSejSatojcrtv avrchv els dvSpas ev86£ovs ttolov- 

ll€VOS. V7T€p fJb€V OVV'TOVTOV KojAoJTTJ ^CX/CH? KClX 

ttclvti tw tov ' AKaSrjfjLaLKov \6yov dvoodev 7]Keiv els 
'ApKecriAaov drro^aivovri. 

Lrjv oe rrepi ttojvtoov eiro)(r)v ovo ol rroAAa 
TrpaypbarevGafjiepoL /cat Kararetvavres els tovto 
avyypdfjLiJLCLTa /cat Xoyovs eKivqaav aAAa e/c rrjs 
Sroas" avrrj 1 reXevroovres coonep Yopyova rrjv d- 
B irpa^iav errdyovres dn^yopevoow , cos rravra ireipGxji 
/cat GTpe<j>ovoiv clvtols oi>x virrjKovoev r) oppur) yeve- 
adai GvyKarddecns ovSe rrjs poirfjs apxty ehe^aro 
ttjv aivOrjaiv, 2 aAA' e£ eavrrjs dyooyos errl rds 
rrpdtjeis eSdvrj, ptrj Seopievrj rod Trpoorideadai. vo- 
jitt/xot yap ol TTpos eKeivovs dyooves eloi, /cat 

077770101/ k etrrrjoda eiros y rolov k eiroiKovoais' 



1 avrfj Pohlenz : avrrjs EB. 
iLo9r)oiv EB : TTpoodzoiv Pohlenz. 
3 ottttoIov Homer : ottolov EB. 



a Perhaps a reference to Antiochus of Ascalon : see 
A.J.P., vol. lxxvii (1956), p. 74. Among the Stoics Chry- 
sippus (cf. Diogenes Laert. vii. 198 " Reply to Arcesilaus' 
Little Method. One Book ") and Antipater devoted them- 
selves to refuting the Academics : cf. Mor. 1057 a. 

6 A bugbear that turned men to stone. For the view that 
Academic scepticism petrifies its adherents, making them 
stone dead intellectually and stonily impervious to shame see 
Arrian, Epicteti Diss. i. 5. 1-3 ; Cicero glances at the shame- 
lessness in Ad Fam. ix. 8. 1. 

c For this argument see Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 8 (25) and 
Diogenes Laert. ix. 107. For the title of a lost work of Plu- 
tarch (No. 210 in the Catalogue of Lamprias) dealing with 
the argument see Introduction, p. 187. 

278 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1122 

little need of such a gloss ; but Arcesilaus wished to 
certify his views, as it were, by this appeal to highly re- 
spected names. So for his sake we are thankful to 
Colotes and everyone who shows that the Academic 
reasoning came to Arcesilaus as an ancient tradition. 
" The view that we should suspend judgement about 
everything was not shaken even by those a who under- 
took elaborate investigations and composed lengthy 
and argumentative treatises to refute it, but these men 
at last brought up against it from the Stoa like some 
Gorgon's head b the argument from total inaction c 
and gave up the battle. d For in spite of all their 
probing and wrenching, impulse refused to turn into 
assent e or accept sensation / as what tips the scale g ; 
it was seen instead to lead to action on its own initia- 
tive, requiring no approval from other quarters. For 
debates with those opponents are conducted accord- 
ing to rule, and 

As you have spoken, so will you be answered h ; 

d On the uselessness of arguing with the Academics see 
Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 10 (32) and Arrian, Epicteti Diss. i. 5. 2. 

c The Stoics considered assent (synkatathesis) requisite to 
all action : cf. Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 8 (24-25), 12 (38-39), 19 
(62). It is this " added " clement that the Academics reject : 
cf. Cicero, Acad. Post. i. 11 (40) ; Sextus, Outlines of Pyr- 
rhonism^ i. 222. 

1 " Sensation " (aisthesis) is used by the Stoics for appre- 
hension (the word implies assent) through the senses : cf. 
Cicero, Acad. Post. i. 11 (41) and von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet, 
Frag, i, Frag. 62, ii, Frags. 71-7.5. 

9 For the image of the scales, which is here implied, see 
1 122 c, infra. 

h Homer, II. xx. 250. Diogenes Laertius (ix. 73) says that 
some cited the line to show that Homer was a Sceptic, and 
meant that to any statement is opposed another statement 
of equal force. 

279 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1122) KcoXcoTTj Se ot/Jbac ra Trepl 6pp,fjs /cat ovyKaradeoeajs 
ovto Xvpas OLKpoacnv etvai. Ae'yerat Se tols ovveiro- 

jJL€VOLS KCU OLKOVOVGLV OTL TpiLDV 7T€pl T7JV ifjVX^ 

Kivrjfjbdrcxjv ovtqjv, <f>avraoTiKov /cat opfJbrjTLKOv /cat 
ovyKaraderiKov , to puev <j>avTaoTiKOV ovhe. fiovAo- 
C fievots ctveXeiv iarcv, aAAa dvdyKrj TrpoevTvy^dvov- 
ras tois Trpdyjxaoi tvttovgOoli /cat irdoyeiv vtt* 
clvtcov, to Se opjJbrjTLKov iyeipopuevov vtto tov (f>av- 

TCLOTLKOV 77/009 TOL Ot/Ceta TTpaKTlKOJS KlVel 1 TOV cLv- 

dpajTrov, olov poTrrjs iv Tcp rjyepboviKq) /cat vevoetos 
yivo[jL€vr)s. ovSe tovto ovv dvaipovoiv oi Trepl Trdv- 

TO)V €TT€XOVT€S, aAAa ^OCOVTat T7] OpjJbfj <f>VOlKC0S 
dyOVOT) 7TpOS TO $Qllv6\L€VOV OLK€LOV. TL OVV (f)€V- 

yovai [Jbovov; & jjlovco i/jevSog ipufiveTCu /cat aVar^, 
TO So^d^eiV /Cat TTpOTTlTTTe.IV 1 ttjv ovyKciTddeoiVy 
et^iv ovoav vtto dodeveias tco (frouvofJLevtp, xprjoifiov 
Se ovSev e^ovaav. r) yap Trpd^is Svolv Setra*, (f>av- 

1 Kivel Stephanus : Kivetv EB. 
2 7tpottl7tt€lv Salmasius : ttpoottltttgiv EB. 

a Cf. von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag, ii, Frag. 74, iii, 
Frags. 169 and 177 (Mor. 1057 a-b). 

b A proverb : cf. Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. Gr. 
i, p. 291 (Diogenianus, Cent. vii. 33 with the note), ii, p. 193 
(Macarius, Cent. vi. 38) ; Proverbia Alexandrina (ed. Cru- 
sius), no. 33 ; Philodemus, Rhet. iv, col. 28 a (vol. i, p. 209, ed. 
Sudhaus) ; Galen, Be Animae Passionibus, i. 2 (vol. v. 64, 
ed. Kuhn, p. 50. 8, ed. Marquardt). 

c Cf. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 22 : iv 7racret yap 
kolI afiovXtJTtp irddci kzi\i&v7\ [sc. rj (f>avTaorla\ d^rjrrjTOS ictTiv 
(" since it [the sense-impression] is a matter of being affected 
and of an experience with which our will has nothing to do, 
it is not an object of inquiry "). 

d For the Stoic metaphor of the tilting cf. Cicero, Acad. 

280 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1122 

whereas this talk of impulse and assent a gets from 
Colotes, I fancy, the response that a performance on 
the lyre gets from an ass. & For those who follow 
and have ears to hear the argument runs like this. 

' The soul has three movements : sensation, im- 
pulse, and assent. 

Now the movement of sensation cannot be elimi- 
nated, even if we would ; instead, upon encountering 
an object, we necessarily receive an imprint and are 
affected. c 

Impulse, aroused by sensation, moves us in the 
shape of an action directed towards a suitable goal : 
a kind of casting weight has been put in the scale of 
our governing part, and a directed movement is set 
afoot. d So those who suspend judgement about every- 
thing do not eliminate this second movement either, 
but follow their impulse, which leads them instinc- 
tively to the good presented by sense. 

' Then what is the only thing that they avoid ? 
That only in which falsity and error can arise, namely 
forming an opinion and thus interposing rashly e with 
our assent, although such assent is a yielding to ap- 
pearance that is due to weakness f and is of no use 
whatever. For two things are requisite for action : 

Pr. ii. 12 (38) and von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. Frag, ii, Frag. 
988 (p. 288. 25). 

6 The sceptics accused the dogmatists of rashness of assent : 
cf. Diogenes Laert. ix. 74 ; Sextus, Against the Mathema- 
ticians, ix. 49 ; Cicero, Acad. Post. i. 12 (45), Acad. Pr. ii. 
20 {66) with Reid's note. 

f Zeno called opinion (as opposed to knowledge) a weak 
and false assent or apprehension (von Arnim, Stoicorum Vet. 
Frag, i, Frags. 67-69). Plutarch finds that the weakness lies 
in assenting at all (c/. Chrysippus in Mor. 1057 b). " Opinion " 
to both is a belief held as certainly true that can nevertheless 
be false. It is not a belief that the holder recognizes may be 
wrong. 

281 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1122) , „ , , ,,,,,,... 

j. TCLOLas rov olk€lov /cat rrpos to cpavev olkzlov opjjurjs, 

&v ovSerepov rfj erroyfj /za^erat. 86£rjs yap, ov)( 
opfirjs ovSe (f>avraaias 6 Aoyos* d(f)LaTrjaiv. orav 
ovv </>avfj to 1 olicziov, ovOev Set rrpog rrjv in avro 
Kivrjoiv /cat cf)opdv do^rjs, dAAa rjAdev evdvs rj 6pp,'q y 

KLV7]GIS OVGOL /Cat (f)Opd T7)S lfjV)(r\s . 

27. " Kat /at)i/ aurcw ye tovtojv 2 d)S* ' alodrjoiv 
kyz.iv Set /cat odpKivov elvai, /cat (fxxveZrai rjSovrj 
dyaOov '- ovkovv /cat ra> lirzyovri dyadov (fcavzLrai' 
/cat yap aloQrjaeajs /xere'^et /cat adpKivos €gtl 3 /cat 
Aafitov dyadov <f)avraoiav ope'yerat /cat op/xa, iravra 

TTpCLTTOW OTTO)? OU OLOL(f)€v£;€TaL CLVTOV / OtAA' 0)9 

awcrroy aet ovveurai ra> ot/ceta>, (f)vaiKais ov yea>- 
E /xerpt/cats" eA/cop,evo9 dvdyKais. avev StSaa/caAou 
yap aura, Trpo/caAetrat ra /caAa tclvtcl /cat Aeta /cat 
TTpoorjvfj KLvrjpiara rfjs oapKos, a>s" avroi cfxicriv 
ovtol, /cat ro^ 77dVu /X07 (j>doKovra fjLrjSe opLoAoyovvra 
/ca/X7TTec7#at /cat p,aAdcrcreo-#at tovtois. 

'AAAa 770)9 ou/c ets" opo9 aVetcrt rpe^wv 6 
€7T€)(cov dAAa ets* fiaAaveZov , ouSe 7Tpos rw toi^ov 

1 After to we omit 1781). 

2 auraOv ye toutoji> EB : aurd ye rovro U seller ; auTaw ye 

TOVTOJV CLKOVOfXeV fioOJVTOJV PollleilZ. 

3 cos EB : Acat to ' /ecu or to ' /cat ? nos. 

4 auToV EB : Benseler would omit. 

a 0/. 1118 a-b, swfra. 

6 C/. Mor. 1057 a ; Sextus, Against the Mathematicians, 

vii. 30 ; Cicero, l)e Nat, Deor. i. 37 (104) with Pease's note. 

c Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. L 279, note on Frag. 411. 

d The phrase comes from Plato, Republic, v, 458 n. 

e Frag. 411 (ed. Usener). Perhaps the only part of this 
statement that is Epicurean is "no teacher is needed " and 
" movements of the flesh," the rest being Plutarch's rendition 
282 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1122 

sense must present a good, and impulse must set out 
for the good so presented ; and neither of these con- 
flicts with suspension of judgement. For the argu- 
ment detaches us from opinion, not from impulse or 
sensation. So, once something good for us is per- 
ceived, no opinion is required to set us moving and 
keep us going in its direction ; the impulse comes 
directly, and is a movement initiated and pursued by 
the soul/ b 

27. " Now the Epicureans themselves maintain 
that ' you need but have sensation and be made of 
flesh, and sense will present pleasure to you as good.' c 
Therefore it will also present a good to the man 
who suspends judgement, since he is both endowed 
with sensation and made of flesh. On receiving from 
sense this presentation of a good he reaches out for it 
by impulse, bending every effort to prevent its escape 
and to have with him always as far as possible what 
is good for him, being ruled by laws of his nature and 
not of geometrical proofs For no teacher is needed ; 
by themselves these glorious smooth and agreeable 
movements of the flesh (as they themselves assert) 6 
call to action even one who stoutly denies and re- 
fuses to acknowledge that he unbends and turns soft 
in response to them. 

But how comes it that the man who suspends 
judgement does not go dashing off to a mountain 
instead of to the bath, or why does he not get up and 

of the following view (Sextus, Against the Mathematicians, 
xi. 96) : " . . . some of the Epicurean sect are in the habit 
of saying . . . that naturally and without teaching the 
animal avoids pain and seeks pleasure ; for at birth, and 
before it becomes a slave to matters of opinion, as soon as it 
is struck by the unfamiliar chill of the air, it wails and 
screams [cf. Empedocles, Frag, b 118 Diels-Kranz]." 

283 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1122) aAAa 77069 ras dvpas avaaras /JaSt^et fiovAofjLevos 
els dyopdv irpoeXdelv ; ' rovro ipcor&s aKpifirj ra 
alo9r)Tripia Xiywv etvou /cat tcls (jxxvraoias dXrj- 
dels; on (f>aiv€rai SrJTrovdev avrto ftaXave'iov ov to 
F opos aAAa to fiaXaveiov , /cat 6vpa ov^ 6 tol^os 
aAAa rj 6vpa y /cat rtov dXXcov 6/jlolojs €kclgtov. 6 
yap rrjs €7ro)(7J9 Xoyos ov Traparperrei rrjv aiodrjoiv 
ovSe rots aXoyois rrddeoiv olvtols /cat Kivrffiaocv 
aXXoiojoiv i/JLTTotel Starapdrrovoav to (fxivraoTiKov, 
aAAa rots' Solas' p,6vov aVatpet, xprjraL Se rots' a'A- 

Aot9 COS 7T€(f)VK€V. 

'AAAa dhvvarov to (jltj ovyKararideodai rots 
1123 evapyeoi' rod 1 ydp apvelodai ra TremaTevfjieva to 1 
p/ryre apveTcrOou \xr\Tt ridevai rrapaXoywrepov * ris 2 
ovv Kivei ra neiriOTevp.iva /cat [idyjerai rols evap- 
yeoiv; oi p.avTUcrjV avaipovvres /cat rrpovoiav vrrdp- 
ys.iv OecJov pLTj (f)doKovT€s /xr/8e rov rjXcov €[upv)(ov 
etvcn, fJLTjSe T7]v oeXrjvrjv, ols rrdvTes avdpamoi Ovovol 
/cat tt pooevypvr ai /cat oej3ovrai. to Se (jyvaei Trepi- 
iyzoQai ra reKovra tojv yevvatfievcov 3 ou^t ttclol 
(fraivofJLevov dvatpelre ; to Se ttovov /cat rjSovrjs jjbrj- 
8ev etvat fieoov ovk aTrocfxiiveo'Oe rrapd rrjv Trdvrojv 
aiodrjoiv, rjSeaOcu to fir) dXyelv /cat Trac^ety to [jltj 
Trdoyziv* XtyovTts ; 

28. " 'AAA' tva TaAAa eaaw, tl pb&XXov ivapyts 
B ovtojs ecrTt /cat rremoTevpievov d>s to rrapopdv /cat 

1 rov ... to Shorey : to . . . tou EB. 

2 _' Ci L. _'1?D 



ris Stephanus : ri EB. 

evwv Rasmus : yetvafMevi 
rraa^ei^ jjignone : a blank of 7 letlci-a m±, «l» u. 
cos to Aid. 2 , Stephanus, Xylander : wort EB. 

a Cf. Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 12 (38). 
284 



ris oiepiiciuus* : tl jz,v. 
3 yevvixjjxevojv Rasmus : yeivaixivoov EB. 
TTaox^iv Bignone : a blank of 7 letters E, 5B 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1122-1123 

walk to the wall instead of the door when he wishes 
to go out to the market-place ? ' You ask this when 
you hold that the sense organs are accurate and sense 
images true ? Why, because what appears to him 
to be a bath is not the mountain but the bath, and 
what appears to him to be a door is not the wall 
but the door, and so with everything else. For the 
doctrine of suspension of judgement does not deflect 
sensation or introduce into the non-rational affections 
and movements themselves a change that disturbs the 
presentation of sense images ; it is only our opinions 
that it eliminates, whereas it deals with the other 
parts in accordance with their natural uses. 

But it is impossible to refuse assent to plain 
evidence, a since neither to deny nor to affirm the 
accepted is more unreasonable than to deny it. ' Then 
who is it that upsets accepted beliefs and comes in 
conflict with the plainest facts ? It is those b who 
reject divination and deny that there exists a divine 
providence or that the sun and moon are living beings, 
to whom sacrifice and prayer and reverence is offered 
up by all mankind. Do you people c not dismiss 
the instinctive love of parents for their offspring, 
a fact accepted by all ? And do you d not, in defi- 
ance of the experience of all mankind, affirm the ab- 
sence of any mean between pain and pleasure when 
you say that it is a pleasure to feel no pain, e in 
other words that not to be acted upon is to be acted 
upon ? 

28. " But leaving aside other instances, what is 
more plainly evident in this way and more accepted 

b Frags. 368, 342 (ed. Usener). 

c Frag. 528 (ed. Usener) ; cf. 1 100 d, supra. 

d Frag. 420 (ed. Usener). 

e Cf. Cicero, Be Fin. ii. 3-5 (9-17). 

285 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1123) irapaKoveiv ev rrdOeaiv eKorariKols /cat /xeAay^oAt- 
kols bvra, orav rj Sidvota roiavra ndoyr\ /cat 
rapdrrryrai' 

at oe 1 fie 8aSocf)6poL ixeXaveijioves o/x/xa irvpovoi 

/cat 

irvp rrveovoa /cat cf)6vov 
irrepdls epeoaet 2 fjbrjrep^ dy/cdAatS" ifJbrjv 
€)(ovGa ; 

TOLVTOL fJLeVTOL /Cat 77oAAa TOVTOJV €T€pa rpayiKOJrepa 
TOLS 5 E/X77€00/cA€Oi;9 ioiKOTOL TepOLOfJLCLGLV* COV KOLTa- 

yeXajatv, ' etAtVoS' d/cptTo^etpa ' 5 /cat ' fiovyevr) dv- 
Sporrpajpa ' 6 /cat rtVa yap o*)/c oi/jlv rj <j>voiv eK<f>vXov 
els to avro GweveyKovres £k tojv evvrrviajv /cat T&V 
C TrapOLKOTTcov ovoev elvai 0acrt rrapopapba rovrcov 
ovSe ipevoos ovoe aovcrraTOV, dAAd (fiavraoias dXrj- 
dels OLTrdaas /cat oxottara /cat pbopcfids e/c ro£» Trepi- 
e^ovros dcf)iKvovfJL€Pas. elra ecrrt rt raw ovtcov 
dovvcLTOV emoy^eZv, el ravra moreveadai ovvarov 
eoriv; a yap ovSels OKevonoios rj TrXdonqs 6av- 
jjbdrojv rj ypacfrevs Secvos er6XjJL7]ue /xt^at irpos 
drrdrrjv elKaapuara /cat Traiyvia, ravra virdpyeiv 
drro ctttovStjs rtOepievoi, fiaXXov Se oXojs el ravra 
pur] vndp^oi TTiariv oiyeodai /cat fiefiaiorrfra /cat 

1 at Be E : at Se B. 

2 irvp — epeaaei supplied by us in a blank of 35-30 letters. 

3 jjLTjrep* Euripides : fjbrjrepa EB. 

4 Tepdofjuuriv EB U (in E with a triangle of points over the 
first a) : repdreoi B 2m s. 

5 elXiTToh* aKpLToxeipa Emperius : etXiTroha Kptroxecpa EB. 

6 dvbpOTrpcopa EB lss : dvhpdiTpCDpa B u . 

286 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1123 

than that one possessed by wild or sombre madness 
has illusions of sight and hearing, when his mind is 
affected and distracted by phantoms such as these : 

These woman shapes with torches in their hand 
And robed in dusky black, inflame my vision a 

and 

Breathing fire and blood 
She plies her wings, my mother in her arms ? 6 

These and many of another stagier variety, resem- 
bling the Empedoclean c monsters that they d deride 

With lurching ox-feet, random arms 
and 

Ox-creatures, fronted like a man 

and — but what phantom or prodigy do they omit ? — 
all of these they e assemble from dreams and de- 
lirium and say that none is an optical illusion or false 
or unsubstantial, but all are true impressions, bodies 
and shapes that reach us from the surrounding air. 
That being the case, is there anything in the world 
about which it is impossible to suspend judgement, 
when such things as these can be accepted as real ? 
Things that no artful joiner, puppet-maker, or painter 
ever ventured to combine for our entertainment into 
a likeness to deceive the eye, these they seriously 
suppose to exist, or rather they assert that, if these 
did not exist, there would be an end of all assurance 

° That is, the Furies : c/. Callimachus, Frag. anon. 387 
(ed. Schneider ; not in Pfeiffer). 

h Euripides, Iphigeneia among the Taurians, 288-290. 

c Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empe- 
dokles, b 60 and b 61. 2. 

d The Epicureans : cf. Lucretius, v. 878-924. 

■ Frag. 254 (ed. Usener). 

287 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1123) Kpiaiv aArjOeias <f)aoKOVT€S, avrol KarafidAAovGLV 
€L$ a^aoiav ixdvra rrpdyLLara' /cat rats KpLoeoi <£d- 
D fiovs /cat rals npd^eGLv VTroiftias errdyovGLV, el rd 
TrparroLieva /cat voLiiLpLLeva /cat Gvvrjdrj kcll dvd 
Xelpas rjLilv enl ttjs avrrjs <J)clvtclolcls /cat ttlotzlos 
o^elraL rotsr llclvlkoIs kcll drorroLs kcll irapavoLioLS 

€K€LVOL$ (jtdoLLCLOLV. Tj ydp IgOTTJS TjV VTTOTLdeVTCLL 
7TCLGL TCOV VeVOjJLLGLLeVCOV CL(f)LOTr)GL JjL&AAoV Tj TTpOGTL- 

drjGL rots' rrapaAoyoLS ttjv ttlgtlv. odev loiLev ovk 
SAlyovs rcov (f)LAoGO(f)a)v tjolov dv QeLLevovs to litj- 
oeLLLCLV rj to 1 7ra(7a9 dArfdels elvcLL rds c/iclptclglcls, 

KCLL LLOiAAoV dv OL$ VTTCLp eVTVy)(dvOVGL 2 OLaTTLGTrj- 

gclvtcls dvOptorroLS kcll updyiicLGL kcll AoyoLS drrAcos 

dlTCLGLV 7] [JLLCLV €K€LVCVP dArjOrj KCLL VTldpyOVGCLV 

E etVat (f)CLVTCLOLCLV 7T€LG8eVTCLS a? 3 AvTTCOVT€S Tj KOpV- 

/3cLVTLL?)VT€S Tj KOLLLO)LL€VOL AcLfJbfSdvOVGLV * d TOLVW 

€GTL fJL€V dvCLLp€LV €GTL S' OJ? OVK eOTLV* OVK €GTLV 

eTTeyeLV rrepl avrcov, €t Lir]Sev aAAo, tj]v ye Sta^co- 

VLCLV TCLVTTJV AafioVTCLS CLLTLCLV a7TO)(pLboCLV V7TOVOLCLS 

rrpds rd TTpdyLiCLTCL /cat ovoe ovrcos cos 6 vyLes ovSev, 

1 rj to Diibner : tJtol EB. 

2 vnap €vrvyxo-vovGL Pohlenz (virap Traparvyxdvovai Kronen- 
berg) : ov TraparvyxdvovGL EB. 

3 Sis added in Basle edition of 1542. 

4 AajAfidvovoiv B : Xafx^dvajGLV E. 

5 ovk 'iariv our addition ; Kpirripiov drroh^x^adaL, ttojs ao<j>a\4- 
orepov Pohlenz. 

6 ovbe ovtojs cos nos : ovbe ovtojs E ; ovtojs B. 

° Cf. Epicurus, Letter to Herodotus, 51-52, Cardinal Tenets 
xxiii and xxiv, Frag. 253 (ed. Usener ; cf. Frag. 251 and 
p. 349. 6-8) ; Diogenes Laert. x. 32 ; Cicero, Be Fin. i. 7 
(22), Acad. Pr. ii. 25 (79) with Reid's note. 

288 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1123 

and certainty and judgement about truth a ; and by 
taking this stand they themselves reduce the world 
to the state where nothing is asserted or denied, 6 
bring fear into our decisions and misgiving into our 
acts as we reflect that action, accepted belief, and 
the familiar ° and daily business of our lives rest on 
the same footing of confidence in sensation as those 
shapes of madness and whimsy that defy all custom 
and law. For by putting all in the same boat d their 
theory does more to estrange e us from established 
beliefs than to convince us that the grotesques are 
real. Hence not a few philosophers, we know, would 
prefer the position that no appearance is true to the 
position that all are true, and would rather give up 
confidence at one sweep in all men, things, and state- 
ments encountered in their waking moments than 
trust as true and real a single one of these appear- 
ances that come to us in delirium or ecstasy or sleep. 
If then it is possible to deny appearances, and in a 
way impossible to do so, is it not possible to suspend 
judgement about them if for no other reason than 
because of this conflict of views ? Is that not reason 
enough to make us regard the world about us with 
suspicion, — not that we actually take it to be com- 
pletely crazy, but only conclude that there is no end 

b For aphasia (used by Timon : cf. a 2 p. 176. 7 and b 9. 
2, ed. Diels) as a withdrawal from assertion and denial cf. 
Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 192. 

c The Academics were accused of abolishing the familiar 
or customary : cf. Cicero, Acad. Pr. ii. 13 (42) and 27 (87) 
with Reid's notes. In Mor. 1036 c Plutarch turns the argu- 
ment against the Stoics, as here he turns it against the 
Epicureans. 

d Frag. 251 (ed. Usener) ; cf. 1124 b, infra. 

e For apostasis (detachment) as a Sceptic term cf. Sextus, 
Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 192. 

VOL. xiv L 289 



PLUTARCITS MORALIA 

(1123) dod(/>ecav 8e /cat rapax'rjv exovra 1 naoav; rats' 
\iev ye irepX koojjlojv arreipias 2 /cat arojicuv <f>voea)S 
/cat dpuepcbv /cat TrapeyKXioecov Sta^opats", ct /cat 
ttclvv rroXXovs hiarapaTTOvoiv , eveariv Sfjutos rrapa- 
[jlvOlol to jj,7)&€V eyyvs elvai, puaXXov 8e oAa;? eir- 
€K€Lva rrjs alodrjoeais aTTCoKivdai tcov ^rjTov/Juevajv 
F €Ka<jTOV rj S' ev 6cf)9aXp,OLS* aur^ /cat a/coat? /cat 
Xtpolv dmoria /cat dyvota /cat Tapa^rj irepl ra 
aladrjra /cat rd? (j>avTaoias, e'ire dXrjde'is eloiv eire 
ifjevoets, riva 86£av ov oaXevei; iroiav oe ovk dvoj 
/cat Kfira) rroiel ovyKaTadeoiv /cat Kplotv; el yap 

OV KpaLTT(l\ix)VT€S OVOe <f)apfAaK(A)VT€S dvdpOJTTOl K(ll 

rrapaKOTTTOvres aAAa vrjcfrovres /cat vyiaivovres /cat 
ypd(f)ovT€s irepl dXrjdelas /cat kclvovcov /cat Kpirrj- 
1124 pta>y eV rots' evapyeordrois nddeoi /cat KivrjfjLaoi ttJ? 
alodrjoecos rj to avvirapKTOV dXrjdes rj ipevSos /cat 
ayu7rap/crov rjyovvTai to dXrjOes, ovk el rrepl irdv- 
tojv rjovxdl^ovoLV, aAA' el tlolv oXojs avdpa>7Toi* 
ovyKaTaTcdevTaiy davpud^eiv d^iov ovSe olttiotov, 
el fjir]8e/Jbiav Kpioiv e^ovoi irepl tcov (fxuvopLevtov, 
dAA' et ra? evavTtas cloven, tov yap evavTia Xeyeiv 
dXXrjXois /cat avTiKeifieva to jjurjSeTepov, aAAa eVe- 
Xeiv rrepl tcjv avTiKeip,evojv tjttov dv tls davpLaoecev. 
6 yap pLTjTe* t id els fJ/rjre apvovp,evos aAAa rjovxdfyjov 
/cat to) TiQevTi Trjv ho^av tjttov /xa^erat tov apvov- 
puevov /cat tco apvovpuevto tov TtOevTog. el Se irepl 



1 exovra Wyttenbach : e^ovTas EB. 

2 aireipias EB r : aireipLais B ar . 

3 6<f>9aApLOis E : 6</>6aXfials B. 

4 dvOpcoTToi Emperius : avdpcoTrois EB 

5 fMTjre Stegmann : pur} EB. 



a Cf. Lucretius, ii. 216-220. 



290 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1123-1124 

to the doubt and confusion that it begets ? Dis- 
agreement whether there are an infinite number of 
universes, whether there are in nature indivisible 
bodies that have no parts, and about the swerve , a 
though it disturbs very many, is yet attended with 
this comfort, that none of these matters touches us 
nearly, or rather that these questions in each case lie 
quite beyond the range of sense. Whereas this dis- 
trust and uncertainty and perplexity about our eyes, 
our hearing, and our hands, when we question the 
objects and images of sense and wonder whether they 
are true or false — what faith does it leave unshaken ? 
What act of assent and judgement does it not turn 
topsy-turvy ? For if men not sodden with drink or 
confused by strong medicine and out of their right 
minds, but sober and in perfect health, writing books 
on truth and norms and standards of judgement, if 
such men suppose in the presence of the plainest and 
most vivid responses and movements of the senses 
that the non-existent is true or that the true is false 
and non-existent, we may well wonder, not that men 
withhold assent altogether, but that things exist to 
to which they assent at all ; and what is hard to take 
is not their passing no judgement on appearances, but 
their passing contrary judgements. Compared with 
this making of statements clean contrary to each 
other and equal in the scales, 6 a refusal to make a 
statement either way, and suspension of judgement 
about the opposing arguments is less surprising. 
For one who neither affirms nor denies, but holds his 
peace, is less at odds with the affirmer of the view 
than is the denier, and with the denier than is the 

6 The Sceptics spoke of a counterpoise of equal and con- 
flicting statements : cf. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, i. 
12, Against the Mathematicians, viii. 363. 

291 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1124) 

■o tovtojv Svvarov eoriv erre^LVy ovSe rrepl rtov dXXojv 

dSvvarov, Kara ye u^ca? cuadrjvw ala8rj(j€OJS /cat 
(jxivraoiav (fxxvraoias ouS' otlovv hia<f)ip€iv rjyov- 
fievovs . 

29. " Ov fJbvOos ovv ouoe drjpa fieipaKccov Xapuv- 

p&V 1 KCLI 7Tp07T€TtOV 6 7T€pl TTjS eVo^T^ AdyOS" eOTtV, 

wg oterat K.a>Aa)TT)s , dXXd e^ts dvhptbv /cat htadeois 
(f>vAaTTOvoa to ahtarrrajrov /cat pbi] irpo'Cenevrf rat? 
ftialSefiArjiJLevaLS ovtoo /cat Svotoltovgous 2 alodrjoeoi 

TTjV KpiGiV parjoe OVP€^a7TaT(JL>jJi€Vr] TOVTOIS OL TCL 

(fxiivopieva ro)v dSrjAojv ttlotlv e^etv (f)doKOVOiv, 
aTTiorlav rooavrrjv /cat dodcfreiav eV rot? (/xxLVopLevoLS 
opoovres. dXXd fjbvdos jjl€V eariv r) drretpia /cat rd 
G etScoAa, 7Tpo7T€T€Lav oe /cat Xafjuvplav eju,7rotet veois 
6 rrepl HvdoKAeovs ovttcd yeyovoros d/craj/catSe/ca 
err] ypd(f>a)v ovk etVat (f>voiv iv oXrj rfj 'EAAaot 
ajLtetVa> /cat repartKcbs clvtov ev drrayyeXXtiv , /cat 
irdoyeiv avros to twv yvvcuKcbv, eu^d/xe^os dve- 
fjbearjra rrdvra etvat 5 /cat dv€rri(j>dova rd rrjs* vrrep- 
fioXrjs rod veavioKov oo<f>iorai Se etat /cat dAa^oves 
ol Trpos dvSpas iAAoyifjiovs ovtojs doeXyd>s /cat 
VTreprjcfrdvojs ypdcfrovres. /catVot IIAaTaw /cat 'A/ch- 
ororeXrjs /cat ©ed^paaro? /cat ArjfjLOKpLros dvretpr}- 
/cacrt Tot? 77/)d aurcov fiifiXiov Se roiavrrjv eTnypacfrrjv 

1 Xafivpa>v Bern. : Xa/xvpiov EB. 

2 77 •po'i€fi€VTj Wyttenbach : TTpoGtefxevrj EB. 

3 SucrraTouaats' EB : hvaovararovaais ? 

4 at)ro9 to Madvig : avro to E c ; clvto E ac B. 

5 7rdvra elvat, E : eiycu iravra B. 

6 ra tt]? Emperius : ttJ? EB. 



292 



a Frag. 251 (ed. Usener). 

6 Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 67 e 6-7, 68 a 2 

c Frag. 263 (ed. Usener). 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1124 

affirmer. And if it is possible to withhold judgement 
about these sensations, it is not impossible to with- 
hold it about others as well, at least on the principles 
of your school, 4 * who set one act or image of sensation 
on exactly the same footing as another. 

29. "And so this doctrine of withholding judge- 
ment is no idle tale, as Colotes thinks, or bait to fill 
the lecture hall with froward and flighty youth ; it is 
a settled state and attitude of grown men that pre- 
serves them from error and refuses to abandon judge- 
ment to anything so discredited b and incoherent as 
the senses or to be deluded as these people c are de- 
luded who call the seen the evidence of things unseen 
although they observe that appearances are so un- 
trustworthy and ambiguous. No ; the idle tale is 
their infinity and their films ; the young are made 
flighty and froward by the one d who writes of Pytho- 
cles, not yet eighteen, that in all of Greece there is 
no one more gifted and that his powers of expression 
are a prodigy, who writes that he himself is moved 
to pray as the women do — that all that superiority of 
talent may not bring down on the young man's head 
the jealousy and resentment of heaven e ; and the 
sophists and charlatans are those who f in their dis- 
putes with eminent men write with such shameless 
arrogance. It is true that Plato, Aristotle, Theo- 
phrastus and Democritus disputed against those who 
preceded them ; but no one else ever had the temerity 

d Frag. 161 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Frag. 165 and Philodemus, 
On Death, iv, col. xii. 32. 

e Early brilliance presages an early death : cf. Quintilian, 
Education of the Orator, vi proem. 10. We doubtless are 
told that Pythocles was not yet eighteen because he never 
reached that age. 

' Frag. 237 (ed. Usener). 

293 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1124) e\ov 6/jlov irpos airavras ovSels dXXos i^eveyKelv 
iroXfjirjGev. 
D 30. "Qdev coarrep ol rrepl 1 to Oelov irX^fJifieXr]- 
oavT€s e^ayopevcov roU iavrov Ka«a reXevrcovros 
rj8rj tov fiifiXiov <f)rjalv on ' tov fitov ol vofiovs 
hiard^avres Kal vofiifia koI to fiaoiXeveoOai ras 
TroXets Kol apyeodai KaraoTiqoavTes €t? ttoXXtjv 
du^dXeiav Kal rjavxidv k'OevTO koI dopvfiojv airrjX- 
Aa|av el 8e ti$ ravra dvaipr\oei y Orjpcojv fiiov jStco- 
oofieOa Kal 6 TrpouTVXtov tov hnvypvTO? fiovovov 
KareScrat.' tovto yap 6 Ka> Xcottjs olvtcus Xe^eatv 
ii<7T€(f)OJvr)K€v, ov Slkcllojs ov8e dXrjdws . ay yap 
dveXojv tis tovs vofiovs to, \\apfievi8ov Kal Sco/cpa- 
tovs t<al 'YipaKXeiTov Kal YlXaTOJVos drroXtTrrj 86- 
E y/x-ara, ttoXXov Serjuo^iev aAA^Aot>9 KaTeadletv Kal 
Orjplojv fiiov £,rjv (frofirjoofieda yap to, alaxpd Kal 

TlflTfGOfieV €7rl TO) KoXtQ 8iKaLOGVVrjV , 0€OVS Cip^OV' 

Tas dyaOovs Kal 8aifiovas e'xeiv tov filov (j^vXaKas 
rjyovfievoi Kal tov vrrep yfjs Kal vrro yrjv xP va ® v 
dpeTrjs dvTa^iov fir) TtOefievoi Kal ttolovvt€S Ikov- 
glojs hid tov X6yov y fj cf>r)OL EevoKpaT-qs, a vvv 
aKovTes 3 SiA tov vofiov. rroTe ovv eoTai OrjpLOjSrjs 
Kal dypios Kal dpuKTos rjfioov 6 fiios ; otov dvaipe- 
doboi* fiev ol vdfjboiy fievojot 8e ol Trpos r)8ovr)v rrapa- 
KaXovvTes X6yoi } upovoia 8e Oeojv fir) vofAit^rjTai, 
ao<f)ovs 8e r)ytovTai tovs Tip hcaXcp rrpoGTTTVovTas, 

1 7T€pl E : B omits. 2 ivrvxovra E : evrvyxdvovra B. 

3 &KOVTGS E : OLKOVOVT€S B. 

4 avaipeOcooi Xylander : alpeOwac EB. 

° For such public confession see F. Cumont, Les Religions 
orientales dans le paganisme romain (fourth edition, Paris, 
1929), p. 36 with notes 40 and 41 (pp. 218-219) and Mor. 
566 f with the note. 

294 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1124 

to publish a book with such a title, an attack on all 
his predecessors lumped together. 

30. " Hence, like some offender against heaven, he 
publicly proclaims his own misdeeds a when he says 
as the book nears its end : ' The men who appointed 
laws and usages and established the government of 
cities by kings and magistrates brought human life 
into a state of great security and peace and delivered 
it from turmoil. But if anyone takes all this away, 
we shall live a life of brutes, and anyone who chances 
upon another will all but devour him.' For this is 
Colotes' public declaration in his own words, and it is 
dishonest and untrue. For if someone takes away 
the laws, but leaves us with the teachings of Par- 
menides, Socrates, Heracleitus and Plato, we shall 
be very far from devouring one another and living 
the life of wild beasts ; for we shall fear all that is 
shameful and shall honour justice for its intrinsic 
worth, holding that in the gods we have good gover- 
nors b and in the daemons protectors c of our lives, 
accounting all ' the gold on earth and under it a poor 
exchange for virtue,' d and doing freely at the bidding 
of our reason, as Xenocrates e says, what we now do 
perforce at the command of the law. Then when will 
our life be that of a beast, savage and without fellow- 
ship ? When the laws are swept away, but the argu- 
ments that summon us to a life of pleasure are left 
standing, when the providence of heaven is not be- 
lieved in/ and when men take for sages those who 

b Cf. Plato, Phaedo, 63 a 9. 
c Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 253. 

d Plato, Laics, v, 728 a 4-5 (where there is an allusion to 
Homer, II. ix. 401). 

* Frag. 3 (ed. Heinze) ; cf. also Mor. 440' e. 
f Frag. 368 (ed. Usener) ; cf. 1117 a, supra. 

295 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1124) dv rjSovrj p,rj rrpoofj, ^Xevd^ojGi he ravra Kal ye- 
Xloglv 

* eartv 1 Alktis ofiOaXfJios, os rd Trdvff 6 pa 

KOLl 

rreXas 2 yap iarojs 6 9eos eyyvOev fiXeue* 
Kal 

6 pAv deoSy toarrep hr] Kal 6 rraXacos Xoyos, 
dpxrjp re Kal p,eaa Kal TeXevrrjv e\tov rod rravros 
evOeia 1 rrepaivei Kara tfrvGiv Trepnropevopbevos* rep 

S' €7T€Tai AiKTjy TLOV dlToXeiTTOpieVOJV TL^QJpOS TOV 

Oeiov vopiov. 

1125 ol yap tovtojv Kararfrpovovvres cos pbvOwv Kal rrepl 
yaGrepa rdyadov rjyovpievoL Kal tovs dXXovs rropovs 
St' tov rjhovr) Trapayiverai, vopiov heovrai Kal <f)6j3ov 
Kal rrXrjyrjs Kal fiaGiXeojs tlvos Kal dp^ovros ev 
X^ L pl T7 ) v oiKTfV k\ovro$y Iva pur) tovs ttXtjgiov Kar- 
€g6lo)giv vtto Xaipiapyias dOeorrjTL dpaGVVopuevrjs. 

Kat yap 6 rtov OrjpUov fiios toiovtos Igtiv on 
rrjs rjSovrj? ovhev CTrtGrarai KaXXtov ovhe SiKrjv 
Oecov oloev ovhe General rrjg dperrjs to KaXXos, aAA' 

1 €otlv Stephanus : Ion EB. 

2 -niXas EB : iroppa) Stobaeus, i. 3. 42. 1. 

3 jSAcVct EB : kXvcl Stobaeus, i. 3. 42. 1. 

4 tvdela A c O c of Plato [eufleta A, cvOeta O] : evdela EB. 

a Frag. 512 (ed. Usener) ; cf. 1129 b, infra. 

b Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 421 ; cf. Mor. 
161 F. 

c Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., Adespota, 496. 2 ; cf. Men- 
ander, Frag. 683. 12 (ed. Korte 2 ). 

296 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1124-1125 

1 spit on excellence, unless pleasure attends it ' a and 
who scoff and jeer at such words as these : 

An eye there is of Justice, that sees all b 

and 

For God looks closely, ever standing near c 

and 

God, even as the ancient account relates, holding the 
beginning, middle, and end of the universe, proceeds 
directly, as is his nature, in his round ; upon him follows 
Justice, who visits with punishment all who fall short of the 
divine law. d 

For it is men who look with contempt on all these 
things as old wives' tales e and think that our good 
is to be found in the belly and the other passages by 
which pleasure makes her entry f — it is these who 
stand in need of law, fear, blows and some king or 
magistrate wth justice in his strong right arm 9 to 
deter them from proceeding to devour their neigh- 
bours when their ravening appetite, prompted by their 
godlessness, casts off restraint. 

" Indeed wild animals lead the kind of life that 
they do because they have no knowledge of anything 
higher than pleasure, no conception of a divine jus- 
tice, 71 and no reverence for the intrinsic worth of 

d Plato, Laws, iv, 715 e — 716 a, quoted also in Mor. 601 b 
and 781 f. 

• Cf. Mor. 420 b. 

f Epicurus, Frag. 409 (ed. Usener) ; Metrodorus, Frag. 
7. 40 (ed. Korte) ; cf. 1087 d, 1108 c, supra. 

9 Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 189 and 192, and Plato, 
Theaetetus, 172 e 6. 

h Cf. Hesiod, Works and Days, 277-278. Epicurus (Car- 
dinal Tenet xxxii) had said that for those animals that were 
unable to make a compact neither to injure nor be injured by 
one another there is no justice or injustice. 

297 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1125) €L tl OappaXeov avrols rj iravovpyov rj SpaarrjfjLov 

€K <j)VG€U)S eveCJTL, TOVTCp 77/30? 7j8ovrjV OO.pKOS Ko\ 

arroTrXripooGLV opetjeajs xPV Tat > Kaddrrep oterat Selv 
B o crowds Wlrjrpoocopos 'Xeyaiv ra kolAcl rrdvra /cat 
ao(f)a /cat rrepLrra rrjs ifivx^js e^evprjpiara rrjs Kara 
adpKCL rjSovrjs eveKa /cat rrjs eXnlSos rrjs vrrkp 
ravrrjs ovveordvai /cat tt&v elvaL Kevov epyov o pur) 
els rovro /cararetWt. tovtols rols hia\oyiop,ols /cat 
(friAoacxfirjpLacnv dpOevrow rcov 1 vopioov ovvxes Xvkoov 
evSeovoL /cat 686vres Xeovroov /cat yaorepes ftooov 
/cat rpd*)(y)Aoi KapbTjXcov. /cat ravra rd rrddrj /cat ra 
Soypuara Xoyoov /cat ypapLpudrcov diropia ra drjpla 
(3pvxr)P<acri> kol ^pe^erta/xot? /cat pbVKTjpbaoL S77A06, 2 
/cat Traoa (poovrj yaorpos eanv avrols /cat oapKos 
C r)8ovr)v aoTra^opbevrf /cat uaivovoa irapovoav rj /xe'A- 
Xovoav, el puj tl <f>voe 1 c^lXoc^oovov eon /cat kootlXov. 4, 
31. <l Ov8els ovv eiraivos dtjtos av yevoiro rcov 
eirl ravra ra rrd9rj ra 9rjpLa)8rj vop,ovs depuevow /cat 
TToXireias /cat dpxds /cat vopioov hidra^iv. dXXa 
rives elolv ol ravra avyxeovres /cat KaraXvovres 
/cat dpSrjp dvaipovvres ; ovx °^ rroXireias d(f>c- 
ardvres avrovs /cat rovs irXrjGid^ovras ; ovx ol* rov 
rrjs drapatjlas ore<f)avov dovp,fiXy]rov elvai rals 
pieydXais rjyepLovlaLS Xeyovres ; ovx OL T ^ fiacrL- 
Xevew apbaprlav /cat hidirrujaiv aTro^aivovres /cat 
ypd<f)ovres avrals Xe^eoiv otl ' Xeyeiv Set ttoos* 

1 apOevTcov rcov Bern. (avaiptBivrcov rcov Madvig) : apQivrcov 
EB. 

2 fivKruxam brjXoi Reiske's supplement of a blank of 12-15 
letters in E, 10 in B : vXaypuols pod Bignone. 

3 aoTTa^oixivr) Stephanus : doira^opiivTqs EB. 

4 kcotLXov B : klotlXov E. 

5 TroXirelas through ovx ol] B omits. 

G After ttcos Meziriacus would add rts. 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1125 

virtue ; they use instead whatever natural gifts they 
have of boldness, cunning, or industry to get pleasure 
of the flesh and satisfaction of appetite. And the 
sage Metrodorus a thinks that this is as it should be, 
when he says that all the wonderful, ingenious and 
brilliant inventions of the mind have been con- 
trived for the sake of the pleasure of the flesh or 
for the sake of looking forward to it, and that any 
accomplishment that does not lead to this end is 
worthless. Get rid of all law by such reasoning and 
philosophy and what is lacking ? A wolf's claws, a 
lion's fangs, an ox's belly, and a camel's neck. Again, 
it is these feelings and these doctrines that the brutes 
for want of speech and writing express by roars and 
whinnies and lowings ; and every sound they utter 
serves to welcome and fawn upon present or future 
pleasure of the belly and the flesh, except for the 
few who have an inborn love of song and chatter. 5 

31. " No praise accordingly can ever do justice 
to the men who dealt with these brutish feelings by 
establishing laws and with them states and govern- 
ments and a system of legislation. But who are the 
men that nullify these things, overthrowing the state 
and utterly abolishing the laws ? Is it not those who 
withdraw themselves and their disciples from partici- 
pation in the state ? Is it not those c who say that 
the crown of an untroubled spirit is a prize beyond all 
comparison with success in some great command ? 
Is it not those who say that to be king is a fault and 
a mistake ? Who write in these very words d : ' We 

° Frag. 6 (ed. Korte) ; cf Usener, Epicurea, p. 278, note 
to Frag. 409. Cf. also 1087 d, supra. 
b Cf 1091 c-d, supra. 

c Frag. 556 (ed. Usener ; cf. also Frag. 8). 
d Frag. 554 (ed. Usener). 

299 



PLUTARCH'S MOUALIA 

(1125) apiura to rrjs (frvuecos reXos crvvrqptfaet Kal 77x09 
tis €K<jbv elvai pjr) TrpooeiOLV e£ apx^ ^ rrL T d$ T & v 
rrXrjdiov dpxds ' ' Kal en ravra rrpos eKeivois' 

D ' ovSev ovv en Set rovg^ "KWrjvas oco^eiv ovSe irrl 
oo<j)ia are(f)dvov Trap* avrtbv rvyyaveiv , aAA' eodieiv 
Kal ttiv€lv, a> TipLOKpares, dfiXaftcds rfj oapKi i<al 
Kex^piofievcjos ; 

'AAAa ixtjv fjs ye Kal KcuAcor^s' erraivel Sloltol- 
^ea>9 rtjov vojjlojv irpwrov iariv rj rrepl 9ed)v S6£a 
Kal jjbeyiOTOV, fj Kal AvKodpyos AaKeoaipLovcovs 
Kal No/xd? 'PajpLalovs Kal "Ituv 6 rraXaids *A9rj- 
vaiovs Kal Aeu/caAtcov "EW-qvas ojjlov ti 1 Travras 
KaOajGLOJGav, eu^ais" Kal opKois Kal /jbavrevfjiaoL Kal 
(jyrmais ejinadels Trpos ra 9eia St' eXirioajv d'/xa /cat 
<j>6fia)v KaTaarri<javT€S . tvpois 8' dv eirioov 7roAet? 

E aret^tarou?, dypapb/JLarovs, dfiaoiXevrovs, ololkovs, 
axprj/JLaTOVS, vopbtofiaro? pur] Seo/xeVa?, 2 aireipovs 
dedrpojv Kal yvfJLvaoLOJV dviepov Se iroXeaJS Kal 
ddeov, pbrj xpwfJLevrjs eu^at? fJbrjSe opKois pLrjSe \xav- 
reiais /x-^Se dvaiais eV' dyaOols fJbrjSe dnorpOTrais 
KaKtbv ov&els loTiv ovSe eorai yeyovws Oearyjs' 
dXXd 7ToAtS" 3 dv fJLOL 8ok€i {jl&XXov i8d<f)ovs x^P^s V 
TToXireia ttjs rrepl Oeow So^rjs ixjyaLpedeiarjs* uavrd- 
uaoi ovorauiv Xafielv rj Xafiovoa rrjprjvai. tovto 
[levrot to uvv€Ktlk6v drrdorjs Koivatvias Kal vofio- 
Oecrlas epeta/xa Kal fidOpov ov kvkXco TrepLiovres 
ovSe Kpv(f>a Kal Si' axVty/xartoi^ dXXd rrjv 7Tpd)rrjv 

¥ to)V KvpLOjrdrajv So£a>v irpoofiaXovTes* evOvs dva- 

1 tiE: rot B and Plethon's paraphrase. 

2 Seo/xeVas Basle edition of 1542 : Scofievovs EB. 

3 770A1? Turnebus : /xoAis EB. 

4 ixfxxipedeLo-jjs E C B (a- E ac ) : ivaiptdelorjs Aid. 

300 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1125 

must proceed to tell how a person will best uphold 
the purpose of his nature and how of his own free 
will lie is not to present himself for public office at all.' 
They go even further, and add to these sentiments 
the following a : 'So we are not called upon to be 
saviours of the Greeks or to receive from them any 
crown for wisdom, but to eat and drink, my dear 
Timocrates, in a way that will do the flesh no hurt 
and gratify it.' 

"Again the very legislation that Colotes praises 
provides first and foremost for our belief in the gods, 
a faith whereby Lycurgus made the Spartans a dedi- 
cated people, Numa the Romans, Ion of old the 
Athenians, and Deucalion well-nigh the whole Greek 
nation, using hope as well as fear to establish in them 
by means of prayers, oaths, oracles and omens, a 
lively sense of the divine. In your travels you may 
come upon cities without walls, writing, king, houses 
or property, doing without currency, having no notion 
of a theatre or gymnasium ; but a city without holy 
places and gods, without any observance of prayers, 
oaths, oracles, sacrifices for blessings received or rites 
to avert evils, no traveller has ever seen or will ever 
see. No, I think a city might rather be formed with- 
out the ground it stands on than a government, once 
you remove all religion from under it, get itself estab- 
lished or once established survive. 6 Now it is this 
belief, the underpinning and base that holds all 
society and legislation together, that the Epicureans, 
not by encirclement or covertly in riddles, but by 
launching against it the first of their most Cardinal 

a Metrodorus, Frag. 41 (ed. Korte) ; cf. 1098 c-d, supra. 
b Cf. Cicero, Be Nat. Deor. i. 2 (4) with Pease's note. 

6 TTpoa^aX6vT€s Apelt : TTpooXafiovTts EB. 

301 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1125) rpeiTOVoiv. eld* cooTrep vtto Hoivfjs iXavvofievoi 
Seiz^x TToieiv opboXoyovai avyxeovres ra vopupLa koli 
tcls Siardtjeis tcov vofxcov dvaipovvres , Iva fJL7]8e 
ovyyvcb/jLrjs rvycooi. ro'fjiev yap dfjbaprdvetv irzpi 
&6£av, el Kal jjlt} crocficov, 1 ofLoos avdpd)7Tiv6v €OTL* 
to 8e eyKaXelv erepois arrep avrol rrpdrrovui ttcos 

OlV TLS €L7TOL 2 <^6tSojL6€^OS' TCOV d^LCOV OVOfJiaTCOV ,* 

1126 32. ' Ei yap 7Tpos * Avrihcopov rj Bicova rov ootpi- 
arrjv ypdcpcov efivrjadrj vopucov Kal rroXireias Kal Sta- 
rd^ecos, ovk dv tis elrrev avrco 

' \l£v , co raXai7TOjp\ 3 drpefjia* oots ev Se/xviot? 

TrepcareXXcov to aapKiStov, ifiol Se jrepl tovtcov 
oIkovo[jllkcos Kal ttoXitikcos fiefiicoKores iyKaXei- 
ra>aav '• elal oe ovtol rravres ots ¥s.coXcorr]s AeAoi- 

86p7)K€V. COV ArjjJLOKpiTOS JJL€V 7TapaLV€t TTJV T€ 

TToXefxiKr^v rexvrjv fieyiGT-qv ovaav eKStSdcrKeodai 
Kal tovs rrovovs StcoKetv, a</>' cov ra ficydXa Kal 
XajjLirpd yiverat 5 rots avOpcoirois' TlapjJLeviSrjs 8e 
B ttjv iavrov irarpiha SteKoofJirjoe vopuoLS dpiorois, 
cocrre ra? dpxas Ka9* eKaorov eviavrov i^opKodv 
tovs uoXiras efipLevetv 6 rots YlappbeviSov vopbois' 

1 oocfrojv E : G(f>wv B. 

2 €L7TOL B : €LTT7J E. 

3 /xeW c5 raXaiTTCope EB. 

4 drpe/xa E : arpifias B. 
6 ytVerat E : ylvovrai B. 

6 e/xft€V€tv Diels (rj firjv efjLfxcveLv van Herwerden) : €fifiiv€tv 
EB. 

a Cardinal Tenet i. The first four were the most cardinal : 
cf. Westman, op. cit., p. 230. 

b Attacked by Epicurus : cf. B. A. Miiller in Pauly- 
Wissowa, Supp. iii (1918), coll. 120-121. 

302 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1125-1126 

Tenets , a proceed directly to demolish. Then as if 
driven by some vengeful Fury they confess that in 
upsetting established observances and sweeping aside 
the ordinances of the laws they are committing a 
grave offence, as if on purpose to make it impossible 
to pardon them. For to be wrong in a belief is a 
failing, if not of sages, yet of men ; but to accuse 
others of doing what you are guilty of yourselves — 
how is that to be described without a generous expen- 
diture of the strong language that it deserves ? 

32. " For if he had brought up this matter of laws 
and government and ordinances in a book directed 
against Antidorus b or the sophist Bion/ no one 
would have retorted d 

1 Poor wretch, lie quiet in your coverlets * 

wrapping cozily your bit of flesh, and let me see such 
charges brought by men who have shown by their 
lives that they can manage a household and serve 
the state.' But all that Colotes has abused are just 
such men. Democritus f urges us to seek instruction 
and mastery in the art of war, since it is of the first 
importance, and to pursue strenuous labours, which 
are for mankind the path to greatness and renown. 
Parmenides g appointed for his native city the best of 
laws, so that every year the citizens bind the magis- 
trates by oath to abide by Parmenides' laws. Empe- 

c See Bion's own account of his early career in Diogenes 
Laert. iv. 46-47. 

d As Plutarch is doing now. 

e Euripides, Orestes, 258 (said to Orestes, who is mad and 
raving) ; quoted also in Mor. 465 c, 501 c, and 788 r. 

f Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Demo- 
kritos, b 157 ; cf. 1100 c, supra. 

Ibid., Parmenides, a 12. 

303 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1126) 'E/XTreSo/cA^s' Se rovs re vpcorovs tcov ttoAltcjv 
vfipt^ovras Kdl oiacfyopovvr as tcl KOiva etjtfAey^e 1 
ttjv re "%(A)pav airrjAAa^ev aKaprrias koX Aoljjlov 8ia- 
acf)dyas opovs anorexia as St' wv 6 voros els to 
TTeStov vnepefiaAAe' HcoKpdrrjs Se puera rrjv koltcl- 
Slktjv (f>vyrjs olvtlq jJLefJLrjxavrjpLevrjs vtto tcov (frlXcov 
ovk e^pr^aaro, rovs vo/xovs /3e/3aiajv, aAAa olSlkcus 
OLTTodavelv elAero pi&AAov tj (jcoOfjvcu TrapavofMCos' 
M.<eAlggos Se rrjs irarpioos OTpCLTTjyCOV ' AdrjVCLLOVS 
KaT€vavpLa*xr]0€' YlAdrcov Se kolAovs p,ev ev ypdfi- 

C {ICLCFL A6yOVS 7T€pl VOfJLLQV KCLL TToAiTetaS drreAt7T€, 

7roAv Se KpeiTTOvas eveTrolrjoe rots eraipois, 2 atjS 
&v HiKeAla Sid Acwvos rjAevdepovro /cat QpaKrj Sid 
Ilvdcovos /cat 'Hpa/cAet'Sot; Korvv dveAovrcov, *A9rj- 
vaicov Se Xa/3pt'at Grparrjyol /cat QajKitoves e£ 
'AKaSrjfJLLas aveftaivov. 'Em'/coupo? p>ev yap els 
'Aoiav e^eixe[LTre rovs Tip,oKpdrei AotSoprjaofJievovs 
rrjs 3 fiaoiAiKrjs e^eAtov* avArjs rdv avOpamov on 
MrjTpoSwpq) irpooeKpovaev d8eAcf)6s cop, Kal ravra 
ev rots fiifiAiois yeypairrai rots 5 eKeivcov nAdVe^ 
Se tcov eraipcov e^arreareiAev 'Ap/cacrt puev 'A/h- 
arcovvfiov SiaKOGfjajaovra rrjv iroAireiav , 'HAetot9 Se 

1 ittfkeyj-e Westman : i^Xiy^as EB. 

2 iratpOLS B lss : irepois EB*. 

3 Before rrjs Usener omits /cat. 

4 igeX&v Wyttenbach (igeXcovras Madvig) : i&Xcov EB. 

5 tols B : rrjs E. 

a Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Empe- 
dokles, a 14 ; cf. Mor. 515 c. 

b As related in Plato's Crito ; cf. Mor. 581 c. 

c Cf. Life of Pericles, chaps, xxvi-xxvii (166 c-e) and Diels 
and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Melissos, a 3. 
304 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1126 

docles a convicted the foremost men of his city of 
flouting the laws and plundering the public funds, 
and delivered the land from sterility and plague by 
walling up clefts in the mountain through which the 
south wind spilled over into the plain. Socrates after 
condemnation refused the opportunity of escape that 
his friends had contrived for him, & thus upholding 
the laws, and preferred an unjust death to an unlawful 
escape. Melissus c led his country's forces and de- 
feated the Athenians at sea. And though Plato d 
left us in his writings an admirable philosophy of laws 
and of the state, the philosophy that he implanted in 
his disciples was more admirable by far, a philosophy 
that brought freedom to Sicily through Dion, e and to 
Thrace through Python f and Heracleides,* 7 the slayers 
of Co tys, while at Athens such generals as Chabrias and 
Phocion h came up from the Academy. Thus while 
Epicurus i sends people off to Asia to rail at Timo- 
crates, meaning to drive the man from court because 
he had fallen out with Metrodorus, whose brother 
he was — and this is published in their books — Plato 
sent one disciple, Aristonymus, to the Arcadians to 
reform their constitution, another, Phormio/ to the 

d R. M. Jones, The Platonism of Plutarch (Menasha, 
1916), p. 139, notes the reference to Plato, Phaedrus, 275- 
276. 

e These happenings were roughly contemporary. Cotys 
was killed in 359 ; Dion set out for Sicily in 357 ; Chabrias 
is first heard of as general in 390-389, last in 357-356 ; and 
Phocion (born 402-401, executed in 318) was forty-five times 
general, beginning not later than 365-364. 

* Cf Mor. 542 e, 816 e. 

9 Cf. F. Wehrli, Herakleides Pontikos, p. 62, note to Frag. 
11. 

h Cf. Life of Phocion, chap. iv. 2 (743 c). 

* Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. 123. 22 ; Korte, Metrodori 
Epicurei Fragmenta, p. 555. i Cf Mor. 805 d. 

305 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

^ T QopjJiicjova, MevdSrj/jiov 1 Se HvppaLois . ILvSo^os Se 
K.vl8lols /cat ' ApLGToreArjs UrayeipLracs, YlXdrcovos 
6vt€S (Jvvrjdeis, vojjlovs eypcu/jav rrapd Se He^o/cpa- 
tovs 'AAe^avSpos vrroQ-qKas rJTTjoe 7T€pl fiacnAetas' 
6 Se ire {Models rrpos 'AAe'^avSpov vtto tcov eV 'Acrt'a 
kcltolkovvtojv 'EAA^vaw /cat ^aAtara Sta/cavcra^ 
/cat rrapo^vvas aipacrOai rod rrpos tovs fiapfidpovs 
TroAepLov A77A109 tjv 'E^eVtos*, iralpos YIAoltcjovos. 
TjTjvojv tolvvv 6 YlappueviSov yvojpL/JLos imdefMevog 
AyjfjLvAo) 2 rep Tvpdvvco /cat ovoTV^rjoas rrepl rrjv 
rrpd^LV eV irvpl tov YlappbeptSov Adyov tooTrep xpvoov 
aKTjparov /cat Sokljjlov rrapeoxe, /cat aVe'Set^ey ep- 
E yots ort to aloxpov dvSpl (jbeydAcp tfrofiepov eoriv, 
dAyrjSova Se TrcuSes /cat yvvaia /cat yvvalojv ifjv)(ds 
exovT€S dvSpes SeStaat* tt)v yap yAcorrav avrov 3 
Slot pay tov* rep Tvpdvvco TTpooeirTvoev. 

33. " 'E/c Se tojv 'Em/coupou Adya;*> /cat 8oy/jid- 
tlov ov Aeyco tls TVpavvoKTovos rj tls dpcorevs r) 
tls vojjlo0€T7)s r) tls dpycov r) /3aaiAecos ov/jl/3ovAos 
rj Stjjjlov TrpoGTaTiqs rj fteftaoavL opuevos vrrep tcov 
Slkolcov rj reOvrjKcos, aAAa tls tow aocj>cov errAevoev 
vrrep ttjs TraTpiSos, irrpeo^evoeVj avrjAcooe; rrov ye- 

ypCLTTTOLL TToAlTLKT] TTpd^LS VfJLLV ,' /CatTOt OTL M.7jTp6- 

1 fjLeveSrjtiov B : fjLcXeBrjfJiov E, Marc. Gr. 517. 

2 krjijLvXo) Basle edition of 1542 : Bl/jlvXco EB. 
3 auroiJ Stephanus, Xylander : avrov EB. 

4 hiarpaycav van Herwerden : Bvarpcoycov EB. 

° C/. Wilamowitz, Antigonos von Karystos (Berlin, 1881), 
pp. 86 f. 

b For this passage see the references in I. During, Aris- 
totle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition (Gothenburg, 
1957), p. 292. 
306 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1126 

Eleans, and a third, Menedemus, a to the Pyrrhaeans. 
Eudoxus drew up laws for the Cnidians, Aristotle b 
for the Stagirites ; both were men of Plato's company. 
Alexander applied to Xenocrates c for rules of royal 
government ; and the emissary sent to Alexander by 
the Greeks of Asia, who more than any other kindled 
his ardour and spurred him on to take up the war 
against the barbarians, was Delius d of Ephesus, a 
follower of Plato. Thus Zeno, e the disciple of Par- 
menides, after an unsuccessful attempt upon the life 
of the tyrant Demylus, revealed when tried in the 
fire that the teaching of Parmenides in his heart was 
like the purest gold and equal to the proof/ and 
demonstrated by the evidence of deeds that what a 
great man fears is shame, whereas pain is feared 
by children and weak women and men with such 
women's souls, for he bit off his tongue and spat it 
in the tyrant's face. 

33. " But what has proceeded from Epicurus' philo- 
sophy and maxims ? I do not ask what slayer of 
tyrants or what champion in battle or what lawgiver 
or governor or adviser of kings or leader of his people 
or who that in a just cause has endured torment or 
death, I simply ask : Who of the sages ever took ship 
in his country's interests, went on an embassy, or 
expended a sum of money ? ° Where in your writings 
is there any mention of an act of public service ? Yet 

Cf. R. Heinze, Xenokrates (Leipzig, 1892), p. 158. 

d Perhaps the Dias of Philostratus, Lives of the Sophists, 
i. 3 (485-486). 

e Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, Zenon, 
a 7 ; cf. Mor. 505 d, 1051 c. The shame would have been 
the betrayal of his accomplices. 

' Cf. Plato, Republic, vi, 503 a. 

9 Cf. Mor. 1033 b-c for a similar criticism of the Stoics. 

307 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1126) Scopos els Heipaid Kare^rj gtolSlovs reaaapaKovra 
F Midpfj 1 tlvl ^vpco to)v fiaoiXiKcJov owe i XrjpLjjLevq) 

^OTjdrjGCJOVy TTpOS TTOVTCLS iypd(/)€T0 2 Kol TrOLOOLS* €7TL~ 

gtoXcus, /J,eyaAr]yopovvTOs 'KmKovpov /cat cre/zvu- 

VOVTOS €K€LV7]V TTJP 6S6v . TL OVV €1 TL TOLOVTOV 

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ktlocll* Si€(f)dappL€V7]v vrro <£>lXl7tttov, Qeo(f>pdoTcp oe 
Sis eXevdepajaat rvpavvovp.evrjv ; ovk emXiTrelv e'Set 
Trporepov (frepovra fivftXovs 5 tov NetAoy rj tovtovs 
aTroKOLfJbeiv ypacfrovras irepl avrtbv; 6 /cat ov tovto 
1127 oeivov eoriVy otl togovtcuv ovtojv (/>lXog6(/)cov jjlovol 
o^eSov aGVfifioXoL Ttov ev tolls noXeoLV dyadcbv 
KOivtovovGiv, aAA' on koI rpaywoicbv ttolv)to\ /cat 

KOJfJbCpStcbv OL€L TL TTeLptOVTOLL XPV (7L l jLOV ^"0,p^X €(J ^ aL 

koI XeyeLv vnep vo/jlojv /cat rroXLTelas , ovtol 8e, kolv 
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TevcofJbeOa, /cat irepl prjTopLKrjs Iva p,rj prjTopevco/Jbev, 
/cat rrepl /SaatAetas" tW 7 (fievyajfiev to ov/x^lovv /?a- 
crtAeucrr tovs §e ttoXltlkovs dvSpas inl yeXcoTL /cat 

KOLTaXvO€L TTjS S6£r)S OVOpbdi^OVGL 8 fAOVOV d>S* TOV 

^KnafieLVcovSav , ccr^/ceVat tl XeyovTes ayadov /cat 

1 Mid pfj Usener : fiiOprj EB. 

2 eypd<f)€To Reiske : €ypa<f>4 re EB. 

3 irdoas Rasmus : irdoais EB. 

4 KTiaai EB C : KTrjoai B ac . 

5 fivfiXovs van Herwerden : ftifiXovs EB. 

6 avrcov EB : olvtwv Stephanus (defended by Post). 

7 After Iva the Basle edition of 1542 omits fii). 

8 ovofjid^ovGL Amyot : ovofiaoi, EB. 

9 fiovov cos Pohlenz (/jlovov Amyot ; cos Diibner) : fiovois EB. 



° Test. 14, p. 567 (ed. Korte). 
b About five miles. 

c A minister of Lysimachus who early befriended Epi- 
curus and continued friendly to the school. Presumably his 

308 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1126-1127 

when Metrodorus a went down to the Peiraeus, a dis- 
tance of some forty stades, & to help one Mithres, c a 
Syrian, a royal officer who had been arrested, letters 
went out to everyone, men and women alike, with 
Epicurus' d solemn glorification of that journey. Well, 
what would have happened if they had done as great 
a thing as Aristotle, who restored his native city 
which Philip had destroyed, 6 or Theophrastus, who 
twice delivered his from tyrants ? Would not the 
supply of papyrus have had to run out through over- 
cropping of the Nile before these men would have 
wearied of writing about it ? What is grave is not so 
much that among so many philosophers these alone 
(one might say) enjoy the advantages of civilized life 
without paying their share ; it is that poets, both 
tragic and comic, are always trying to convey some 
useful lesson and take the side of law and govern- 
ment ; whereas these men, if they write about such 
matters at all, write on government f to deter us from 
taking part in it, on oratory 9 to deter us from public 
speaking, and about kingship h to make us shun the 
company of kings.* They j mention statesmen only 
to deride them and belittle their fame, for instance 
Epameinondas, who they say had but one good thing 

arrest occurred after the defeat and death of Lysimachus 
(981 b.c). See W. Liebich, Aufbau, Absickt und Form der 
Pragmateiai Philodems (Berlin-Steglitz, 1960), p. 95, note 1. 

d Frag. 194 (ed. Usener) ; cf. 1097 b, supra. 

e Cf. 1097 b, supra and the Vita Marciana of Aristotle, 
17 (p. 100, ed. During; line 83, ed. Gigon). 

f Frag. 8 (ed. Usener) ; cf. Frag. 525. 

9 Cf. Usener, Epicurea, p. 109. 17 ; Diogenes of Oenoanda, 
Frag. 54 (p. 93, ed. Grilli). 

h Frag. 6 (ed. Usener). 

\ Cf. Seneca, Ep. 22. 5. 

j Frag. 560 (ed. Usener). 

^09 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1127) tovto Se jjukkov, 1 ovtojul rep prj/jLOLTi (frpdc^ovTes 3 
B clvtov Se acSrjpovv orrXdyyvov drroKaXovvTes /cat 
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gov jJLearjs /cat ov niXiSiov eyoov ot/cot kclOtjto, 2 8rj- 
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gtcos. a Se Mrjrp68 copos ev rep irepl (friXooocjiias 
e^opxovjJbevos noXiTeiav yeypacj)ev ovk (ppbrjv Setv 
jrapelvai' Xeyei Se on l rcov oocf)cbv rives vrro Saifji- 
Xeias rv(f)ov ovtojs* kclXcos eVetSoy to k'pyov avrrjs 
cogt€ olypvrai $epop,evoi irpos tc\s aura? AvKovpyco 
/cat HoXlovl irndvixias kclto, tovs Trepl fiiaiv Xoyovs 
/cat aperrjs.' TV(f>os ovv rjv /cat Scu/jiXeia rv(f)ov to 
iXevdepas elvai tols 'AOtjvcls ttjv re 4 TiTrdpTrjv evvo- 
C fieiodai koX tovs veovs p>rj OpaovveoOai, /X77S' e£ 
eTaipcov TraihoTTOielodai /Ji7]8e ttXovtov koX Tpv<f>r)v 
/cat doeXyeiav apyeiv aAAa vo/jlov kcll 8ikclioovv7)v 
ev tols TroXeoLV avTCn yap rjoav e7Tidvp,icLi HoXtovos. 
/cat XotSopajv 6 WlrjTpoScopos emXeyei tols elprj- 
fjuevoLS ' Sto /cat kclXojs eyei tov eXevdepov ojs dXrj- 
6a>s yeXcoTCL yeXdoai eni re Si) ttcloiv dvOpwirois 

1 fjuKKov Stephanus : lllkkov EB. 
2 Kadrjro LeonicilS : KaO-qro EB. 3 ovtojs E : ovrto B. 

4 rr\v re Pohlenz (re koX rv t v or kcli rrjv Aid. 2 ) : re rrjv EB. 

° In the Greek mikkon, Boeotian for mikron, " small." 
Even the one good thing about him, his abstention from un- 
necessary pleasures, was an example of the Boeotian insensi- 
bility. 

6 That is, lacking ordinary human sensibility to hardship. 

c The great Peloponnesian campaign of 370-369 took 
place in winter. d Frag. 31 (ed. Korte). 

e Plato, Diogenes (the Cynic), and Zeno (of Citium) took 
Lycurgus' state as model for their Republics {Life of Lycurgus, 
chap. xxxi. 2 [59 a]). Metrodorus has the Republic ascribed 
to Diogenes in mind, as is shown by his mention of " con- 
ceit " and " prodigality." 

310 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1127 

about him, and even that ' sma' ' a (for this is their 
expression), and dubbing the man himself * iron- 
guts ' b and asking what possessed him to go walking 
across the Peloponnese and not sit at home with a 
nice felt cap on his head, c wholly concerned (we must 
suppose) with the care and feeding of his belly. And 
Metrodorus' d frivolous dismissal of the state in his 
work On Philosophy should not, I believe, be allowed 
to pass unnoticed. ' Certain sages/ e he says, ' in 
their prodigality of conceit, have been so well able 
to detect the function of the state that in their dis- 
course about ways of life and about virtue they go 
flying off after the same desires as Lycurgus and 
Solon. ' Then it was conceit and prodigality of conceit, 
this notion that Athens should be free/ and Sparta 
ruled by law and order g with the young men knowing 
their place h — and that we should not take harlots 
for mothers of our children i and that wealth, luxury, 
and brutal licence should not prevail in our cities, but 
law and justice/ for these were among the desires of 
Solon. And to the remarks quoted Metrodorus k adds 
this piece of abuse : ' It is therefore fitting to burst 
into the laughter of one truly free at all men l and 

/ Cf. Life of Solon, chap. xv. 6 (86 e). 

9 Cf. Life of Lyeurgus, chap. v. 4 (42 b). 

h A reference to the strict Lycurgan education of the 
young. 

' Cf 1098 b, supra ; Metrodorus' union with Leontion 
was fruitful. For Solon's law, which dispensed the son of a 
hetaera from supporting his father, cf. Life of Solon, chap. 
xxii. 4 (90 e). 

' Cf. Life of Solon, chapters xiii-xvi (84 p — 87 d). 

fc Frag. 32 (ed. Korte). 

1 Diogenes laughs at men for not having the hardihood of 
animals (cf, Dio Chrysostom, Or. vi. 13-34) ; Diogenes alone 
is free (ibid. 31). 

311 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1127) KCLL €776 TOLS l\.VKOVpyOLS TOVTOLS KCLL JloXtOOLV.' 

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1 firjTpoScopc E : fjir)Tp6bcop > B. 2 i} Turnebus : rj EB. 

3 avrov Stephanus : avrov EB. 

4 €L 7Tpd^€L E : €LS 7rpa£iv B. 

5 €7TiKaTr)y6pr]iAa EB : eon Karr)y6pr]fxa Stephanus. 

a Apuleius (Metamorphoses, viii. 28) describes a celebra- 
tion where a Gallus (a self-castrated devotee of the Great 
Mother) accuses himself of sins and then punishes himself 
with a whip loaded with knucklebones. Plutarch may have 
in mind some saying of Arcesilaiis. Asked why men leave 
the other schools for the Epicurean, but never the Epicurean, 
he said : "Men become Galli, but Galli never become men " 
(Diogenes Laert. iv. 43). Again he said of a student overbold 
in disputation, " Will not someone check him with a knuckle? " 
(ibid. 34). Plato compares a long-winded answerer to a 
bronze vessel that keeps booming when struck until it is 
silenced by putting the hand to it (Protagoras, 329 a). 
" Knuckle " can also mean this sort of loaded whip. 

312 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1127 

more particularly at these Lycurguses and Solons.' 
Such laughter is not that of a free man, Metrodorus, 
but servile and ill-bred, and it does not even call for 
a freeman's lash but for that loaded knout which pun- 
ishes the Galli for their sins at the rites of the Great 
Mother. 

34. " That their war, moreover, was not with law- 
givers but with laws we may learn from Epicurus, 5 
who asks himself in the Disputed Questions whether 
the sage who knows that he will not be found out will 
do certain things that the laws forbid. He answers, 
1 the unqualified predication is not free from difficulty ' 
— that is, ' I shall do it, but I do not wish to admit it/ 
Again — in a letter c to Idomeneus, I believe — he calls 
upon him ' not to live in servitude to laws and men's 
opinions, as long as they refrain from making trouble 
in the form of a blow administered by your neigh- 
bour.' d If, then, to abolish laws and governments is 
to abolish humane living, and if Epicurus and Metro- 

6 Frag. 18 (ed. Usener). The question was no doubt sug- 
gested by the reason Epicurus gave for observing justice or 
the compact neither to injure nor be injured : there is no 
assurance of not being found out, and the fear of punishment 
is an evil (Cardinal Tenets xxxiv, xxxv). Suppose the fear 
of detection removed : will the sage disobey the laws ? The 
answer was probably on the lines of Cardinal Tenet xxxviii : 
when the advantage that is promoted by the rule ceases to 
exist, what was just before ceases to be just. It is no doubt this 
kind of law, that enforces what has ceased to be just, that 
the sage will violate when assured of impunity. 

c Frag. 134 (ed. Usener). 

d According to Seneca, Ep. 21. 3, Idomeneus held a posi- 
tion of high importance under a strict government. Epicurus 
is saying that Idomeneus is not to take his legal duties and 
high standing so seriously that he becomes a slave to them ; 
and " neighbour " may well be a covert way of referring to 
Lysimachus. His seat, Lysimacheia, was a little over twenty 
miles from Lampsacus, where Idomeneus lived. 

313 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1127) tovs fjiev ovvrjOzis drroTperropres rod ra kolvo, Tipdr- 
T€(,v, tols Se TTpdrrovuiv dir^OavoiJievoiy tovs Se 

7Tp<J)TOVS Kol OOcjxjOTaTOVS TU)V VOfJLodeTCQV KClKtds 

Aeyovres, TtJov Se vopicov TrapaKeAtvopLtvoi 7T€pi(f)po- 
veTv, idv [JiTj iTpoafj cf)6f$os 7rArjyfjs Kal KoAdaecos , 

OVK OiSa TL T7]AlKOVTO K(lT€lfj€V(JTai TtOV ClAAaJV 6 

KcoAcutt]? rjAiKov dArjdtbs raw 'EniKovpov A6ya>v 
Kal Soypbdrcov Karrjy6pr]K€V." 



314 



REPLY TO COLOTES, 1127 

dorus do just this when they a dissuade their followers 
from public service and quarrel with those engaged 
in it, and again when they speak despitefully of the 
earliest and wisest lawgivers b and recommend con- 
tempt for law if it is not supported by the fear of 
a blow or punishment, I know of no false charge 
directed by Colotes against the others so grave as 
his true arraignment of Epicurus' philosophy and 
teaching." 

° 1125 c, supra. b 1127 b-c, supra. 



3)5 



IS " LIVE UNKNOWN " A 
WISE PRECEPT? 

(AN RECTE DICTUM SIT LATENTER 
ESSE VIVENDUM) 



INTRODUCTION 

The seventh of the Epicurean Cardinal Tenets states : 
" Some persons have wished to gain fame and cele- 
brity, thinking that in this way they would acquire 
security from other men. If, then, the life of such 
men is secure, they have achieved the good of their 
nature ; but if their life is not secure, they do not 
possess the end that they originally sought in con- 
formity with the requirements of their nature.' ' 
Similarly, in a passage preserved by Plutarch (Mor. 
37 a), Epicurus says : " Happiness and blessedness 
are not found in the amount of one's wealth or the 
eminence of one's position or in office or authority, 
but in absence of pain and calmness of feeling and in 
a disposition of mind that marks the limits of what is 
natural." a The Epicurean maxim, " Live unknown," 
was no doubt an expression of this rejection of the 
desire for pre-eminence. b 

Plutarch attacks the maxim in a number of ways : 
(1) Epicurus was dishonest in saying it, for his motive 
was a desire for fame (chap, i) ; (2) the concealment 
of one's vices prevents their cure, the concealment 
of one's virtues renders them useless to others (chaps, 
ii-iii) ; (3) whereas sensual gratification requires 

° Of. also Lucretius, ii. 1-14, iii. 59-73 ; Diogenes of 
Oenoanda, Frag, xxiv, coll. ii. 3— iii. 1 (ed. Grilli) ; and Gnom. 
Vat. 67 and 81. 

b See C. Bailey, The Greek Atomists and Epicurus (Oxford, 
1928), p. 516. 
318 



" LIVE UNKNOWN " 

darkness, virtuous conduct deserves to be exhibited 
for all to see (chap, iv) ; (4) recognition provides the 
occasion and the incentive for action, while obscurity 
dulls body and mind (chaps, iv-v) ; (5) man by his 
very nature seeks the light ; that is, man desires to 
know and to be known (chap, vi) ; and (6) those who 
have won fame for virtuous activity are rewarded 
after death, whereas the oblivion that follows on in- 
action is a punishment (chap. vii). 

There is no clear evidence of date of composition. 
Pohlenz a would date the essay earlier than the Ad- 
versus Colotem and the Non Posse Suaviter Vivi Secun- 
dum Epicurum ; G. M. Lattanzi b would put it later. 
K. Ziegler c sees in the abrupt beginning and the 
presence of hiatus indications that it is an unfinished 
sketch. 

The essay is translated in the versions of all the 
Moralia listed in vol. I (pp. xxviii-xxx) ; cf. also vol. 
VII (pp.x-xi). Of translations not mentioned or not 
specified there, we add the following : 

D. Erasmus, " Num recte dictum sit, XdOe f3cwo-as, id 
est, sic vive ut nemo te sentiat vixisse." In 
Opuscula Plutarchi nuper traducta. Erasmo Rot. 
interprete, Basle, 1514. We have consulted this 
version in the Paris edition of 1544 (pp. 185-187). 

Giovanni Tarcagnotta, "See ben detto vivi si, che 
niuno il sappia." In Opuscoli Morali di Plutarco 
. . . Venice, 1598 (Part I), pp. 609-612. 

a Plutarchi Moralia, vol. vi. 2 (Leipzig, 1952), p. 123. 

b " La composizione del De Latenter Vivendo di Plutarco," 
Rivista di Filologia e di Istruzione Classica, vol. lx (1932), 
pp. 332-337. 

c Pauly-Wissowa, vol. xxi. 1 (1951), col. 766. See also the 
comment of Pohlenz in Plutarchi Moralia, vol. iii (Leipzig, 
1929), p. xvii. 

319 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

Marcello Adriani, "Se e ben detto vivi si che niun 
lo sappia." In Opusculi di Plutarco volgarizzati da 
Marcello Adriani . . . Tomo quarto, Milan, 1827, 
pp. 571-578. 

Charles Whitaker, " Whether 'twere rightly said, 
Live ConceaVd" In Plutarch's Morals : Trans- 
lated from the Greek by Several Hands. Vol. 
Ill 5 , London, 1718, pp. 35-42. 

A. R. Shilleto, " Whether ' Live Unknown ' be a 
Wise Precept." In Plutarch's Morals . . . Lon- 
don, 1898, pp. 373-378. 

J. J. Hartman, " Het boekje over de vraag : Of het 
en goede leer is ' Leef onopgemerkt.' J In De 
Avondzon des Heidendoms 2 , Tweede Deel, Leyden, 
1912, pp. 233-238. 

O. Apelt, " Ob es eine richtige Vorschrift sei : Lebe 
im Verborgenen. " In Plutarch, Moralische 
Schriften I, Leipzig, 1926, pp. 111-118. 

W. P. Theunissen, " Of de uitspraak : ' Leef in het 
verborgene ' juist is." In Plutarchus, Een bloem- 
lezing uit zijn geschriften, Haarlem, 1950, pp. 
309-313. 

Felicita Portalupi, Plutarco De latenter vivendo. Tra- 
duzione e note (Universita di Torino, Pubblica- 
zioni della Facolta di M agist ero, 22). Turin, 
1961. 

Twenty-five mss. of the De latenter vivendo are 
known to us : LCy HUanBrAy7T(j-KtT/^/xs8E^ g cd. 
Seven are independent, and are related as shown in 
the diagram on the following page. ms. d derives 
from c ; the rest derive from a, a copy of U. Their 
relations are the same as in the Non Posse Suaviter 
Vivi Secundum Epicurum. C 2 used a ms. allied to A, and 
is not cited ; \js is a copy of Stephanus' edition. The 
320 



" LIVE UNKNOWN " 

six excerpts in s, adding up in all to about 36 lines 
of Pohlenz' text, are most closely related to /x and 
the Aldine, as in the De Fato and the Consolatio ad 
Uxor em. 




C g 

The essay is No. 178 in the Catalogue of Lamprias. 



VOL. XIV 



321 



EI KAAOS EIPHTAI TO AA0E BK22A2 1 

1128 l, 'AAA' ovSe o 2 tovto elrrcbv XaOelv rjOeXrjoev 
B avro ydp tovto elrrev Iva fjurj Xddr], cu? tl (f)pova>v 

7T€pLTTOT€pOV €K TTjS €L$ dSo^lOLV TTpOTpOTTTJS &6£<1V 
dSiKOV TTOpL^OpLeVOS' 

fJUOO) CFO(f)lOTr]V OOTLS ovx OLVTO) GO(/)6g. 

tovs puev yap irepl Q)iX6t;evov top 'Kpv^tSos* Kal 
TvdOwva tov HiKeXidjTrjv e7TTorjfjuevovg irepl tol oifja 
Xeyovoiv evairopLVTTeodaf rafe Trapoifjcocv ottcds 
tovs GW€o6iovTas StaTpeifjavTes 5 avTol jjuovol tcov 
irapaKeifJuevajv epifioprjOwoLV' oi he a/cparcu? 6 (f)iX6- 
8o£ol Kal KaTaKopa>s hiafidXXovoiv eTepois ttjv 
S6£av coorrep dvTepaoTals Iva Tvyydvcooiv avTrjs 
dvavTayojvioTOJS , Kal Tavi'o toIs epeaoovocv ttol- 
C ovoiv 8 ' (jos yap eKelvoi rrpos ttjv rrpv/juvav dcfropcovTes 

1 el kclXws €Lp7)Tcu to Xdde pLojaas y HU (with an erasure of 
25 letters in the preceding line) g c : L is illegible ; C omits 
for the rubricator ; irepl rod Xdde fiiuioas Catalogue of Lam- 
prias. 2 6 LCy HU: g c omit. 

3 'Epvgibos] evpv£ibos LPCy 1 . 

4 evairopLvrread at g C : evapLvrreadat L?Cy (iva- H)U. 

5 hiarpeijjavres HU 1 g c : ouaGrpei/javres (L illegible) Cy U 2 . 

6 aKpdrajs HU 1 g C : aKparws LCy U 2 . 

7 ravro HU (L illegible ; ravTov C ; ravTov y) : ravrd g ; 
ravrl c. 

8 itoiovgiv] (L illegible) C x y omit. 

322 



IS " LIVE UNKNOWN " A WISE 
PRECEPT ? 

1 . But not even the author a of the precept wished 
to be unknown, as he made this very statement to 
escape from being unknown, dishonestly courting 
fame as a person of no ordinary wisdom by his advice 
to seek obscurity : 

I hate the sage who recks not his own rede. b 

Now Philoxenus c son of Eryxis and Gnathon d of 
Sicily were so excited about fine food that (it is said) 
they blew their noses on the dainties to discourage 
the other banqueters and so be the only ones to stuff 
themselves with the food on the table. So those 
with an inordinate and unrelieved appetite for fame 
disparage fame to others, their rivals as it were in love, 
in order to secure it without competition. 6 Here- 
in they operate like oarsmen : for as rowers face 
the stern of the ship, yet by their efforts add to the 

a Epicurus ; cf. Frag. 551 (ed. Usener). 

b Euripides, Frag. 905 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., p. 
652) ; also quoted in the Life of Alexander, chap. liii. 2 
(695 c). 

c Cf Mor. 668 c and Frag. 25. 2 (vol. vii, p. 132. 2, ed. 
Bern.). 

d Cf Mor. 707 e. 

e On Epicurus' thirst for fame cf. 1100 a-c, supra. 

323 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1128) rrjs vetbs rfj Kara Trptppav oppbfj 1 ovvepyovoiv <hs 
av 2 €K rrjs avaKOTrrjs irepippoia KaTaXapufSdvovoa 
crvveTTOodfj* to rropdfjbeXov, ovtojs ol to, rocavra Trap- 
ayyeA/xara StSovres djarrep drreoTpap.pi,evoi rr\v 
hoi*av Suokovulv. 5 errel re Xeyecv* eSei tovto, 7 tl 
8e* ypd(f)€LV /cat ypdi/javra €kSlS6vcu rrpos top puerd 
tolvtcl ^povov, et XaOelv eftovXeTo tovs ovtcls 6 p,r]Se 

TOVS €OOfJL€VOVS ; 

2. AAAa tovto puev clvto to npaypua ttqjs ov 

irovrjpov XdOe fiiojoas — cos TVfi^copvx^jcras ; u aAA' 

aloxpov ion to £,rjv, Iva dyvocopuev irdvTes ; eytb §' 

D dv €LTrot,p,L pbrjSe kolkcos fiiuioas Xdde, dXXd yva)- 

oOtjtl, aoj(/)povLo9rjTL, [AeTavorjoov etTe dpeTrjv e- 

X €L S, p^Tj y^Vrj dxp7]OTOS , €LT€ KCLKICLV, piTJ pbeivrjs 
d6epd7T€VTOS . 

MaAAcw 8e SieXov 12 kcu Stoptoov tlvl tovto Trpoo- 

TaTT€69. €L /X€V dp,a0€L Kol TTOVYJpOJ KCLL dyVO)' 

pLovt, 13 ovdev 1 * Scacfrepets tov XeyovTos, " Xdde koli 
TTvptTTCov, Xdde 15 (f>pevLTL^ojp, 16 purj yva) oe o 17 larods" 

1 rfj . . . opfjiij g : tt)v . . . 6pfir]v (L illegible) Cy HU 
c(with odd -t)v 2 ). 

2 avvepyovoiv aij av (L illegible)Cy U 2 g c : ojs ovvepyovoiv 
ooov HU 1 . 

3 irepippoia y HU g c (-av [L illegible] C 1 ) : iraXLppoia van 
Herwerden. 4 owencoOfj LCy U 2 g : -ci HU 1 c. 

5 oiwKovoLv LCy HU : St and a blank of 5 letters g ; Swo 
and a blank of 6 letters c. 6 Xeyeiv LCy HU g : Xeyeis c. 

7 rovro LCy HU : to g ; c omits in a blank of 4 letters. 

8 be] Set g. 9 tovto] tovtoj Post. 

10 to y HU g c : LC omit. 

11 TVfjLfia)pvxT]Gas y U 2 g c : Tvpu^opvx^as LC HU 1 . 

12 SteAoS LCy H 2m U g c : H 1 omits. 

13 dyvwfiovL LC*y : avorjTOj HUgc. 

14 ovOev LC HU g : ovhev y c. 

15 Xdde HU g : Xdde /cat LCy c. 

16 (f)p€VLTL^a)V y (-V7;- LC HU) : </>pOVTl£o)V g C. 

324 



" LIVE UNKNOWN," 1128 

forward push of the prow, inasmuch as the eddy of 
the water from their backdrive whirls about, over- 
takes the vessel and helps to drive it forward a ; just 
so people who offer recommendations of this kind 
pursue fame, you might say, with their backs turned 
to it. For what need was there for him to say this, 
what need to write it and then publish it for the years 
to come, if he wanted to be unknown to the people 
of his day, this man who did not even want to be 
unknown to posterity ? b 

2. But surely the thing he speaks of must itself be 
evil : " Keep your life unknown" — as you would your 
grave-robbing? Why, is life a shameful thing, that 
none of us should know about it ? My own advice 
would be : do not even let your evil living be 
unknown, but be known for what you are, be chas- 
tened, reconsider. If you have virtues, don't fail to 
make yourself useful ; if you have vices , don 't neglect 
the cure. 

Better still, distinguish and define the sort of person 
to whom you address this command. If you speak 
so to one who is foolish, vicious and unfeeling, you are 
no better than one who says, " Let your fever too be 
unknown, your madness ; don't let the physician 

a This explanation was suggested by the theory of antl- 
peristasls, which accounts for an object (for example a stone 
when thrown) continuing to move after losing contact with the 
mover : the air in front of the object is pushed onward, and 
imparts a push to other air, and finally to the air which closes 
behind the object and thus pushes it forward. Cf. Plato, 
Tim. 58 e— 59 a, Aristotle, Physics, iv. 8 (215 a 14 ff.), and 
Simplicius, ad loc. (p. 668. 25-669. 2, ed. Diels). 

b Cf, Cicero, Pro Archia, 1 1 (26) : " Ipsi illi philosophi 
etiam in eis libellis quos de contemnenda gloria scribunt 
Domen suum inscribunt." 

17 yva> ae 6 LCy HU g : yvcocrercu C. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1128) Wl piiftas ttol Kara okotovs 1 veavrov, dyvoovpuevos 2, 
rots 3 uddeaiv. Kal av Wl rfj KaKia voaov dvi^Kecrrov 
vogcjv Kal 6\e6piov y * auoKpvTTTCov rovg <f)96vovs s 
rds SeLcnSaijJLovias, cooirep tlvcls G(f)vyfJLOV$, SeSLcbs 
E irapaayelv rols vovOerelv Kal laodai Swa/nevoLS ." 
oi Se acf)68pa TraXaiol Kal rovs voaovvras (fravepcos 5 
TTapziypv*' tovtojv 7 Se eKaaros et tl npoofyopov 
€X OL > TraOcov avros* t) rradovra depanevaas, efipa^e 9 
to) Seofjuevcp' Kal reyyrpf ovtoj <f>aalv 10 €K rreipas 
avvepavL^ofJievrjP 11 fJLeydXrjv yeveodai. e8ei Srj 12 Kal 
tovs vcxjwSecs fiiovs Kal rd rrjs ipvxrjs 13 Trad^/mara 
ttolglv diroyvpbvovv, Kal aVrecr^cu Kal XeyeLV tKaarov 
€TTiOKorrovvra rds SiadeaeLS' " opyitfl "• tovto 
" (f>vAa£ac " 14 - " ^qXorvrrels "■ £k€lvo " ttoltjctov "' 
epas' Kayo) ttot rjpdaOrjv dXXd [xerevorioa." vvv 

0€ dpVOVp J €VOL aTTOKpVTTTOjJLeVOl TT€piOT<=X\oVT€S €jJL- 

fSaOvvovcn ttjv KaKiav iavrols. 
F 3. Kat fjb7]v el ye 15 rols XP r ] (JT0 ^ Xav8dv€LV Kal 
dyvoeZodai irapaivels , 'ETra/xeti'oWSa XeyeLS, " firj 
OTpaTi)yei" Kal AvKovpyto, " purj vopboOereL," Kal 

1 okotovs Castiglioni : okotov. 

2 L breaks off before \vos» 

3 rols nos (avrols Jacobs ; ofiov rols Bern.) : ttov rols C 
HUgc; gvv rols y. 

4 oXedpiou Cy HUg: dXXorptov C. 

5 (fxivepcos] <f>avepovs y* y 2m ; <f>av€pa>s rrdcn Post. 

6 rrapelxov nos : rrpooelxov C c (from rrporelxov ; irpootlxtv 
y 2m ) HU : inoiovv y* ; Trpoorjyov g c (irporjyov Kronenberg ; 
Pohlenz suggests irpo Ovpcov ei<9evr€s [or TrpoQevres els ras 

6SoVs] €7TlOKOTT€lv rols TTapiOVOl TTO^pelxOv) . 

7 rovrcxyv] rovrois ? 

8 avros Cy HU c : g omits. 

9 €<j)pa£,€ Cy HUg: fypatje C. 

10 <f>aoiv y c U 2 g c (faolv HU 1 ) : <f>av€pav C x y ac ? 

11 ovv€pavi£,oiJL<Evr)v Reiske : ovv€.py<it > op / ivr\v . 

326 



" LIVE UNKNOWN," 1128 

find you out a ; go fling yourself down somewhere in 
the dark, where you and your ailments will be un- 
known." — " You too go ahead, afflicted by your vice, 
a desperate and deadly disease, hiding your fits of 
envy and superstition, as you might some throbbing 
inflammation, because you dread to submit them to 
those who can warn and heal." In very ancient times 
the sick themselves were submitted to public inspec- 
tion, b and everyone who knew of anything serviceable, 
having been a sufferer himself or tended one, in- 
formed the man who needed help ; and in this way, 
it is said, a great art arose, assembled from the experi- 
ence of many different people. Now it would be well 
if the same were done with lives that are diseased 
and with the disorders of the mind : that they were 
laid bare for all to see, and each observer should 
handle the ailing part and say as he considered the 
patient's condition : " Your trouble is anger ; take 
this precaution " ; " You suffer from jealousy ; I 
prescribe that remedy ; " " You are in love ; I once 
succumbed to love myself, but I recognized my mis- 
take." As it is, when they deny, conceal and disguise 
their disorders they are embedding their vices deeper 
in themselves. 

3. On the other hand, if it is to the good that you 
tender this advice to be unnoticed and unknown, you 
are telling Epameinondas not to be general, Lycurgus 

a Cf. Mot. 81 f— 82 a and 518 c-d. 

b Cf. Herodotus, i. 197 ; Strabo, iii, p. 155 C ; Maximus 
of Tyre, vi. 2 (p. (>7. 11-19, ed, Hobein) ; Servius on the 
Aeneid, xii. 395 ; Isidore, Etym. x. 72. 

12 St) C 1 y HU : 8c g c. 

13 i/jvxfjs] II 1 or ac omits. 

14 cj>vXaiat Cy HU C (-at rewritten) : </>v\a£ov U ac ? g c. 
15 ye y : re C HU g C. 

327 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1128) ©paavftovAto 1 , " fJLrj rvpavvoKTovei" Kdl HvOayopa, 

" firj TralSebe," /cat HojKpdrei, " p,rj StaAeyoVj" Acat 

aeavro) npcorov, 'Em/coupe, " pur] ypd<f>€ rot? eV 

'Aata <j>i\ois /.t^Se rovs 2 drr' Alyvrrrov £evoAoyet 

1129 pirjhe rovs AapufjaKTjvcov efirjPovs 3 Sopvcfropet purjSe 

SL0L7T€pL7T€ fiifiXoVS TTaOl KCil TrdaOUS €7Tl?)€lKVVp,€VOS 

ttjv oo<f>Lav purjSe hiardooov rrepl racfrrjs." ri yap 
at Koival rpdrre^at; ri Se at rcov eVtTTySetaw Kai 
kclAqjv* ovvoSol; ri Se at roaavrai pvptdSes oriyoov 
irrl ^Ar)Tp6h(jL>pov y eVt * Apiorofiov Xov, eVt Xaipe'S^- 

pLOV ypCL(f)6pL€VaL KCLL GVV7 CLT7 O pb€VOU 5 (/)lAo7t6vOJS IVCL 

/x^Se 6 aTToOavovres XdOcoatv, Iv dpuvrjarcav 7 vopuo- 
Oerfjs dperfj 8 Acat drrpa^iav re^vrj Acat GLtoTrrjv (j>iXo- 
cro(f)La /cat XrjOrjv evirpay la; 

4. Et 9 Se eAc rod /3lov KaOdrrep £k ovp,Tro(Jiov <j>a)s 

B3 ~ \ ~ C 10 ' «* 11 \ * $ * 

avoupeis ttjv yvcxxjiv, cos TTavra ttol€lv rrpos rjoovrjv 

i£j) 12 Xavddvovoiv™ " Xdde ftuocras." 1 * rrdw p,ev 

ow, av />tec/ rloetas > ptovv peAAoj rrjs eratpas Acat 

1 6 paavfiovXco U g C (dpaovpovXXwi H) : OpaavXco C 1 ; ^pa- 
ct; AAeo y. 

2 tous y : rots C HU g c. 

3 £<j>rifiovs Cy HU g : i<j>rjfxovs C. 

4 /caAaiv] <t>i\ojv ? Wilamowitz. 

5 OVVTCLTTOfAeVCLl Cy HU C I GVVTaOaOfJLCVai g. 

6 /x^Se HU g c : /Lt7) C x y. 

7 «>' a/xvqaTLav y : tv' dfjuvrjarta C ; IW (an erasure of three 
letters) fxvrjGreia H ; tvafjuvrjarela U 1 (ti/ dfivrjareia U 2 ) ; ti/a- 
fivr)OT€ta g c. 

8 apcrq H r : dper-qv Cy H ar U g C. 9 et] rt y. 

10 c5? Diibner : <3 Cy U 2 ; w U 1 ; ogc U 2ss? ; H omits. 

11 iroieiv Cy U c : iroiel HU ac g c. 

12 ^pos" 1780V17V efg Pohlenz : irpos rjBovrjv i£ rjBovrjs Cy U 2 ; 
7rpos rjSovrjv €^7]Sov and a blank of 2 letters HU 1 ; npos rjBovrjv 

13 Aavddvovai Cy HU (Pohlenz adds Aeye ^ot) : XavBdvovaav 
g c. 14 Aa0e fliwaas Cy HU : g c omit. 

328 



"LIVE UNKNOWN," 1128-1129 

to frame no laws, Thrasybulus to slay no tyrants, 
Pythagoras not to teach, Socrates not to converse, 
and yourself to begin with, Epicurus, not to write to 
your friends in Asia, a not to enlist recruits from 
Egypt, 6 not to cultivate the youth of Lampsacus, not 
to circulate books c to every man and every woman 
in which you advertise your wisdom, and not to leave 
instructions about funeral ceremonies. For what else 
is the meaning of the common meals ? Of the meet- 
ings of your friends and of the fair ? d Of the tens 
of thousands of lines written to honour Metrodo- 
rus, Aristobulus, Chaeredemus, 6 and composed with 
no small labour so that even after death these men 
may escape oblivion — that you should lay down the 
law that virtue shall not be spoken of, that skill shall 
be idle, philosophy silent, and services forgotten ? 

4. If you remove publicity from our life as you 
might the illumination from a drinking party, so that 
every pleasure may freely be indulged without de- 
tection — " live unknown." Yes indeed, if I am to 
live with Hedeia the courtesan and end my days with 

B Frag. 107 (ed. Usener). h Frag. 106 (ed. Usener). 

Of. Usener, Epicurea, p. 87. 23-28. 

d Cf. Epicurus' will (Frag. 217, ed. Usener), which pro- 
vides that sums shall be devoted " for the customary celebra- 
tion of my birthday every year on the tenth of Gamelion and 
for the meeting that takes place on the twentieth of every 
month of those engaged with me in philosophy in memory 
of Metrodorus and myself ..." 

e Epicurus' brothers, Aristobulus and Chaeredemus, pre- 
deceased him, as did Metrodorus. The works entitled Metro- 
dorus (in five books), Aristobulus, and Chaeredemus were 
written in their honour. 



15 av Cy HUc : g omits. 

16 /*€#' lySctas U 2 g C : per Ihlas Cy 1 (fied* IScas y 2 H ; fieri- 
Bias U 1 ?). 

329 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1129) Aeovrtco GvyKaTa^rjv 1 kcll lt ra> KaXto rrpoaTTrveiv " 
koI rdyadov " ev crao/a Kal yapyaXiopbols " ride- 
odai' ravra Selrai 2 okotovs* to, reXrj * ravra 
WKTOSy errl ravra rrjv Xnjdrjv Kal rrjv dyvocav. edv h 
he ris ev puev (fyvoiKols deov vpuvrj 6 Kal Slktjv /cat 
TrpovoiaVy ev he rjdiKols vo/jlov Kal KoivuivLav Kal 
TToXireiav , ev he iroXireia ro koXov dXXa pur) rrjv 
Xpetav, Sta ri Xddrj' j3uo eras'; tva parjSeva rraihevorj, 
pLrjSevl* ^7]Xa)ro? 9 aperrjs purjSe rrapdheiyp,a koXov 
yevrjrat; el QepaoroKXrjs ' Adrjvalovs eXdvOavev, ovk 
C dv rj 'EAAas drrewaaro 10 Zeptjrjv el 'Pajpiaiovs 11 Ka- 
puXXos, ovk dv rj 'PwpLrj itoXls epueivev el Alajva 
HXdrajv, ovk dv rjXevdepd)9rj 12 rj 13 HiKeXia. d>s yap 14 
oi/xat to (f)tos ov piovov (f>avepovs dXXa Kal xprjotpbovs 
Kadioriqoiv r)p,a$ dXXr)XoL$ y ovrojg rj yvayois ov piovov 
86£av dXXa Kal rrpa^iv rals dperals SlSojolv. 'E7ra- 
pbetvwvSa? yovv el? 15 reaoapaKoardv eros dyvorjOels 
ovSev covrjoe Qrjfiaiovs' vorepov Se morevOels Kal 
ap^as rrjv ptev rroXiv drroXXvpievyjv eowoev, rrjv §' 
'EAAaSa SovXevovcrav 16 fjXevdepajoev, KaOdnep ev 
(fjwrl rfj 86£rj rrjv dperrjv evepyov errl Kaipov rrapa- 

1 avyKaTa^rjv] GWKara^rjv HU 1 . 

2 Setrcu HUgC! or) rod Cy. 

3 okotovs Cy HU : g c omit. 

4 riXr) Cy HU : fieXr) g C. 

5 eav C HU g c : dv y. 

6 deov vfjivf} C HU g c : velvet Oeov y. 

7 Xddrj C HU r g c : Aa0oi y ; firj XdOrj U ar . 

8 purjoevl Cy \W : rj jjLrjoevi g C. 

9 fyXtoTos g c : £,f}Xos Cy \\W 

10 aTTeojoaro \\V g C : dria)oaro C ac ; olttojoclto C c y. 

11 pojfjLaiovs Cy (p- HI' 1 ) U 2 g : pcu/jLalos c. 

12 r)X€V0€pa)6rj Cy HU g : iXevOepcoOrj c. 

13 r) C HU g c : y omits. 

14 cos yap Pohlenz : ojo-irep C x y HU 1 g C ; ojanep be U 2 a. 

oon 
OOKJ 



" LIVE UNKNOWN," 1129 

Leontion a and " spit on noble action " b and place 
the good in the " flesh " c and in " titillations " d ; 
these rites require darkness, these require night, and 
for these let us have concealment and oblivion. But 
take one who in natural philosophy extols God and 
justice and providence, in ethics law and society and 
participation in public affairs, and in political life the 
upright and not the utilitarian act, 6 what need has 
he to live unknown ? In order to educate no one and 
become for no one an inspirer of virtuous emulation 
or a noble example ? If Themistocles had been un- 
known at Athens, Greece would not have repelled 
Xerxes ; if Camillus had been unknown at Rome, 
Rome would not have remained a city ; if Plato had 
been unknown to Dion, Sicily would not have been set 
free : just as light makes us not only visible but also 
useful to one another, so being known lends to our 
virtues not only renown but also the means of action. 
Take Epameinondas, who until his fortieth year was 
unrecognized and so of no benefit to the Thebans ; 
later, once trust and office had been conferred on him, 
he preserved his city from present ruin and delivered 
Greece from subjection. His fame was the light in 
which he put his virtue to work when the crisis came. 

a Concubine (Diogenes Laert. x. 23) or wife (Seneca, 
Frag. 45 [ed. Haase ; Usener, Epicurea, p. 98. 8]) of Metro- 
dorus*. 

6 Frag. 512 (ed. Usener). 

c In the extant fragments Epicurus always adds the men- 
tal pleasure of anticipation : cf. Cardinal Tenet xx, Gnom. 
Vat. 33. 

d Frags. 412, 413 (ed. Usener). 

r Epicurus, Frag. 524 (ed. Usener). 

15 ets Cy U g c : £k H. 

16 SovAevovoav HUgc: hovXzvoaoav Cy. 

331 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1129) crxofjuevos' 

Ad/JLireL 1 yap iv xpetaitTw* coonep evyevrjs* 
D ^aA/cds, XP° vco &* apyfjorav rjpbvoev 

ov pbovov* areyos, 5 cos tf>r]OL Zo^o/cAt^, aAAa /cat 
rj6os dvSpos, olov evpcora /cat yrjpas ev drrpa^ia St' 
dyvoias i<j>€AKop,€vov . rjavx^ Se Kcocfrr) /cat jStos 6 
eSpaios eirl 1 axoXrjs diroKzipbtvos ov acop,ara puovov* 
dAAd /cat i(jv)(as 9 p,apaivec' /cat KaOdnep to Aavdd- 
vovra rcov vodrcov rep TTepiaKid^eaOac feat Kadrjodai 
p/r) aTToppeovra orjirtrai, ovrco rcov aKivrjTcov filcov, 
cos €olk€v } dv tl xPV (JL l JiOV ^X (x)aiv H'V duoppeovrcov 
p,7]0€ 7TLVOp,€VCOV (f)8eLpOVTCU /cat diroyripdoKovGiv at 
avpicpvroL SvvdpLets. 

5/-\ * e <-> « \ \ 10 > / / / 

. \jvx opas on vvktos p,€v €7Tiovar]s tcl re aa>- 

/xara Svaepyels ^apvrrjres ta^ouat 11 /cat ras ifjvxds 

E okvoi KaraAapLfldvovtTLV dSpavels, /cat awTaAets* d 12 

Xoytapuos els avrov 13 co<j7T€p rrvp dpuavpov V7to dpyias 

/cat Kar"q<f>eias piLKpa 14, 0i€O7raop,4vais lh 77aAAerat 

cfcavraoiais , oaov avro to trjv rov dvdpcoTvov vtto- 

Grjp,aivcov , 16 

1 Aaju,7T€t Cy U 2 : XdfXTrecs HU 1 g C. 

2 xpeLaiow 7 ^ 2 E : "xpeiais lv* Cy HU g c. 

3 evyev-qs Cy HUgc: ev-rrpeTr-qs Mor. 788 b, 792 a. 

4 S' dpyijvav rjfxvaev ov ptovov margin of an Aldine at the 
University of Illinois Library : hiapyqoas {hiapKioas y 1 ) 
rjpivve dvfiov dv (y omits dv). 

5 ortyos C HU : V omits ; oreyrjs g C 

6 j8tos Cy U g c : jStatos H. 

332 



" LIVE UNKNOWN," 1129 

For not only a " house," as Sophocles a says, 

grows bright with use, like noble bronze ; 
Disused, it leans at last to ruin. 

It is the same with a man's character, which in the 
inaction of obscurity collects something like a clog- 
ging coat of mould. A repose of which nothing is heard 
and a life stationary and laid away in leisure withers 
not only the body but the mind ; just as pools b con- 
cealed by overshadowing branches and lying still 
with no outflow putrefy, so too, it would appear, with 
quiet lives : as nothing flows from them of any good 
they have in them and no one drinks of the stream, 
their inborn powers lose their prime of vigour and 
fall into decay. 

5. Do you not observe how at the onset of night 
a slow heaviness comes over the body and an inert 
reluctance over the mind, while our reason, with- 
drawing into itself like a dim fire, is so indolent and 
subdued that it flickers in scattered little fits of fancy 
just enough to indicate that the man is alive ; but 
when the rising sun 

° Sophocles, Frag. 780 (Nauck, Trag. Graec. Frag., p. 
314) ; Frag. 864 (ed. Pearson) ; quoted also in Mor. 788 b 
and 792 a. For the sense of " noble " see E. Fraenkel on 
Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 391. 

b Cf. Mor. 725 d, 957 d. 

7 em. Cy HU g : airo c. 

8 ocbfjLOLTa fjuovov Cy : fiovov awfiara HU c ; puovov ccofxa g. 

9 i/jvxols Cy HU : t/ivxr)v g c. 10 fjuev] y omits. 

11 Papvrrjr€S loxovcri] fiapvraToi c. 

12 6] g omits. 

13 avrov y U 2 C : avrov C HU 1 ; eavrov g. 

14 fiLKpa Cy HU : [xaKpa g c (fxaKpav Reiske ; els [MiKpa ?). 

16 Si€a7raa/j.€vaLS Cy HU g : bi€07raofjLevas C 

16 v7TOG7]jjLaLva)v HU g c : V7T0G7]ixaiv€iv C x y. 

333 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1129) rjpbos 1 S' rjTrepOTrrjas 2 drre7TTOLrjGev 3 dveipovs 

6 rjXios avao^oov /cat 4 KaOdrrep els ravro avpLput^as 

€7T€GTp€lfj€ Kdl OVVcbppsqoeV TO) (f)0>TL TCC9 TTpd^eiS* 

Kal rds vorjoets ras drravTajv, ojs (frrjat Arj/juoKptTOS, 
vea €(/>' rjfjbepr] (fypoveovTes " 7 avdpamoi, rrj rrpos 
dXXrjXovs opfiff KaOdrrep apr^/xart 9 ovvtovcq orra- 
aOevTes 10 dXXos aXXa^oOev errl tcls rrpd^eis avi- 
oravrai ; n 

6. Aoklq Se eyd> Kal to tjr\v avro Kal SXojs to 
F (f)dvaL Kal p^eTau^elv avdpwrrcp 12 yeveaeojs els yvtooiv 
V7to 6eov SoOfjvai. eoTi 8e 13 dSi]Xos Kal ayvtoaTOS 
ev Tip rravTi 141 rroXco 15 /cara 16 puKpd Kal arropdSi^v 
cfrepofjievos' oTav Se yevrjTat, ovvep^opievos avTco 
Kal XafjLJ3dva>v pbeyeOos eKXa/JLTTec Kal KadiGTaTai 
SrjXos e£ ahrjXov Kal <f>avepos et; acf>avovs. ov 11 yap 
els ovoiav oSo? 18 r) yeveats, 19 ojs evioi Xeyovaiv, dAA' 
ovaias els yvtooiv ' ov yap iroiel tcov yivojievcov 
1130 eKaoTOV dXXd SecKwaiv, coarrep ovSe 20 rj cf)8opd tov 
ovtos apois els to 21 p,r) ov eaTiv, dAAct pbdXXov els 
to dSrjXov drrayojyrj tov ScaXvdevTos. odev Srj tov 

1 rjfjLos Cy U 2 gc: rjpios HU 1 . 

2 S' rjTrepo7Trjas Etym. Magnum : Se oTeponrjas Cy U 2 ; orj 
(from Se brj) arepoirrias H c ; S17 OTepoirijas U 1 ; S' V7T€po7rfjas g C. 

3 a7T€7TTOL7)(J€V HU '. aTre7T0l7)O€V C 1 g C | a 7T€7TOL7]K€V y 2 (a 
TT€TTOL7]K€V J 1 ). 4 Kal] J OITlitS. 5 7Tpd^€is] 7Tpdo€LS y. 

6 via C g c : via y HU (via virj Post). 

7 (f>poviovr€s Wyttenbach (from Mot. 655 d, 722 d) : rpi- 
<f>ovT€S- 8 rfj . . . oppifj] rrjv . . . oppirjv y. 

9 dprTJfiarL HUgc: apriy/xara C 1 ; aprvpLara y. 

10 ovvtovcq ouaodivres Reiske : ovvtovcos (and so yot) 7rAa- 
odivres (-as C 1 ). n dvioravrai y HU g C : aviorarai C 1 . 

12 dvdpcoTTco Wyttenbach : dvOpumcov Cy HU g C ; dvOptoTrov 
<7 28S . 13 Se Cy HU g : Se /cai c. 

14 Travrt] H* omits (supplied by H lss ). 

334 



"LIVE UNKNOWN," 1129-1130 

Startles to flight the hypocritic dreams a 

and, as it were, blends doing and thinking in one 
and all into a single whole, as its light calls them to 
attention and imparts a common motion, then, as 
Democritus b says, " with a new mind for the new 
day," all men, drawn by mutual attraction as by a 
strong bond, arise from their separate slumbers to 
engage in their tasks ? 

6. I hold that life itself and indeed a man's very 
birth and becoming are a gift of God to make him 
known. So long as man moves about in small and 
scattered particles in the great vault of the universe, 
he remains unseen and unrecognized, but once brought 
into being, as he joins with himself and acquires 
a certain magnitude, he stands out conspicuous, and 
from unseen and unnoticed takes his place noticed 
and seen. For to become is not to pass into being, 
as some say, but to pass from being to being known ; 
for generation does not create the thing generated 
but reveals it, just as destruction is not the transfer 
of what is to what is not, but rather the removal 
from our sight of what has suffered dissolution. This 

a Cf. Callimachus, Frag. Anon. 93, p. 723 (ed. Schneider) ; 
rejected by Pfeiffer. 

b Frag, b 158 (Diets and Kranz, Frag, der Vorsokratiker, 
ii, p. 175) ; quoted also in Mot. 655 d and 722 d. 

c Cf. the Platonic Definitions, 411 a: "becoming is a 
movement into being ; a partaking of being ; a proceeding 
into being " ; Aristotle, Topics, vi. 2 (139 b 20) : " becoming 
is a bringing into being " (where the definition is attacked) : 
Aristotle, Metaphysics, Y 2 (1003 b 7). 

15 ttoXo) g c : ttoXXo) Cy HU. 

16 Kara r t : koli Kara. 17 ov Cy HU : koli g C. 

18 ovoiav 606s H e (ovatav 6S6v H ac )U 2 (ovaias ooov U 1 ) g C : 
ovalas 6o6v C 1 y. 19 yiveois Turnebus : yvojois. 

20 ovoe] he g. 21 to] tl y. 

335 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1130) fJbev rjXcov 'ArroXXtova Kara rovs rrarpiovs kcll ttcl- 
Xcuovs Oeufjuovs 1 vopLL^ovres ArjXiov /cat Tlvdiov 
rrpooayopevovai' rov Se rrjs evavrias Kvptov 2 fiocpas, 

€LT€ 9e6$ €LT€ ScLLflCDV €tJTLV, 3 OVO/Jbd^OVCTlV , (1)$ <XI> 

etV diSes* ko1 doparov tjlicov 6 orav SiaXvOcopuev 7 

vvktos diSvas depyrjXolo #' 9 vttvov Koipavov. 

otfJLCLL Se /cat rov dv9paj7rov avrov ovrcoal (fxjora 
KaXelv rovs rraXaiovs on rod yivojoKeodai /cat 
yivd)OK€iv e/caoTa> Sta ovyyeveiav epcos lox^pos 

B €L17T€(/)VK€V. aVTTjV T€ W TTjV ljjV)(r)V €VlOl TCOV (f>lXoOO- 

(fxjjv <j>(x)s elvai rfj ovola vop^i^ovoiv t dXXots re XP^' 

fJLEVOl T€KLLT]pioLS Kol OTt T(x)V OVTOJV pbdXlGTCL TTJV 

fJbev 11 dyvoiav rj ^VXV Svaavaox^rel /cat irav to d<f>ey- 
yes ixOalpet 12 /cat rapdrrerat irepl iz rd GKoreivd, 
</>o/3ou 14 /cat VTroifjLas ovra TrXrjpr] rrpos avrrjv, rjSv Se 

> ~15 > D y f/ y 16 / « > » £'17 

avrfj /cat rroueivov ovtoj to (peas eariv coore /xrjo 

dXXcp TCVL 18 TtOV (f)VCT€L TepiTVCOV aV€V (JKjQTOS V7TO 

okotovs x a ^P €LV y 19 dXXd tovto rrdoav rjSovrjv /cat 

1 dcofxovs] 0€ovs H. 2 Kvpiov Cy HU : g omits ; /cat c. 

3 earlv C*y HUa 1 : iorlv dSrjv a 2ss AE g C. 

4 els HU ar? U 2 g c : C*y U r omit. 

5 dtSes C 1 (drjoes H ac ) : dei8e? H c UgC. 

6 rjfjicov C HU g c : y omits. 

7 SiaXvdcofiev HU g c : SlolXvOwol C 1 (-lv y). 

8 j8a8tJdvro)v] fiahi£,6vTO)v rjfJLcov C*y. 

9 depyrjXolo #' U 2 a c AE : aepyrjAoLS 0' C 1 H(a- U 1 ) ; depyrj- 
Xrjv d' y ; aepyrjXolGd* g C. 

10 avrrjv r€ HU g (avrrjv re C c) : avrrjv oe y. 

11 /zev] y 1 omits. 

12 ixOaipa, Wyttenbach : e^atpet Cy HU g C. 

13 rrepl our addition (7rpos- Reiske, otd Pohlenz). 

14 <f>6flov] teal <j>6f$ov y. 

15 <h)tj7 HU g c : C x y omit, Cy having avrfj after ^ais below. 

16 to Cy U 2 a : HU 1 g c omit. 



"LIVE UNKNOWN," 1130 

is why the sun, a which by old traditional ordinances 
is held to be Apollo, is called Delian and Pythian b ; 
while the lord of the opposite realm, whether god or 
daemon, is called 

The Prince of viewless night and idle sleep c 

from the notion that on dissolution we pass to the 
aides or unseen. d Indeed I imagine that the ancients 
called man phos e because from our kinship with one 
another a strong love is implanted in each of us of 
being known and of knowing. And some philosophers f 
believe that the soul itself is in its substance light, 
appealing among other proofs to the fact that the 
soul finds ignorance the most vexatious of all things 
and hates everything unilluminated and is disturbed 
by all that is dark, which to her is full of fear and mis- 
trust, whereas light is so agreeable to her when present 
and so missed when absent that in the dark without 
light she has no pleasure even in the other naturally 
pleasant things, while the addition of light, as of 
some universal condiment, renders every pleasure 

° The sun is lord of the world of Becoming : Plato, Rep. 
vi, 508-509. 

b Delios is here derived from delos (plain to see), for which 
cf. Mor. 394 a, and Pythios from punthanomai (ascertain) : 
cf. Cornutus, Theologiae Graecae Compendium, p. 67. 2-3, 
10-11 (ed. Lang). 

c D. Page, Poetae Melici Graeci, Frag. 996 (Frag. Adesp. 
78). 

d For this etymology of Hades see Plato, Cratylus, 403 a, 
404 b. 

e Cf. for this etymology of phos (wight) from phos (light) 
Etym. Magnum, s.v. (804. 28-30). 

t Cf. Heracleides, Frag. 100 (ed. Wehrli) and Mor. 281 b. 

17 firjS* C : firj 8t' y ; /x^Se HU g c. 

18 aAAcu tlvl y : aAAd rt C HU g C. 

19 xdpcw&Y* HU 1 g c : d&civ y 2 ?P U 2 a. 

337 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1130) naoav oiaTpifirjV /cat arroAavGiv, 1 toorrep tl kolvov 2 
rjSvafjLa KarafjuyvuiuLevov , lAapav 3 iroiel /cat (j>iAdv~ 
OpajTTOv. 6 be etV tt]v dyvoiav avrov e^/3aAAo>v 4 

Kol (JKOTOS 5 TT€pia\Xm(3}(6\X€VOS Kol K€VOTa(j)d)V TOP 

C (3lov eoiKev avrrjv /3apvvea9ou rrjv yeveuiv /cat drr- 
avoav Trpos to elvai. 

7. Katrot 7-779 ye &6£r]s /cat tov elvai </>aaty 6 ev- 
oefiwv yCopov? 

~ 8 \ * 9 » 10 / 11 ' \ / 12 

tolol Aapbnei p,ev jxevos aeAiov 
Tav evtfaoe vvktcl Kara) 

I '£ 14 » U5 \ / 16 

(pOLViKopooois eve AeipuovecroLV, 

KCLL TOIGLV OLKapiTOOV fJieV dv9rjpO)V Se 17 KCLL GVCJKLCOV 18 

oevopoov avOeaiv reOrjAos dvarTerTrarai rreSiov, /cat 
rrorafjioi rives a/cAafarot 19 /cat Aecoc oiappeovoiv, 
/cat oiarpifias eypvoiv ev ixvrjpiais /cat Aoyois tojv 

/ \ if t e \ 20 ^ 

yeyovorcov /cat ovrwv TrapaTrepLTTOvres avrovs /cat 
ovvovres. rj Se rpirrj rcov dvoaicos ^e^LCUKorcov 

1 OLarpL^rjv /cat airoXavaiv] airoXavaiv koI oiaTpijSrjv y. 

2 /coivov] Kaivov g. 3 IXapav Reiske : IXapov (1-C 1 H). 
4 efjLpdXXcov Bern. : efifiaXcbv. 5 ctkotos] o-acotous' H. 

6 elvai <f>aoiv Fr. Jacobs (eiraivov kclSooov elvai (fracnv els 
Post) : elvai (frvocv. 

7 ^cupov] yixipwv Cy. 8 Totcrc] roloiv HU. 

9 Aa/x7ret U 2 a (and 31or. 120 c) : XapbTrev HU 1 ; Aa/x7re Cy g c. 
10 /xey] added from Mor. 120 c. ll fievos] /xey cos H. 

12 deXiov] tjXlov CV- 13 cV0a8e Mor. 120 c : eVfleVSe. 

14 (jioiviKopohois] (j>oivoKop6hoio C. 

15 ivl Bern, (r' eVt Boeckh ; re Mor. 120 c) : ev. 

16 XetfJLwveooiv C (-cro-t U C; xet/xaWcrcn y* [Aei- y 2ss ]) : XeipLW- 
yecrtv H (-eat g). 1? Se added by Wilamowitz. 

18 avGKicov Ruhnken : GKvdiojv. 

19 ai<XavGTOL HUa g cd : a-navoroi C x y x ; a/cAf arot y 2 "^ p A 2 E. 

20 avrovs Xylander : avrovs. 
338 



"LIVE UNKNOWN," 1130 

and every pastime and enjoyment cheerful and agree- 
able. a But he who casts himself into the unknown 
state and wraps himself in darkness and buries his 
life in an empty tomb would appear to be aggrieved 
at his very birth and to renounce the eifort of being. 
7. Yet to fame and to being belongs, they say, a 
place reserved for pious dead : 

For some the sun shines bright below, while here 
Is night, on meadows red with roses b ; 

and before others c spreads a great and flowery plain 
with trees which, though sterile, d are abloom with 
varicoloured blossoms and cast a thick shade, and 
certain rivers attended by no sound of lamentation 
flow smoothly past, e while those who dwell there pass 
their time together recalling and speaking of the 
past and present. But the third path f is the way 

a Cf Aristotle, Protrepticus, Frag. 9 (ed. Ross) and 1093 
a, supra. 

b Pindar, Frag. 129 (ed. Snell), 135 (ed. Turyn) ; cf. Mor. 
120 c. These are presumably the Islands of the Blest. 

c This is presumably the habitation of the good. The 
spreading plain and the rivers suggest it is not an island ; 
the shade, that there is light. 

d Trees of the underworld are sterile : cf. the scholiasts 
(BQ and HTV) on Homer, Odyssey , x. 510. 

e Thus the habitations of the blest and of the good are no 
places of unending night, like the place in the Odyssey (xi. 
14-22), nor are they covered with pale asphodel, nor have 
they rivers ablaze with fire (like Pyriphlegethon) or noisy 
with the tumult of waters (Odyssey, x. 515) or like Cocytus 
and Acheron associated with grief and lamentation. 

f For the three roads cf. Wilamowitz, Pindaros, pp. 497, 
499 ; Varro in Servius on the Georgics, i. 34 ; Pindar, 01. ii. 
57 ff. ; Reiner, Die rituelle Totenklage (Tiibinger Beitrage, 
30, p. 83). See also R. M. Jones, The Platonism of Plutarch, 
pp. 66-67 ; Wehrli, Herakleides Pontikos, p. 92 ; Bignone, 
U Aristotele perduto, vol. ii, p. 599. 

33Q 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(lloU) \ / 1 *0 ' > > 2 >' / 3 V O ' 

v ' Ken 7rapavofJbcos ooos eortv, eis epepos tl koli papa- 
dpov coOovoa*' ras i/wxds 

evdev top arreipov h epevyovraf okotov 
/3Ar))(poi 8vo(f)€pas vvktos Trorap^ol 1 

SexdjJtevoi i<al aTTOKpvTTTovres ayvoia Kal ArfOrj rovs 
KoXa^opbivovs . ov yap ov&e 8 y vires Kecpbevcov ev 

yfj TCOV TTOVTjpCOV K€LpOVGLV CL€l TO rjlTdp (KCLTa- 

KeKavTOu yap r) Karaaeo7]7rev) } ovSe fiapcov nvcov 
a*x6o(f)opLai OXifiovoi Kal Karauovovoi tol ocopbara 
rcov KoXa^ofxevcov — 

ov yap en oapKas re 11 Kal oorea Ives e\ovoiv 

ovSe eorrtv VTroAeip,iia ocopbaros rots reOvrjKooi ti\ico- 
pias aTrepeioiv 12 olvtltvttov he^aadai Svvdfievov — 
E aAA' ev KoXaorrjptov cos dXrjOcos rcov KaKcos fiicoodv- 
rcoVy dho^ia Kal ayvoia 13 Kal iravreAcos 1 * dfiavLGjjLos, 
alpcov els rov dp,eihr] Trorapiov drr6 lh rrjs Arjdrjs Kal 16 
KaraTTovrt^cov 17 els dfivooov Kal agaves 7reXayos, 
dy^pr\GTiav Kal dirpa^iav iraodv re 18 dyvoiav koX 
dSo^tav Gwe^eXKOfxevov . 19 

1 irapavo^icos Hartman : Trapavofiajv. 

2 els] C 1 omits. 3 n (tls C ac )] re g. 
4 todovaa] (bdeiGa y. 5 drreipov] diropov y. 

6 epevyovrai] cpcvycrai y. 

7 7TOTafJLOi] TTorafxov g. 

8 ov yap ovbe Stegmann : ov yap ovre (ovre yap y). 

9 yf}} tv yv pJ- 

10 Keipovaiv del] del Ktlpovoiv y. " re] H omits. 

12 dfTepcLoiv /a 288 and Wyttenbach : alirep elolv (-iv H). 

13 doo£ia Kal ayvoia HU g c : dyvajoia Kal d8o£ia Cy 1 (dyvoj- 
ola Kal dbo£ia Kal ayvoia y 2 ). 

14 TravreXcos] 7ravT€\r}s Turnebus. 

15 d-no] vtt6 re Post. 16 Kal added by Reiske. 
17 KaraTrovri^ojv U 2 a : KaraTrovri^i C*y HU 1 g C. 

340 



"LIVE UNKNOWN," 1130 

taken by those who have lived a life of impiety and 
crime ; it thrusts their souls into a pit of darkness 

Whence sluggish streams of murky night belch forth 
The dark that has no bourne, 

as they receive into their waters those sentenced to 
punishment and engulf them in obscurity and ob- 
livion. For no vultures tear forever at the liver of 
the wicked as they lie stretched on the ground b — 
since it has been consumed in fire c or has rotted away 
— nor does the bearing of any heavy burden crush 
and wear out the bodies of those punished,** 

for their sinews 
No longer hold together flesh and bone, e 

and the dead have no remnant of the body that could 
sustain the weight of crushing punishment. No, 
there is in truth but one penalty for those who have 
lived ill : obscurity, oblivion, and utter effacement, 
which carries them off from Lethe to the joyless 
river f and plunges them into a bottomless and yawn- 
ing ocean, 9 ' an ocean that sucks into one abyss all 
failure to serve or to take action and all that is in- 
glorious and unknown. 

Pindar, Frag. 130 (ed. Snell), 135 (ed. Turyn) ; cf. Mor. 
17 c. 

6 The punishment of Tityos : cf. Odyssey, xi. 576-581. 

Cf. Odyssey, xi. 220-221. 

d The punishment of Sisyphus : cf Odyssey, xi. 593-600. 

e Odyssey, xi. 219. 

f From Lethe (suggested by lathe [" be unknown "] in 
the precept) the follower of the precept passes to joylessness 
(that is, he is deprived of the pleasures of the active life) and 
ultimately to complete oblivion. 

g Cf. 1107 a, supra. 

18 Traoav T€ C*y : Traoav W U ; Kal Traoav g c. 

19 <JVV€(/)€\K6fJL€VOv\ €(/)€\k6(JL€VOV H aC . 

341 



ON MUSIC 

(DE MUSICA) 



INTRODUCTION 

Few scholars would now ascribe the dialogue De 
Musica to Plutarch. The style shows little of Plu- 
tarch's manner or skill or powers of assimilation, and 
where it is not a tissue of excerpts is awkward and 
incorrect. 

Wilamowitz a suggests that Planudes was the first 
to ascribe the dialogue to Plutarch. Of the spurious 
writings that Planudes included in his edition all but 
the De Musica and the De Vita et Poesi Homeri were 
taken from various collections of Plutarch's essays. 6 
Planudes' sources for the two exceptions are lost or 
unknown. Each of the two was no doubt originally 
anonymous. Plutarch's name, it would seem (we do 
not yet have a critical edition), does not appear in 
the non-Planudean mss. of the De Vita et Poesi Homeri ; 
and in the oldest mss. of the De Musica (M and V) it 
was inserted by a later hand. This absence of a 
name was an invitation to supply one, and the parallel 
with the Life of Phocion in the first sentence was 
enough to suggest that of Plutarch. 

The occasion of the dialogue is a feast on the second 

° Griechische Verskunst (Berlin, 1921), pp. 76-77, note 3. 

b He found the De Liber is Educandis (2) and the Placita 
Philosophorum (51) in M ; the Consolatio ad Apollonium 
(22) in a lost relation of v ; the De Fato (37) in a lost relation 
of the second part of X ; and the Decern Oratorum Vitae (63) 
in some lost relation of F. The Regum et Imperatorum 
Apophthegmata (59) and Parallela Graeca et Romana (61) 
always occur with works of Plutarch. 

344 



ON MUSIC 

day of the Saturnalia ; thus the dialogue is a Sym- 
posium, and enjoys the liberties of the genre. The 
scene is unknown ; it is not Alexandria, for otherwise 
the epithet "Alexandrian " applied to Soterichus 
(1131 c) would be hard to explain. The Roman 
Saturnalia had been adopted by Greeks by the time 
of Lucian. The latest authority cited (1132 f) is 
Alexander Polyhistor, born about 100 b.c. 

There are three speakers : Onesicrates, the host 
and preceptor, who opens and closes the discussion ; 
Lysias, an executant employed by Onesicrates ; and 
Soterichus of Alexandria. Among the unnamed 
guests must be counted another member of the 
school, the narrator. 

The introduction places interest in music in the 
broader context of a zeal for instruction and devotion 
to culture (7r<u8cia). Even the feast of the Saturnalia, 
it appears, is to be spent in intellectual pursuits. 
Onesicrates, who had invited to the feast men learned 
in music, reminds them in his opening statement that 
on the preceding day they had enquired into gram- 
mar ; he now selects music as a fitting sequel. He 
asks first for an historical account of the origin of 
music, its progress, and its most famous practitioners ; 
and second for a discussion of the ends that it serves 
(1131 b-e). 

Lysias undertakes to relate the early history of 
music. He begins by pointing to the large number of 
treatises on ancient music and their lack of agree- 
ment. As if to prove his point, he first takes from 
Heracleides information about the origin of singing 
to the cithara, the accomplishments of certain early 
composers, and perhaps also the names of the earliest 
nomes sung to the cithara and the auloi. He deals 

345 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

with singing to the cithara and singing to the auloi 
together, although he evidently gives the preference 
to his own instrument, the cithara. Next he passes 
to auletic. He then draws from Alexander of Aetolia 
and others quite different information that in part 
supplements, in part conflicts with the material from 
Heracleides (1131 f— 1133 b). 

Leaving these problems unresolved, Lysias pro- 
ceeds with greater confidence to trace the history of 
singing to the cithara in the period after Terpander, 
and to discuss the origin of certain nomes for the 
auloi. There follow names of persons who instituted 
musical performances at certain cities, with brief 
mention of the musical forms in which they composed. 
Next comes an account of the origin of the enhar- 
monic genus. Lysias concludes with some remarks 
on innovations in rhythm, drawing a contrast between 
those innovations that were compatible with the 
ancient dignity of music and those that led to its 
corruption. Having thus prepared the way for the 
second of Onesicrates' two topics, the ends that music 
serves, lie calls on Soterichus to continue the discus- 
sion (1133 b— 1135 n). 

Before dealing with the ends Soterichus eliminates 
the corruptions. Music once had a majesty and 
nobility that has now been lost, but that might, with 
the right education, be regained. The original 
majesty came from Apollo, its inventor, who was 
" graced with every virtue." The corruption came 
with the introduction of modes suited to lamentation 
and other unmanly emotions. Plato is Soterichus' 
authority for the rejection of these effeminate modes ; 
Aristoxenus is his authority for the historical details 
of their adoption (1135 e— 1136 e). 

346 



ON MUSIC 

The critical judgement that thus confines music to 
prescribed limits is not, Soterichus insists, based on 
ignorance of what it rejects ; it is an informed judge- 
ment. Plato was well acquainted with the modes and 
their uses. He preferred the Dorian to the Lydian, 
Mixolydian, and Ionian because he judged the ma- 
jestic Dorian proper for warlike and temperate men. 
So too the simple majesty of ancient music was the 
result not of ignorance but of choice (1136 e — 1138 c). 

As for Plato, his familiarity with harmonics is evi- 
dent in the account of the creation of the soul in the 
Timaeus ; and Aristotle, his disciple, held harmony 
to be celestial and divine ; even the senses by which 
harmony is perceived are celestial. 

The concern of the ancients for education in music 
is thus fully justified. They held music to be useful 
on every occasion, but especially in facing the dangers 
of war and at athletic contests. Still earlier they 
employed it wholly in honouring the gods and edu- 
cating the young. To-day it is quite otherwise ; the 
educational use of music has been supplanted by the 
music of the theatre (1138 c — 1140 f). 

Is music then to resist all change, and so escape 
corruption ? Did not even the ancients innovate ? 
Soterichus' reply is that the innovations introduced 
by the ancients were not of a kind to destroy the 
majesty of music ; but that Lasus of Hermione, 
Melanippides, and others of more recent times 
changed the character of music and corrupted it 
(1140 f— 1142 a). 

Soterichus (following Aristoxenus, who drew upon 
Plato's programme for making rhetoric an art) now 
discusses in some detail the knowledge and training 
required for a true musician. In their preference for 

347 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

majestic and simple music the ancients recognized 
that the end of music is moral character, not the 
mere pleasure of the ear. Pythagoras went so far as 
to deny to the ear any part in the judgement of music, 
saying that its excellence lies entirely in the intelli- 
gible proportions of the scale. But our contemporaries 
have dulled both ear and mind (1142 b — 1145 d). 

The proper employment of music, Soterichus con- 
cludes, may be learned from Homer. Those who 
cultivate it for its nobility reflect this nobility in all 
their actions and are of service to their fellow men. 
Music is man's means of expressing his gratitude to 
God, and of purifying his soul (1145 d — 1146 d). 

In his closing speech Onesicrates makes two further 
points : music is of service at banquets as an antidote 
to wine, and God followed musical harmony in order- 
ing the heavens. The meeting ends with a paean 
and libations to the gods (1146 d — 1147 a). 

When the speakers allude to " modern " music and 
to " men of our times," the reference is undoubtedly 
(except at 1140 c) to the fourth or third century B.C. 
Yet the mention (1132 f) of Alexander, a polymath 
of the first century B.c., a has led scholars to suppose 
that our author had before him a compilation made 
in Roman times. 6 

a Other sources mentioned by name are earlier : Glaucus 
of Italy (1132 e, 1133 f) belongs to the fifth century ; Anti- 
cleides (1136 a) to the fourth ; Istrus (1136 a) and Dionysius 
Iambus (1136 c) to the third. 

6 F. Lasserre, Plutarque, De la musique (Olten and Lau- 
sanne, 1954), pp. 101 f., suggests as the immediate source the 
younger Dionysius of Halicarnassus (second century a.d.), 
who wrote thirty-six books on music and was still an authority 
in Byzantine times. R. Westphal, Plutarch, tJber die Masik 
(Breslau, 1865), p. 16, had supposed him to be the immediate 
source of chapters xv-xvii. 

348 



ON MUSIC 



Weil and Reinach a (who knew nothing of a Planu- 
dean edition) divided the manuscripts of the De 
Masica into the Codices Plutarchiani and the Codices 
Musici, a division retained (with some modification) 
by Ziegler b and Lasserre. Our own division is into 
M V a W aN vq, a being the source of the rest of 
the Planudeans. 6 * 

Thirty-nine mss. of the De Musica are known to us : 
MeJfZx VhPSbFT acoAyTro-KTjS/xASRjkE WD aGN 
vsqu. All are derivative but MVaW aN vq. The 
derivative mss. are related as follows : 




Aldine ^ 

R' 

i 

k 

Our ,stemma omits the connexion of the principal 
mss. ; the variants are indecisive and show extensive 
crossing. We could dispense with aN, vq, and a ; 

a H. Weil and T. Reinach, Plutarque, De la musique 
(Paris, 1900), p. xlvi. 

b Plutarchi Moral ia 9 vol. vi. 3 (Leipzig, 1953 ; second 
edition, 1959). In the second edition, pp. vii-x, Ziegler dis- 
tinguishes Pluta?'chei, Musici, and PlatonicL 

c One Plutarch'ianus (Urbinas 99 ; not mentioned by 
previous editors) has a non-Planudean text ; three Musici 
(Vaticanus 221, Barberinianus 265, and Rossianus 977) 
descend from the Planudean edition by way of the Aldine of 
1509. 

349 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

they tell us nothing about the archetype that is not 
known from M, V, and W. 

The dialogue has often been translated apart from 
the Moralia : 

Plutarchi Chaeronei Pkilosophi Claris simi Musica, Ca- 
rolo Valgulio Brixiano interprete. Published at 
Brescia in 1507. We use the reprint in Opuscula 
Plutarchi (Paris, 1526), foil. 108 v -115 r . 

P. J. BURETTE. YlXovrdpyov 8id\oyo$ 7re/n fjLOVCTLK v/s. 
Dialogue de Plutarque sur la musique, traduit 
en franeois. Avec des remarques. Par M. 
Burette. Memoir es de Litter ature, tirez des regis- 
tres de l'Academie Roy ale des Inscriptions et 
Belles Lettres. . . . Tome dixieme. A Paris 
. . . M. DCCXXXVI pp. 111-310. The same 
author publishes in the eighth volume of the same 
series (1733) an " Examen du traite de Plutarque 
sur la musique " (pp. 27-44), " Observations 
touchant l'histoire litteraire du dialogue de Plu- 
tarque sur la musique " (pp. 44-62), and "Analyse 
du dialogue de Plutarque sur la musique " (pp. 
80-96) ; in the thirteenth volume (1740) " Suite 
des remarques " (pp. 173-316) ; in the fifteenth 
(1743) " Suite " (pp. 293-394) ; in the seven- 
teenth (1751) " Fin " (pp. 31-60) and " Disserta- 
tion-epilogue, comparaison de la theorie de l'an- 
cienne musique et de la moderne " (pp. 61-126). 

J. H. Bromby. The He pi Mqvcrucrjs of Plutarch Trans- 
lated. Chiswick, 1822. 

Plutarchi de Musica edidit Ricardus Volkmann. Leip- 
zig, 1856. 

Plutarch ilber die Musik von Rud. Westphal. Breslau, 
1865. 

350 



ON MUSIC 

Plutarque De la Musique Ile/u fiovercKr}?. Edition 
critique et explicative par Henri Weil et Th. 
Reinach. Paris, 1900. 

G. Skjerne, Plutarks Dialog om Musiken. Copen- 
hagen, 1909. 

N. N. Tomasov, Plutarkh O Muzyka. Perevod s 
grec'eskogo N. N. Tomasova . . . Petersburg, 
1922. 

F. Lasserre, Plutarque, De la musique. Olten and 
Lausanne, 1954. 
The work is not mentioned in the Catalogue of 

Lamprias. 



351 



riEPI M0Y2IKH2 1 
1131 

B 1 . f H jjl€V Qcoklcovos rod ^prjorov yvvrj KOOpLOV 
avrrjs eXeyev elvai rd <&(jjkl<x>vos ot partly rfpLara' 
iycb 8e Koofjiov e/xov ov p,6vov Ihiov dXXd yap kclI 

KOLVOV TLQV OLK€LtOV TTOLVTCjOV rjyOV/JLai TTjV TOV €pLOV 

SlSclokolXov 7T€pl Xoyovs GTTovhrjv. Ttbv p,ev yap 
GTparrjywv ra em^aveorara Karopdd)pLara gcjott)- 
pias \x6vov oiSafxev rrjs £k tcov irapa)(pr\pLa klvSvvojv 
atria yiyvop^eva 2, arparicoraLS oXiyois 77 iroXec pad 
rj Kav ivi rivi €0v€L, fieXrtovs S 5 ovSapbd>g iroiovvra 
C ovre tovs OTpariujTas oiire tovs TroXLras, aXX ovoe 
tovs opboedvels' rrjv §€ iraioeLav , ovalav 3 €VOai- 
p,ovLas ovoav alriav r evfiov Xlas, ov pbovov iorlv 
evpelv r) olkco t) TToXei rj €0V€i \pr\o lpst)v , olXXol Travrl 
rco ro)V avdpccHTajv yevet. oacp ovv rj e/c iraiheias 
uxfreXeia pLeli^atv rravrajv orpaTrjyrjpLaTOjv, rooovrcp 
Kal rj rrepl avrrjs pLvrjpLrj d£ia O7rov8rjs. 

2. Tfj yovv 4, Sevrepa twv Kpovewv rjpbepa 6 KaX6s 
*0v7)oiKpaTr)s €776 rrjv ioriaoiv avSpas piovoiKfjs 

1 7T€pl JJL0VGLK7JS M lar (^[cpt] lx[oVOLK7Js]) a '. TrXoVTOLpXOV 7T€pl 

fjLovotKrjs V 2 W a(rov 7rA.)N vq ; [?rept] /u,oi>[cji]k-[')Js'] 7rAo[u]- 
rdpx[ov] M 2ar ; M 2r V 1 omit. 2 ycyvofxeva] yivopueva aN. 

3 ovolav] ovoias M. 4 yovv {yovv W)] ovv vq. 

° This was his appellation : cf. Life of Phocion, chap. x. 4 
(746 c) ; Dio Chrysostom, lxxiii. 7 ; Aelian, V.H. iii. 47, 
xii. 43. 

352 



ON MUSIC 

1. The wife of Phocion the Good a said that his feats 
of generalship were her adornment b ; for my part I 
hold that not only my own adornment, but that of all 
my friends as well, is my preceptor's zeal for letters. 
For we know that whereas the most brilliant successes 
of generals end merely in preserving from momentary 
dangers a few soldiers, a single city, or at most a single 
nation, but in no wise make better men of those 
soldiers or citizens or yet of those fellow nationals, 
culture, on the other hand, which is the substance of 
felicity and the source of good counsel, can be found 
useful not merely to a family or a city or a nation, but 
to the whole human race. The greater benefit con- 
ferred by culture in comparison with all military 
exploits is the measure of the value that belongs to 
the discussion of it. 

2. Thus on the second day of the Saturnalia d the 
noble Onesicrates had invited to his feast men learned 

b Cf. Life of Phocion, chap. xix. 4 (750 d) and Stobaeus, 
vol. iii, p. 267. 4-7 (ed. Hense). 

c The points that " culture " leads to good counsel and is 
better than military victory were taken from the praise of 
rhetoric : cf. the preface to the Rhetoric to Alexander. For 
logoi (discourse) as responsible for the greatest blessings cf. 
Isocrates, Or. iii. 5, and for their relation to good counsel, 
Or. iii. 8. 

d The festival of the Saturnalia at this time lasted seven 
days, beginning December 17. 

vol. xiv N S5S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1131) €7TLGT7J/J,OVaS 7TCLpaK€KAr}K€L' TjOCLV Se UtOTrjpLXOS 

1 AAe^avopevs /cat Avolas els res 1 rcov ovvra^iv nap' 

avrov AapbfSavovrcov . errel Se rd vop,tC,6p,eva avvre- 

D reAeuro, " to p,ev at'rloy ttjs dvOpconov tptovrjs," 

€(f)r), " 6 Ti TTOT ioTIV, CO eTCUpOL, VVV €7Tl£rjT€LV ov 

ov/jlttotikov, axoArjs yap vrjtfiaAicoTepas Setrat TO 

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cbs Teyvrjs eTTiTTjheiov ypapLpLaoc 2 ras <j>covds SrjpLL- 
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vois ttjv evapdpov tfrcovrjv deovs' tovto 8e /cat 
"OpLTjpos incur) puijvaTo iv ols Aeyei 

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kclAov deiSovres Trourjova, Kovpoi 'A^atcov, 
pueAirovTes eKaepyov 6 Se tfipeva Teprrer aKovcov. 

dye hrj, to fiovatKrjs diaocorai, ris irptoTOS eyprjoaTO 
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oapLevtov dAAd fj/rjv /cat els rrooa /cat els rtVa 4 XPV" 

1 tis] vq omit. 
2 ypdiA/xacri van Herwerden : ypa/xjials* 

3 eraipovs (-at- V ac )] irepovs V W ac . 
4 nooa kcll els riva] Tiva kcli els irooa V. 

a Cf. Donatus, Ars Gram., p. 367. 5 (vol. iv, ed. Keil) and 
Marius Victorinus, Ars Gram., p. 4. 13 (vol. vi, ed. Keil). 
The definition is Stoic : cf. Diogenes Laert. vii. 55. 

b Phone (" vocal utterance ") can also mean " word," 

354, 



ON MUSIC, 1131 

in music ; these were Soterichus of Alexandria and 
Lysias, one of his pensioners. At the close of the 
customary ceremonies Onesicrates said : " To in- 
quire at present into the theory of the human voice, 
my friends, would be out of place in a convivial gather- 
ing, as that problem requires leisure of a soberer 
kind. But since the best grammarians define vocal 
sound as ' beaten air perceptible to hearing,' a and it 
happens that we yesterday inquired into grammar as 
an art adapted to the production of vocal utterances b 
and their preservation for recollection by means of 
letters, let us consider what second science, coming 
after grammar, is concerned with the voice. I take it 
to be music. For it is an act of piety and a principal 
concern of man to sing hymns to the gods, who have 
granted articulate speech d to him alone ; Homer e 
moreover adverted to this in the words : 

The Greeks made supplication to the god 
All day in beauteous song, chanting a paean, 
Hymning the Archer ; he, well pleased, gave ear. 

Come then, you votaries of music, and recall to the 
company who first employed it, what inventions time 
has brought to its advancement, and who among 
those who practised the science of music have won 
renown f ; and tell further the number and nature of 

spoken or written. " Words " consist of " letters " (or 
sounds), and our author speaks of this composition of words 
as a production of them from their elements. 

c In Greek grammar " letters " are not only the signs of 
the alphabet but the sounds that the signs represent. 

d Cf. Marius Victorinus, Ars Grammatical p. 4. 17-19 (vol. 
vi, ed. Keil), who divides " articulate voice " into that found 
in music and that found in ordinary speech. 

e Iliad, i. 472-474, cited again at 1146 c, infra. 

f These points are dealt with in the speech of Lysias, who 
mentions the first two at 1135 d, infra. 

S55 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1131) (jl/jlov to eTTLTrjSeviJLa." ravra puev elnev 6 SlSol- 
okclAos . 
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fjid^ei. 

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1 Trp6pXr)fia] to TTpo^Xrjfxa W. 

2 7ra/>' avTols nos : clvtois M V a W lss aN vq ; avrrjs W*. 

3 rrapa^uopas M a (-as W) aN v 1 q : 7Tapa<f>opds V v 2? . 

4 tovto] tovtcov N. 

5 iv piovGLKrj M 2 (-77 from -rj) V a W aN vq : oiaXapajjavTcuv 
iv pi. Bergk ; Trepl ixovoiktjs Voss ; evooKifjLrjGdvTtov iv ft. Weil 
and Reinach ; evpr^pudTcov iv /x. Lasserre. 

G ttjv Ktdo.pcohiav /cat] W omits. 

7 dpL(f)LOva V c a c W aN vq : dpL(j>Lvoa M ; a/jL<f>ia)va V ac (?) 
a ac (?). 

8 glkvo>vl a c N 2 : glkvcjvl M V a ac W aN 1 ; glkvovl vq. 

9 Ta? re] ras r€ ras V. 

356 



ON MUSIC, 1131-1132 

the ends that the cultivation of music serves." ° Thus 
spoke our preceptor. 

3. " Many," Lysias replied, " have sought to 
answer the question you raise, most excellent Onesi- 
crates. Thus most of the Platonists b and the best of 
the Peripatetics have devoted their efforts to the 
composition of treatises on ancient d music and its 
corruption in their own day ; furthermore, the most 
learned grammarians e and students of harmonics f 
have also devoted much study to the subject. Thus 
there is abundant lack of unison in the authorities. 

" Heracleides 9 in his Collection says that the first 
invention in music was that of singing to the cithara 
and of poetry thus sung, and that it was made by 
Amphion,^ son of Zeus and Antiope, evidently taught 
by his sire. This is attested by the document pre- 
served at Sicyon,* which provided Heracleides with 
the names of the priestesses at Argos, the composers, 
and the musicians. 

" In the same period furthermore (he says) Linus 
of Euboea composed dirges, Anthes of Anthedon in 

a These points are dealt with by Soterichus. 

b The Platonists cited are Plato himself and Heracleides. 

c The Peripatetics cited are Aristotle, Heracleides, and 
Aristoxenus. 

d "Ancient " music was the music that prevailed before 
the innovations of Las us and the rest. 

c The grammarians cited are Glaucus, Dionysius [ambus, 
Anticleides, Istrus, and Alexander Polyhistor. 

f The " harmonicists " are cited at 1134 o ; cf. also 1113 

E-F. 

' Frag. 157 (ed. Wehrli). 

h Cf. Pliny, N.H. vii. 204; Pausanias, ix. 5. 8; Suda, 
s.v. ; and Julian, Ep. 30 (vol. i. 2, p. 57 Bidez ; p. 36 Ridez- 
Cumont). 

* Die sikyonlsche AnagrapJie, Frag. 1, ed. Jacoby {Frag, 
d. gr. Hist, iii » 550, p. 53(>). 

357 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1132) e£ ' AvOrjSovos rrjs HoLOjrtas vpbvovs Kal Tluepov 1 
rov €K Uteplas ra irepl ras Movaas TroLrjpuara' 
dAAd Kal OtAdpbpiajva 2 rov AeA(f)6v Arjrovs re 
rrAdvas* Kal 'AprepuSov Kal ' AttoAAojvos yeveuiv 
SrjAcoaai ev pueAeoi Kal xopovs npajrov rrepl to ev 
/\eA(f)OLS lepov (jrrjaai- Qdpbvpiv Se to yevos Op&Ka* 

B evcfxjjvorepov Kal epLpueAeorepov irdvnov ra>v rore 
qoai, d)S rats' Movaais Kara rovs Trotrjras els 
dycova Karaorrjvai' TTeTroirjKevai Se rovrov loropel- 
rai Ttrdvojv rrpos tovs deovs rroAepbov yeyovevai Se 
Kal ArjpioSoKov KepKvpalov rraAaiov puovoiKov, ov 
TreTTOLrjKevat 'IAiou re TTOpQy]oiv Kal * A<\>poSlrj)s Kal 
1 H(f)aiOTOv ydpiov dAAd purjv Kal Qrjpuov ^WaKTjoiov 
voarov rwv 5 drro Tpoias pier 'Ayapuepuvovos dva- 
KopuiadevTWV Troirjorac. 

Ov AeAvpuevrjv Se elvat rtbv TrpoeiprjpLevajv rrjv 

C rtbv Tronipbdrajp Ae^iv Kal pberpov ovk k\ovoav y dAAd 
KaOdrrep* Tirrjoi^opov re Kal ru>v dp^aioov pueAo- 
rrotcbv, ot rroiovvres enrj rovrois pLeArj 7repieri6eoav 
Kal yap rov YepiravSpov e<f)Tj KtdapcoSiKcbv 7 Trocrjrrjv 
ovra vop,a)v Kara vopuov eKaorov rocs eireoiv rols 
eavrov Kal rots 'Opurjpov pueArj irepiriOevra aSetv ev 
tols dycooiv diro(f)rjvai Se rovrov Aeyei ovopuara 
TTpajTov rols KiOapwSiKols vopuots' opuoLQJS Se Tep- 
TrdvSptp KAovaV, rov irptorov avorrjadpuevov rovs 
avAcoStKovs vopuovs Kal rd 7rpocr6Sia y eAeyetajv re 

1 irlepov V : rnipiov. 

2 <f>iXdfjiijLcova] QiXdfjLjjLova Hatzidakis (cf. Hesiod, Frag. Ill 
[ed. Rzach] and Rhesus, 916). 

3 TrXdvas added by Weil and R,einach. 

4 dp&Ka V a aN vq : OpaiKa M ; dpaKa (from dpaKa) /cat W c . 

5 t&v] rov M V. 

6 After KaQd-nep Wyttenbach would add rj 9 Ziegler rrjv. 

358 



ON MUSIC, 1132 

Boeotia hymns, and Pierus of Pieria his poems on the 
Muses ; again Philammon of Delphi gave an account 
in music of the wanderings of Leto and of the birth 
of Artemis and Apollo, and was the first to set up 
choruses a at the Delphic shrine ; Thamyris, a native 
of Thrace, sang with the most beautiful and melodious 
voice of all men of that time, so that (as the poets b 
say) he engaged in a contest with the Muses, and it 
is recorded that he composed a War of the Titans With 
the Gods ; and there was also an ancient musician, 
Demodocus of Corcyra, who composed a Sack of Troy c 
and a Marriage of Aphrodite and Hephaestus d ; and 
again Phemius of Ithaca composed a Return of the 
Heroes who set out for home from Troy with Aga- 
memnon. 6 

In the compositions of these men the words were 
not in free rhythms and lacking in metre, but were 
like those of Stesichorus and the ancient lyric poets, 
who composed dactylic hexameters and set them to 
music ; thus he says that Terpander also, who was a 
composer of nomes sung to the cithara, set to music 
in each nome hexameters f of his own and Homer's 
and sang them in the contests ; and he asserts that 
Terpander was the first to give names ° to nomes 
sung to the cithara, and that like Terpander Clonas, 
the first to construct nomes and processionals sung to 

" Cf. Pherecydes, Frag. 120, cd. Jacoby (Frag. d. 'jr. 
Hist., Erster Teil [Neudruck, 1957], p. 92). * 

b Cf. Homer, Iliad, ii. 594-600. 

c Cf. Homer, Odyssey, viii. 499-520. 

'' Cf. Homer, Odyssey, viii. 266-366. 

e Cf. Homer, Odyssey, i. 325-327. 

1 Cf. Proclus, Chresi. 45 (320 b 5-6, ed. Bekker). 

9 Cf. 1132 d, infra. 



Ki6apcohiK(x)v\ -6v M N. 



359 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1132) K.ai errwv iroi7]T r qv yeyovevac, kgI IT oAvpLinjorov rov 

¥±o\o(fjd)VlOV TOV pb€rd TOVTOV yei'OfieVOV TOLS CLVTols 

^priaaadai Troirjp.aG'iv. 

D 4. 01 Se vofJLOL ol Kara tovtovs, dyaOe *Ovrjo~i- 
KpareSy rjcrav 1 'Atto^to?, "EAeyoc, Ko> p,a px^og, 
YiypivLoWy K.7]rricov re koll /\elos 2 koI T pifJLeXrjs 3 * 
vorepco §€ XP® V( V KCLL T & HoAv/jLvdoTLCL* KaAovpLeva 
e^evpeOr]. ol Se rrjs KLdapcoScas vo\lol irporepov ov b 
TToAAcp xpovu) t6l)v avAtphiKtov KareardOrjaav eirl 
TepnavSpov eKelvos yovv 6 tovs KiOapcohiKovs irpo- 
repos 1 cbvopLaoev, Holojtlov tivol kcli AloAlov Tpo- 
yalov re koX '0£vv KrjiTLOJvd re kcll Teprrdvhpeiov 
kclAcov, dAAd pjrjv koll TerpaolStov. Trerrolr^rai Se 
toj TeprravSpa) koI Trpooipaa Ki6apco8u<d ev eireoiv. 

E on Se ol KidapcoStKol vojjlol ol irdAai e£ enwv ovv- 
LarapTO TifAoOeos eSrjAooaev rovs yovv 8 rrpcorovs 
v6fjLovs ev eireoi Siap,iyvvujv SLOvpafM^iKrjv Aefty 
fjSev, ottojs pur] evdvs <f>avrj TrapavopL-ojv el? ttjv dp- 
Xalav pbovGiKTjV. 

1 Before rjoav we delete avXcohiKol. 

2 re /cat §€ios is corrupt. Tevehcos Amyot ; re /cat Av8ios 
Salmasius ; re /cat Aetos Wyttenbach ; re /cat Tetos Burette ; 
*E7Tt/c7J8€tos Westphal. 3 rpt/xeA?;?] TptfjLeprjs Xylander. 

4 rLoAvfjivdoTLa] UoAv(jLvqaT€(,a van Herwerden (ttoAvilv Lot ia s). 

5 ov added by Weil and Reinach. 8 yovv] ovv vq. 
7 7rpoT€pos] TTporepov e. 8 youi>] ovv vq. 

a " Reserved," " stored away," or " secret." Cf. Pollux, 
iv. 65, 79, and 1133 a, infra. 

6 " Songs " or " laments." 

c " Of the leader of the revels." 

d " Cable." Burette compares Hesychius axoivivqv <j>ojvrjv 
rr]v GaQpav Kalhieppojyvlav " Reedy voice : feeble and broken." 
Perhaps we should rather compare Pindar's axoivoreveid r 
aotSd hiOvpayifiajv (frag. 86 [ed. Turyn], 70 b [ed. Snell]) " rope- 
like song of the dithyramb," that is, loose and long. 
360 



ON MUSIC, 1132 

the auloi, was a poet of elegiac and hexameter verse, 
and that Polymnestus of Colophon, who flourished 
later, employed the same metres. 

4. " The nomes in the style of these last, most ex- 
cellent Onesicrates, were as follows : the Apothetos, a 
Elegoi, & Comarchios, Schoinion/ Cepion, 6 . . . / 
and Trimeles g ; later the so-called Polymnestian 
pieces were invented. The nomes sung to the ci- 
thara were established in Terpander 's days, some- 
what earlier than those sung to the auloi ; thus he gave 
names to these before the others had received their 
names , calling them h Boeotian and Aeolian, Trochaios * 
and Oxys/ Cepion and Terpandrean, and further- 
more Tetraoidios. fc Terpander also composed pre- 
ludes sung to the cithara in hexameters. That the 
ancient nomes sung to the cithara were in hexameters 
was shown by Timotheus, as he sang his first nomes 
in heroic hexameters, with a mixture of the diction 
of the dithyramb, in order not to display at the start 
any violation of the laws of ancient music. 

e Named from Cepion or Capion, disciple of Terpander 
(cf 1133 c, infra). 

f The Greek is corrupt. 

9 " Three-membered " or " three-tuned." 

h Cf Pollux, iv. 65 : " The nomes of Terpander named 
from his national origin are the Aeolian and Boeotian ; those 
named from the rhythms are the Orthios <from the orthios 

foot , i iL* l_L> and the Trochaios ; those from the mode are the 

Oxys and Tetraoidios ; and those from himself and his 
favourite are the Terpandrean and Capion." Suda, s.v. 6p- 
Olos vofios says there were seven nomes for singing to the 
cithara. Under the next entry he mentions the Orthios and 
the Trochaios, named by Terpander from the rhythm ; and 
under the entry vo/xos he mentions further the Tetradios and 
Oxys. 

* " Trochaic." 

* " High-Pitched." k " Four-Songed." 

361 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1132) ' "KoiKev 8e Kara rrjv Teyyj]v rrjv Ki9apa)SiKrjv 
6 TepnavSpos hievrivo)(evai' ra flu^ta yap rerpaKis 
e£fjs veviKTjKcbs avayeypairrai. Kai rots xpovols °£ 
a(j)6hpa rraXaios eoriv "npeofivrepov yovv 1 avrov 
'Ap)(iA6)(ov a7TO(f)atvet TXav kos 6 e£ 'IraXias ev 
GvyypdpupuarL rivi rep 2 nepl rcov apyaioov TrotrjTOJV re 

KCLL fJLOVGLKOJV (f)rjOLV y<lp CLVTOV 0€VT€pOV yeveodai 

F p,era rovs irpwrovs Troirjoavras avXcooiav . 

5. " 'AXe^avSpos S' ev rfj Hvvayojyfj rcov irepl 
QpvyLas Kpov/juara "0Avp,7rov e<f>rj irp&TOv els rovs 

f/ EAA^]/a? KOfJLLGOLL, €TL &€ KCU TOVS 'YoCLlOVS Ad- 

ktvXovs' "Yayviv Se npcJorov avXrjoai, elra rov rov- 
rov vlov MapGvav, elra "OXv/jlttov e^rjXajKevai Se 
rov Tepiravopov ' Opaj pov puev ra eirrj, 'Op(f>eojs oe 
ra fJLeXrj. 6 oe 'Opcfrevs ovSeva fyaiverai pLepupurj- 
fxevos, ovSets yap ttoj yeyevrjro el p/q ol ra>v avXcp- 
hiKtov z TroirjTai' rovrots Se Acar' ovOev to 'Op<f>LKov 
lloo epyov eoiKev. KAo^a? he 6 rcov avXooSiKcbv vopuajv 

1 yovv] ovv v c q ; 8e v ac . 2 ro>J Post would omit. 

3 avXcohiKcbv] avAr)TiKa>v Westphal ; avXcoSiKcov voixoov Bergk. 

a Frag. 2, ed. M tiller (Frag. Hist. Graec, vol. ii, p. 23). 

6 E. Killer (Rhein. Mm. xli [1886 J, p. 408) finds this sen- 
tence difficult, since Orpheus (a singer to the cithara) must 
have come after the first composers of music sung to the auloi. 
He therefore supposes that our author has confused Ter- 
pander and Orpheus. 

c Frag. 77, ed. Jacoby (Frag. d. gr. Hist., iii a 273, p. 
109). 

d Cf. Clement, Strom, i. 16. 76. 6 (vol. ii, p. 50. 1, ed. 
Stahlin) ; Anecd. Oxon. (ed. Cramer), vol. iv, p. 400. 19 ; 
Suda 9 s.v. "OXv/jlttos 2 (vol. iii, p. 522. 22, ed. Adler). 

e For Hyagnis as inventor of the auloi or of the auletic art 
cf. Dioscorides in the Anth. Pal. ix. 340 ; the Marmor Parium, 
19 (which gives the date 1505/4 b.c.) ; and Nonnus, Dion. 
xli. 374. Aristoxenus (Frag. 78, ed. Wehrli), the Marmor 

362 



ON MUSIC, 1132-1133 

" Terpander appears to have been eminent as an 
executant in singing to the cithara ; thus it is recorded 
that he won four successive victories at the Pythian 
games. He belongs furthermore to the remotest 
times ; thus Glaucus a of Italy in a book On the 
Ancient Poets and Musicians makes him older than 
Archilochus, saying that Terpander came second 
after the first composers of music sung to the auloi. 6 

5. " Alexander c in his Notices on Phrygia said that 
Olympus first brought the music of the auloi to the 
Greeks,** but that the Idaean Dactyls did so too ; that 
Hyagnis e was the first to play the auloi and that his 
son Marsyas f came next, and after him Olympus ; 
and that 9 Terpander took as his models the hexa- 
meters of Homer and the music of Orpheus. But 
Orpheus evidently imitated no predecessor, as there 
were none as yet, 71 unless it was composers of songs 
for the auloi,* and Orpheus' work resembles theirs 
in no way. Clonas, the composer of nomes sung to 

Parium, and the Anonymus Bellermanni, 28 speak of Hyag- 
nis as inventor of the Phrygian harmonia. 

f For Marsyas as son of Hyagnis cf. Antipater or Philip- 
pus in the Anth. Pal, ix. 266 ; Apuleius, Flor. 3 ; Nonnus, 
Dion. x. 233 ; the scholiast on Aeschylus, Persians, 939 
Wecklein, 940 Dahnhardt [or Jacoby, Frag. d. gr. Hist., 
Domitius Kallistratos, iii b 433. 3, p. 334] ; the scholiast on 
the Platonic Minos, 318 b ; and Tzetzes, Chil. i. 15. 

9 This clause, as Westphal saw, comes not from Alexander 
but from Glaucus. Hiller (Rhein. Mus. xli [1886], pp. 403 f.) 
supposes that our author, using a compiler who cited Alex- 
ander, has been careless with the syntax. 

h The source takes Orpheus to be the first singer to the 
cithara (cf. Orphicorum Frag., Testim. 56-58, ed. Kern), 
taught by Apollo. Thus there were no preceding singers to 
the cithara for him to imitate. 

1 Hiller (Rhein. Mas. xli [1886], p. 406) supposes that the 
source here (Glaucus) is thinking of Ardalus (cf 1133 a, 
infra). 

36S 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1133) TroirjTrjs, 6 oXiyo) varepov TeprrdvSpov yevofjuevos , 
cos [A€v 'ApKaSes AeyovGcv, Teyedrrjs rjv, cos Se 
T&oicotol, Qrjfialos. pbera Se TepnavSpov /cat 
KXovav ^Apx^Xo^os TrapaSiSorat yeveadai. clXXol 
Se Ttves tcov Gvyypa(j)€cov "ApSaAov (f)aoi Tpoi^rjVLOV 
uporepov KAom ttjv avXcoSiKTjv ovoTTjoaoOai piov- 
oav yeyovevai Se Kal UoXvpuvr^oTov iroiy)Tr\v y Me- 
Xtjtos rod KoXoc/xjjvlov vlov, ov YloXvpLvrjoTLOVS 1 
vo/jlovs iroirjoai. irepl Se WXova 2 otl tov *Atto- 
Oerov vojulov kcll H^oivicova ireTTOLrjKcos €lt) fJLvrjfJLO- 
vevovoiv ol dvay eypacf)OTes . rod Se YloXv/JLvqarov 

B KOLl HtvSapOS KCLL 'AXfCpLCLV OL TCOV fJieXcOV TTOLTJTal 

ifJbvrjfjLovevaav. Tcvas Se tcov vo/jlcov tcov klOclpcoSl- 

KCOV TCOV VTTO TepTrdvSpOV 7r€7TOL7]fM€VC0V ^iXapi- 

ficovd 3 cf>aot tov dpxalov tov AeXcf)6v GVUTTjOaodaL. 

6. " To 8' b'Xov rj jjuev /card TepiravSpov KiOap- 
coSia kcll ^XP 1 T V S QpvviSos rjXLKLas iravTeXdos 
djrXrj tis ovoa SieTeXei' ov yap e£rjv to iraXatov 
ovtcos noieloOai Tas KidaptoSias cos vvv ovSe //-era- 
cfrepeiv Tas dpfJiovlas koX tovs pvdpLovs' ev yap tols 

VOfjLOLS CKaGTCp Sl€TTJpOVV T7]V OLKCLaV TaGlV , SlO 

C Kal TavTTjv €TTC0W\xlav elypv vop,oi yap Trpoorj' 
yopevdrjaav erreiSrj ovk e£rjv Trapafirjvai to 4 /ca#' 
ercaoTOV vevofMOpuevov elSos Trjs Taoecos. rd yap 

1 HoXvfjLvrjOTiovs 110s (aXXovs T€ Kal HoAvfjLvqcrTLOvs Pohlenz) : 
iroXvfXvrjGrov re Kal TroXv/jLvrjoTrjv. 

2 kXovS. V a \V a v 2 q : KXoval M ; KXovdv N ; kXcovS v 1 . 

3 (^LXd/jLfjiajva M V a W c aN vq : (jitXdfjLova W ac : (f>iXd(itxova 
J s and Hatzidakis. 

364 



ON MUSIC, 1138 

the auloi who lived shortly after Terpander, was 
according to the Arcadians a man of Tegea, according 
to the Boeotians, of Thebes. After Terpander and 
Clonas Archilochus is reported to have lived. But 
certain other writers say that Ardalus a of Troezen 
elaborated songs to the auloi before Clonas, and that 
there was also a poet Polymnestus, son of Meles of 
Colophon, who composed Polymnestian nomes. Of 
Clonas our authors record that he composed in the 
Apothetos nome and the Schoinion. & Polymnestus 
is mentioned by the lyric poets Pindar c and Alcman/* 
And some of the nomes for singing to the cithara in 
which Terpander composed were, it is said, first 
developed by the ancient Philammon of Delphi/ 

6. " In short, the style of singing to the cithara 
instituted by Terpander continued to be quite simple 
down to the period of Phrynis / ; for in ancient times 
it was not permitted to sing to the cithara as at 
present or to modulate from one harmony or rhythm 
to another, for in each nome the tuning appropriate 
to it was observed throughout. This indeed is the 
reason for the name : they were called nomoi 9 be- 
cause it was forbidden to violate the accepted tuning 
that prevailed in each. Thus the performers, after 

a Cf Pliny, N.H. vii. 204 : " cum tibiis canere voce Troe- 
zenius Ardalus [Harduinus ; dardanus mss.] instituit." 

b Cf. Pollux, iv. 79 : "To Clonas again belong the nomes 
for the auloi Apothetos and Schoinion." 

c Frag. 218 (ed. Turyn), 188 (ed. Snell). 

d Frag. 145 (Page, Poet. Mel. Gr. p. 79). 

e Cf. Suda, s.v. Tep7Tavhpos. 

f Cf. Pollux, iv. 66 and Proclus, Chrest. 46. 

a That is, " nomes " or " laws " : cf. Plato, Laws, vii, 799 
e 10 — 800 a 7 and Aristides Quintilianus, De Musiea, ii. 6 
(p. 67, ed. Meibom ; p. 59, ed. Winnington-Ingram). 

4 to added by von Arnim. 5 rr\s\ vq omit. 

365 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1133) rrpos tovs deovs cos ftovXovTai a<f)OOLcooap,€voi y i£e- 
fiaivov ev9vs erri re rrjv 'Ojjurjpov /cat tcov dXXcov 

TTOLTjGlV. OTjXoV §€ TOVT €OTLV StCt TCOV TepndvSpOV 

7rpooijJutov. €7TOLrjdrj Se /cat to crj^/xa ttjs KiSdpas 
TTpoorov Kara K.rj7TLCova tov TeprrdvSpov fJbaOrjTTJVy 
€kXtJ9tj Se 'Acrta? Std to Kexprjodai tovs AeofSLovs 
avTjj KidapcpSovs, rrpos ttj 'Acrta kcltoikovvtols . 
D TeXevTalov Se YlepcKXeiTov (f)aoi Kt8apcoS6v VLKrjaat 
iv Aa/ceSat/xo^t Kdpreta, 1 to yevos ovtol Aea^tov 
tovtov Se TeXevTTjoavTos TeXos Xafielv Aea^cois 2 to 
ovve^s ttjs /caret ttjv KiOapcoSiav Sia8o)(rjs. eVtot 
Se TrXavoopievoi vopbi^ovai /card tov clvtov 3 xpovov 
TepTTdvSpco 'IrnrcovaKTa yeyovevac </>atVerat Se 
'Yttitoovclktos /cat TlepLKXetTOS tov rrpeofivTepos. 
7. " 'E77-€t Se tovs avXcpStKovs vopuovs /cat KiOap- 

CpSlKOVS OflOV TOVS apXCLLOVS €p,7T€(f)aVLKapL€V , jJb€Ta- 

Prjoopbeda irrl fiovovs* tovs avXrjTiKovs . 5 Aeyerat 
yap tov 7rpo€LprjiJL€Vov "OXvpLnov, avXrjTTjv ovtcl tcov 6 
e/c Qpvyias, ttoitjoou vojjlov clvXtjtlkov els 'ArroXXcova 
tov KaXovpuevov TVoXvK€<f>aXov elvai Se tov "OXvpu- 

1 Kapveia a 2 S : Kapvta M V a 1 W (-a a)N v x q ; Kapvia v 2 . 

2 AecrjSiois] Xeaptovs v. 

3 avrov added by D 2 and Wyttenbach. 

4 [jlovovs] Ziegler would omit. 

5 avArjTiKovs Volkmann : glvAcoSikovs. 

6 rwv] rov M W ; q ac omits. 

a Cf. Duris of Samos, Frag. 81, ed. Jacoby (Frag. d. gr. 
Hist, ii a 76, p. 156). 

b Jerome assigns Hipponax to the twenty-third Olympiad 
(688-685 b.c.) [see Eusebius, Chron. ii. 85, ed. Schoene : 
" Hipponax notissimus redditur "]. Athenaeus (xiv, 635 e-f) 
puts a victory of Terpander's in the twenty-sixth Olympiad. 

366 



ON MUSIC, 1133 

discharging their duty to the gods (which they did 
as they pleased), passed at once to the poetry of 
Homer and the rest. This can be seen in Terpander's 
preludes. Again, the cithara was first given its form 
in the days of Cepion, Terpander's disciple. It was 
called the Asian cithara because it was used by the 
Lesbian singers to the cithara, who live near Asia. a 
The series closes, they say, with the singer to the 
cithara Pericleitus, a native of Lesbos, who won a 
victory at the Carneian festival in Sparta. With his 
death the unbroken succession of singers to the cithara 
at Lesbos came to an end. Some authorities b mis- 
takenly suppose Hipponax to be a contemporary of 
Terpander. But even Pericleitus is evidently more 
ancient than Hipponax. 

7. " Now that I have given an account of the 
ancient nomes sung to the auloi as well as of those 
sung to the cithara, I shall pass to instrumental music 
for the auloi alone. The aforesaid Olympus, an 
aulete from Phrygia, is said to have composed a nome 
for the auloi in honour of Apollo, the so-called Many- 
Headed norne.^ (This Olympus the authorities say 

c Cf. 1132 f, supra. 

d Cf. Pindar, Pythian Odes, xii : Athena invents the art 
of playing the auloi in order to imitate the lament of the 
Gorgons for Medusa, and calls her music the nome of many 
heads. Pindar hints at the reason for the name in the second 
strophe : Perseus heard the lament poured forth from under 
the heads of maidens and of dreadful serpents. Nonnus 
(Dionysiaca, xl. 231) puts the number of serpents involved at 
two hundred, no doubt counting a hundred for each Gorgon. 
The scholiasts on Pindar, Pythian Odes, xii. 39a (vol. ii, p. 
268. 10-15, ed. Drachmann) present two other explanations : 
the chorus that followed the lead of the aulete consisted of 
fifty men ; and that " heads " are preludes ; hence the song 
(which Olympus is said to have invented) consisted of many 
preludes. 

367 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1133) «v / i » ~ i > < - / >r^ ' 

^ 770V toutov cpaoiv eva tujv ano rov npcjorov KJAvpL- 

7rot» to£ 2 Mapovov, tt err oil) kotos els rovs deovs rovs 

vofjbovs' ovros yap TratStKa yevopievos WLapovov koll 

ttjv avArjaiv puadtov nap* avrov, rovs vo/jlovs rovs 

apfJbovtKovs e^rjveyKev els rrjv 'EAAaSa ols vvv 

Xpcovrai ol "EAArjves ev rats eoprals rcov decov. 

aAAot Se ¥Lpdrr]Tos elvai (f>aoiv rov 3 HoAvKecf>aAov 

vofjuov, yevopbevov puaOrjrov 'OAv jjlttov 6 Se Uparivas 

'OAvfATrov (f>7]olv elvai rod veojrepov rov vopuov 

TOVTOV. 

Top Se KaAovpievov * Appbdnov vopiov Aeyerai 
rroirjoai 6 7Tp<jjros "OAvfJLTTOS, 6 M.apovov pLaOrjrijs . 4 
F rov Se yiapovav <f>aoi rives M.daarjv KaAeZoOai, ol 
S' ov> aAAa ^Aapovav , elvai S' avrov 'YdyviSos* 
vlov rod 7rpd)Tov evpovros ttjv avArjriKrjv reyyrp>. 
on 8' earlv 'QAvpbrrov 6 ' Appear ios vojjlos €K rrjs 
TAavKov dvaypa<f>rjs rrjs vnep ra>v apyaiojv Troiiqrcbv 
p,ddoi dv tls, Kai en yvotrj ore Hrrjoixopos 6 
'Ifjuepalos 7 ovre *Qp<f>ea ovre TeprravSpov ovre 'Ap- 
)(lAo)(ov 8 ovre QaArjrav epupajoaro , aAA' "OAvpnrov, 
Xp7]adpi,evos rep l Appuaria) vopucp Kal rep Kara Sd- 
ktvAov elSei, o 9 rives et; 'Opdlov vopuov (f>aolv elvai. 

1 eva ra>v (eva ra>v M, with a stroke over -a indicating a 
proper name)] eva rov W ; evarov Weil and Reinach. 

2 Meziriacus would add /juadrjrov rov after rov. But cf. 
'ApiororeArjs 6 HAdrcovos at 1139 b, infra. 

3 rov] vq omit. 

4 6 TTp. "OA. o M. /jl.] rov irpcorov oAvparov rov p,. puaOrjrrjv vq. 

5 ov (ov W)] ovk ? Bern. 

6 vdyvihos a aN : vayvibov M V v*q ; vayvtSov W ; va- 
yvloos v 2 '. 

7 IfjuepaZos aN vq : et- M W ; ei- V ; el- a. 

8 dpxtAoxov Z u v 2m (as Meziriacus had conjectured) : dvrl- 
Xoxov. 

9 o a (as Amyot had conjectured) : ol (at ol v ac ). 

368 



ON MUSIC, 1133 

was a descendant of the elder Olympus, the disciple 
of Marsyas, who had composed his nomes in honour 
of the gods ; for this elder Olympus, who had been 
the favourite of Marsyas, from whom he learned to 
play the auloi, brought to Greece the enharmonic 
nomes which the Greeks now perform at the festivals 
of the gods.) Others say that the Many-Headed 
nome is a composition of Crates, a who had been a 
disciple of Olympus ; Pratinas b however asserts that 
this nome belongs to Olympus the younger. 

" The so-called Chariot nome c is said to have been 
composed by the elder Olympus, the disciple of 
Marsyas. Some say that Marsyas was called Masses, 
others deny this and say his name was Marsyas, and 
that he was son of Hyagnis, who first invented the 
art of playing the auloi. That the Chariot nome is 
by Olympus one might gather from Glaucus' d account 
of the ancient poets, and one might further discover 
that Stesichorus of Himera imitated not Orpheus or 
Terpander or Archilochus or Thaletas, but Olympus, 
and made use of the Chariot nome and the dactylic 
rhythm, which some assert is derived from the Orthios 

° Otherwise unknown. 

b Frag. 6 (Page, Poet. Mel. Gr., p. 369). 

c The grammarians explain the name in a number of ways, 
as might be expected when there were no words accompany- 
ing the music. Thus the Etymologicum Magnum (145. 25-47) 
and the scholia on Euripides, Orestes, 1384 present the follow- 
ing explanations of the name : (1) from the chariot which 
dragged the body of Hector ; (2) from the chariot conveying 
the Mother of the Gods ; (3) from the chariot conveying 
brides at weddings ; (4) from a Boeotian Harmateus, who 
composed it as a nome of Athena ; (5) from the strong and 
rapid motion of a chariot ; (6) from the high thin sound of 
chariot axles ; (7) from the Phrygian word for " war " ; 
(8) from the music played when the stallion covered the mare. 

d Frag. 3, ed. Miiller {Frag. Hist. Graec. ii, p. 23). 

369 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1133) d'AAot oe Tives vtto Mvgojv evprjoOou tovtov tov 
vojjlov yeyovevai yap Tivas dpxatovs avXrjras Mv- 
aovs. 

8. " Kat aAAos" §' eoTtv dpxoZos vopios koXov- 
1134 puevos Y^paoias, ov (f>rjotv * lTr7Tcbva£ MlpLveppi,ov 

avXfjaou. ev dpxfj ydp eXeyela pLep,eXoTroL7]p,eva oi 
avXcpSol fjSov tovto Se StjXol rj rtov Tlavadrjvalojv 1 
ypa(f>rj rj irepl tov pbovotKov dy&vos. yeyove oe /cat 
Zla/caSa9 2 *Apyelos iroirjTrjs pueXcov re /cat iXeyeitov 
/jb€pL€Xo7TOLrjpi€va>v' 6 o' clvtos /cat avXr)Tr]s* dyados 
/cat rd Ilu^ta rpls vevLKTjKcbs dvayeypairrai. tov- 
tov /cat Yiivhapos pbvr)pLov€V€L' tovojv yovv* Tpca>v 
ovtojv /caret YloXvpuvrjoTOV /cat Zla/caoav, tov t€ 
Aojpiov 5 /cat Qpvytov /cat AvSlov, ev eKaoTtp tcjov 
B elprjpuevojv tovojv OTpocf)7]v e TroafjoavTa (f>aocv tov 
Za/caoav StSa^at aSecv tov x°P ov AtopLGTi puev ttjv 
irpcoTiqv, QpvyioTi he ttjv SevTepav, AvSlotl Se ttjv 
TpiTTjv KaXelodai Se TptpbeXrj 7 tov vo/xov tovtov Sta 
ttjv fieTaftoXrjv . ev Se tjj ev s Hlkvlovl 9 dvaypa<f)fj 
Trj rrepl to)v TroirjTWv KAovas 1 evpeTrjs dvayeypaiTTai 
tov T ptpueXovs 10 vopbov. 

9. 'H fJL€V OVV 7Tp<JL)T7] KaTaOTaOlS TCOV TT€pl TTJV 

fjLovoLKTjv ev Trj UnapTy , TepiravSpov KaTaaTrjoav- 

1 Uavadrjvaicov] 7ra/>' ddrjvalcov V a. 
2 Ea/caSas] o oat<d8as G ; Ha/caSa? o Westphal. 

3 avXrjTrjs Wyttenbach : ttou-jttjs. 

4 yovv] ovv vq. 5 AcopLov] SwpUvo M. 

6 OTpo(j>rjv Diibner : OTpo<f>dv (-av N a ac ). 

7 TpipieXrj Burette : Tpifieprj (-7) M ; -et W). 

8 eV] N omits. 9 glkvwvl cA 2 S : oikvcdvi (kvojvi V). 

10 TpLpueAovs Burette : rpipLtpovs. 

a " Of the fig-branch." Cf. Hesychius, s.v. : " a nome 
played on the auloi over the human scapegoats that are es- 
corted out, whipped with fig-branches and fig-leaves." 

370 



ON MUSIC, 1133-1134 

nome. Others say that this nome was a Mysian in- 
vention, there having been certain ancient auletes 
who were Mysians. 

8. " There is another ancient nome called Cradias, a 
which Hipponax b says Mimnermus performed on the 
auloi (for at first singers to the auloi sang elegiac 
verse set to music : this is shown by the inscription 
concerning the musical contest at the Panathenaic 
festival). Sacadas of Argos was also a composer of 
music and of elegiac verse set to music ; he was 
furthermore an excellent aulete and is recorded to 
have won three victories at the Pythian games. d 
Pindar e also mentions him. Thus, there being 
three systems of tuning in the time of Polymnestus 
and Sacadas, the Dorian, the Phrygian, and the 
Lydian, they say that Sacadas composed a strophe 
in each, and taught the chorus to sing the first in 
the Dorian, the second in the Phrygian, and the 
third in the Lydian ; and that this nome was called 
Trimeles f because of the modulation. It is recorded 
however in the document at Sicyon g that deals with 
the poets that Clonas invented the Trimeles nome. 

9. "Now music was first organized 71 at Sparta, 
under the direction of Terpander ; for its second 

b Frag. 96 (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. (?r. 4 , vol. ii, p. 492) ; Frag. 
153 (ed. Masson). 

c Cf. Life of Pericles, chap. xiii. 11 (160 b), Aristotle, Con- 
stitution of Athens , 60. 1 ; see also J. A. Davison, " Notes 
on the Panathenaea," J.H.S. lxxviii (1958), pp. 39-40. 

d Cf. Pausanias, x. 7. 4. 

e Frag. 72 (ed. Turyn), 269 (ed. Snell). 

I " Three-membered " or " three-aired." 

Die sikyonische Anagraphe, Frag. 2, ed. Jacoby (Frag, 
d. gr. Hist, iii b 550, p. 536). 

h Cf. Plato, Laws, vii, 802 a, who speaks of the " estab- 
lishing " (KaBLaraadai) of songs and dances. 

371 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1134) tos, yeyevryrai- rfjs Se 1 Sevrepas ©aA^Tas" 2 re d 
TopTVvios Kal E>6v6SajJbos 6 ¥s.v9r}pios Kal Sevd- 

KpLTOS* 6 AoKpOS KOLL YloXvpbVTJOTOS 6 KoAoc/xjOVLOS 

C Kal Zla/caSas" d 'Apyeros* /xaAcara airiav eypvoiv 
A)yep,6ves yeveoOai' tovtojv yap elu7]yrjoafJieva)v ra 4 
77€pt ras" Tvp,vo7TCu$cas ras eV AaKeSatfiovi Xeyerat 
KaraaradrjvaL /cat 5 ra 77-e/oi ra? 'ATroSe^eis 1 Ta? eV 
'Ap/caSia ra)j/ 6 re eV "Apyet ra 'EvSu/xdVia /caAow- 
pueva. rjaav Se ol p,ev 7 irepl %a\j)Tav re koll Ee^d- 
SajJLOv kclL ZevoKpirov 8 7roL7jTal TTaiavuoVy ol Se irepl 
TloAvpLvrjoTOV rcx)V opdiojv KaAovjJbevajv , ol Se irepl 
Z]a/caSay eXeyeiajv. aXXoi Se ILevoSapuov viropyy)- 
pbdrojv TTOirjrrjv yeyovevai <f>aol Kal ov 7Taidvcov, 
Kadd7Tep Tlparivas' Kal avrov Se rod ZevoSapuov 
aTTOfjLvrjfjboveveraL aop,a 6 eoriv <j>avep<jbs vnopx^jfJia. 

J) Key^prjTai Se ra> yevei rrjs iroirjoeajs ravrrjs Kal II iv- 
Sapos. 6 Se rraidv on Sia<f>opdv eyei irpos rd virop- 
yy][iaTa rd YlivSdpov 7TOL7]jubara SrjXd)oec yeypacfyev 
yap Kal Ylaiavas Kal f lVop^/xara. 

10. " Kat YloXvp,vrjOTOS Se avXcoSiKOvs vopiovs 
€7TOL7]oev et oe rep Upuux) vofxcp ev rr\ pieAoTroua 
Key^ptyrai, KaQdirep ol dppioviKoi cfiaoiv, ovk e'xofiev 11 
aKpifitds elrrelv ov yap elpr\Kaoiv ol apyaioL n irepl 
tovtov. Kal irepl ©aA^ra Se rod Y^prjTos el naidvcov 
yeyevrjrai 7rotrjrrjs dfJL^LO^rjreLr at. FXavKos yap 
pier * ApxlXoyov <f>doKO)v yeyevrjoOai QaXtfrav, 
pbepapLrjodaL p,ev 12 avrov cf>r]oi rd *Apx<<X6)(ov fieXrj, 

1 Se] a 1 omits ; a 2 inserts it after Seurepas-. 

2 QaXyras] daXeras V 1 . 

3 Eeyo/cptro?] ^evoKporos a. 4 ra] tcls a 1 q ar . 

5 Kal 7T 2 fi, (as Hiller had conjectured) : the rest omit. 

6 Tcov] tov M. 7 pcev] a omits. 

8 EevoKpirov] gevoKpaTov N. 9 el Volkmann : eV. 

872 



ON MUSIC, 1134 

organization Thaletas of Gortyn, Xenodamus of 
Cythera, Xenocritus of Locri, Polymnestus of Colo- 
phon, and Sacadas of Argos are said to have been 
chiefly responsible, since it was at their suggestion 
that the festival of the Gymnopaediae at Lacedaemon 
was instituted and so too the Apodeixeis a in Arcadia 
and the so-called Endymatia b at Argos. Thaletas, 
Xenodamus, and Xenocritus were composers of 
paeans, Polymnestus of so-called orthian pieces, and 
Sacadas of elegiacs. Others, like Pratinas, c assert 
that Xenodamus was a composer not of paeans but of 
hyporchemes d ; and of Xenodamus himself a song is 
preserved which is evidently a hyporcheme. Pindar 
too employed this kind of composition. That there 
is a difference between the paean and the hyporcheme 
will be seen from Pindar's works, as he composed 
both Paeans e and Hyporchemes J 

10. " Polymnestus too composed nomes sung to the 
auloi, but whether he employed the Orthios nome in 
his music, as the writers on harmonics assert, we are 
unable to say definitely, as on this point the ancients 
are silent. Whether Thaletas of Crete composed 
paeans is also disputed. Thus Glaucus, 5 ' who asserts 
that Thaletas is later than Archilochus, says that he 
imitated Archilochus' music, but expanded it to 

° That is, " Exhibitions " ; otherwise unknown. 

6 That is, " Festival of Apparelling " ; otherwise u. 
known. 

c Frag. 6 (Page, Poet. Mel. Gr. 9 No. 713). 

d A choral song accompanied by dancing and pantomimic 
action. • Frags. 41-81 (ed. Turyn), 52-70 (ed. Snell). 

' Frags. 117-125 (ed. Turyn), 105-117 (ed. Snell). 

9 Frag. 4, ed. Miiller (Frag. Hist. Graec. ii, p. 24). 

10 eV added by Volkmann. 
11 Afte xo/acv Volkmann omits 8\ 12 ph] N omits. 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1134) €7tl Se to fJUOLKporepov eKrelvai, Kal iraiojva 1 Kal 
E KprjTLKov pvOjjiov €69 tt)v /JLeXorrouav ivdelvac 2 ' oh 
'Apx&oxov fjbrj KexprjcrOcu, aAA' ovSe 'OpcfxEa ovSe 
TeprravSpov e/c yap rrjs 'QXvparov avXrjcreajs @aA^- 
rav Saolv e^etpydaOai ravra Kal S6£oll 7TOLTjTrjv 
dyadov yeyovevat. 3 irepl Se ZevoKpiTov,* os rjv to 
yevos €K AoKpojv tcov iv *lraXla y a/JL^LOp-qTeiTaL el 
Traiavcov TTOirjrrjs yeyovcv rjpojiKcov yap virodeaeajv 
F TrpaypLara ixovocov 7roirjTrjv yeyovevai <f>aalv avrov 
hio Kai rivas SiOvpdpbftovs KaXecv avrov ra? vnode- 
G€is' TTpeafivTepov Se rfj rjXiKia (fyrjcrlv 6 TXavKos 
QaXrjrav llevoKpurov 5 yeyovevai. 

11. " "OXvfJLTTOS Se, C09 ^ApiGTO^eiOS (f>7]CFlVy VTTO- 

Xap,f$av€Tai vrro tcov [aovolkcov tov ivappbovcov yi- 
vovs evperrjs yeyevrjaBac ra ydp irpo eKetvov rrdvra 
Sidrova Kal xpojpbaTLKa rjv. vitovoovglv Se rrjv 
evpeaiv Tocavrrjv rivd yevecrdac avaoTpetf>6p,evov 
rov "OXv/jl7tov iv rep Siarovto Kal oiafiifid^ovra* to 

JJbeXoS 7ToXXdf<LS €7TL TT)V StaTOVOV TTapVTTaTTjV , TOT€ 

jjbev drro rrjs TTapapLeorjs, tots Se drro rrjs fjueorjs, 

Kal irapafiaivovTa rrjv Sidrovov Xt\av6v, /cara/xa- 

delv to KaXXos tov tjOovs, Kal ovtojs to £k ttjs 

1135 dvaXoyias ovveorrjKos ovarrjfjLa Oavpudaavra Kal 

1 iraiaiva (IlaiaJva van Santen) : fidpcova (Kapcova V). 

2 ivdelvat, (-rjvai V W)] €K0elvai vq. 

3 yeyoveWt] ea>cu V. 

4 gcvoKpirov V 2 : -oKpdrov M V r? a 1 , 3 N ; -OKpdrovs V ar? 
a 2 A a v 1 q ; -ovKpdrov W. 

5 gevoKpiTov Basle edition of 1542 : gevoKpdrov (-ovs vq). 

6 Sia/3ij8a£ovTa (-/fyjS- v)] ipL^d^ovra N. 

7 rore . . . rore aN E : rore . . . tote. 

a The paean is w^v>- or -^^^, the cretic -^-. Com- 
374 



ON MUSIC, 1131-1135 

greater length, and also used in his music the paeonic 
and cretic rhythms, a which Archilochus had not em- 
ployed, nor had Orpheus either or Terpander ; for 
Thaletas is said to have developed them from the 
aulos music of Olympus and so gained the reputation 
of an excellent composer. With regard to Xenocri- 
tus, a Locrian from Italy, it is disputed whether he 
composed paeans, for it is said that he composed on 
heroic themes involving action. Hence some call his 
pieces dithyrambs. Glaucus b says that Thaletas was 
older than Xenocritus. 

11. " Olympus, as Aristoxenus c says, is supposed 
by the musical experts to have been the inventor of 
the enharmonic genus, all music before him having 
been diatonic or chromatic. They suspect that the 
discovery took place as follows. Olympus was moving 
about in the diatonic genus , d frequently making the 
melody pass to the diatonic parhypate, sometimes 
from the paramese and sometimes from the mese ; 
and when he skipped the diatonic lichanos he saw the 
beauty of the resulting character, and hence, con- 
ceiving an admiration for the set of intervals con- 
structed on the analogy of this omission, adopted it, 

mentators have suggested that by paeon may here be meant 
the paeon epibatos (- - - - -) and by cretic the ditrochee. 
b Frag. 4, ed. M idler (Frag. Hist. Graec. ii, p. 2±). 
Frag. 83 (ed. Wehrli) ; Testim. 98 (ed. da Rios). 
(/ The following diagram may be helpful (the asterisk indi- 
cates that the note is raised a quarter of a tone) : 

diatonic Olympus enharmonic 

b = paramese b = paramese b = paramese 

a = mese a = mese a = mese 

G = lichanos 

F = parhypate F = parhypate F = lichanos 

E = hypate E = hypate E* = parhypate 

E = hypate 

375 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1135) d^rroSe^dpLevov, ev tovtco rroieZv errl tov Aojpiov 
tovov ovt€ yap tcqv tov Slcltovov ISlojv ovre tcov 
tov xpcbfJUCLTOS aTTTeaOat, dXXa ov&e ra>v rrjs dp- 
p,ovlas. elvai §' avra> rd Trpcora tcov evapfiovicov 
roiavra. Tideaoiv yap tovtoov rrpooTov to ottov- 
Seiov, 1 ev to ovSepula toov Siaipeoeoov to lSlov epu- 
<f)aivei, el jxtj tis els tov ovvTovooTepov O7rov8eia- 
Gjjudv fiXeTrcov 2 avTO tovto SiaTOVOV elvai aTreiKaaei? 
SfjAov S' otl /cat ipevSos heal eKpueXes Orjoei 6 tolovto 
TiOeis' ifjevSos fiev* otl oieoei eAarroV eoTi tovov 
tov rrepl tov rjyefiova Keip,ivov, eKfieXes Se otl Kal 
B €L tls ev ttj tov Tovialov Svvdp,ei TldeiTj TO TOV 
avvTovcoTepov oirovheiaop,ov lSlov ovpLpaivoi dv 8vo 
e£rjs TiOeodai SiTova, 5 to p,ev dovvOeTov, to Se 
ovvOeTOV to yap ev Tals piecrais evappuoviov ttvkvov 
& vvv \poovTai ov SoKeZ tov ttoltjtov elvai. pdSiov 
S' eoTt ovviSeZv edv tls dpx^ZKtos tlvos avXovvTOS 

1 to oTTovSeiov k (as Westphal had conjectured ; tov ottov- 
Setaa/xoy Volkmann) : tov oirovheiov (tov oirovheiojv q ac ). 

2 pAeTrcov] aiTofiXiTTtov vq 1 . 

3 aTT€u<do€L V 1 W ac N ae vq : -0-17. 

4 pev] v omits. 

5 biTova Meziriacus : htaTova. 

a That is, the tetrachord aGFE is diatonic ; the tetrachord 
aFE*E is enharmonic, and Olympus used the trichord aFE. 
The three notes of this trichord are common to the diatonic, 
the enharmonic, and the tonic chromatic tetrachords. Clement 
(Strom, i. 16. 76. 5 [vol. ii, p. 49. 18 f., ed. Stahlin]) credits 
Agnis [that is, Hyagnis] with the discovery of the trichord 
and the diatonic harmonia. 

b R. P. Winnington-Ingram (" The Spondeion Scale," 
Class. Quart, xxii [1928], p. 85) takes the higher Spondeion 
to be EF ABC* (the asterisk indicates that the note is raised 
a quarter of a tone) ; this we express as EFabc*. 

376 



ON MUSIC, 1135 

composing in this set of intervals in the Dorian mode, 
for it had no connection with the distinctive features 
of the diatonic or of the chromatic genus, or indeed 
of those of the enharmonic. a Such were his first en- 
harmonic compositions. Thus, of these the author- 
ities put the Spondeion b first, in which none of the 
three genera shows its peculiar nature. (That is, if 
you do not, with the upper notes c of the Spondeion 
in mind, conjecture that just this portion is diatonic. 
But it is clear that such an identification is both false 
and contrary to the rules of music : false, because 
the Spondeion interval is less by a diesis than the 
tone situated next to the leading note d ; and con- 
trary to the rules because if you set down the peculiar 
nature of the upper notes of the Spondeion as residing 
in the effect of the interval of a tone, the result would 
be the placing in sequence of two ditones, the one 
simple, the other compound. 6 ) For the enharmonic 
pycnon f which is now in use in the middle tetrachord 
is not held to be the work of the composer. It is easy 
to see this if you hear a performer play the auloi in 

c That is, abc*. 

d The leading note is the mese, a ; the tone next to it, a-b. 
But the next interval in the upper part of the Spondeion 
scale is not b-c# (a full tone like a-b) but b-c*, a quarter of a 
tone less. 

e The two ditones are F-a and a-c#. The first is simple, 
as no note of the scale intervenes ; the second compound, as 
b intervenes between a and c#. Aristoxenus (Harm. iii. 64) 
forbids two consecutive ditones. 

f The tetrachord, comprising the interval of a fourth, is 
divided into three intervals, bounded by four notes. When 
the two smaller intervals added together are smaller than the 
remaining interval they are called a pyknon or " condensa- 
tion." In an enharmonic pycnon the two intervals are of a 
quarter-tone each, and the remaining interval is a ditone. 
In the middle tetrachord the enharmonic pycnon is EE*F. 

377 



PLUTARCH'S M0RAL1A 

(1135) aKovar]' aavvOerov 1 yap (SovXerai elvai Kal to ev 
rals fxeoais tjjjutoviov. 

Ta piev ovv TrptoTa rayv evappboviuiv roiavra* 
vorepov he to r)p,iToviov hirjpedrj ev re tols Avolois 
koI ev rols Qpvyiois. <])aiv€Tai §' "OAvfnros av£r)- 
gos fJLovGLKrjv TO) dyeviiTov tl Kal dyvoovpuevov vtto 
tcqv epLTrpooOev eloayayelv 3 Kal dpxriyos yeveoOai 
rrjs ^EAArfviKrjs Kal KaArjs jjlovolktjs. 

12. " "Ecrrt 8e tls Kal rrepl to)v pvOpicbv 2 Aoyos" 
C yevrj yap riva Kal ecSrj pvdficov Trpooe£evpe9r], dAAa 

fJLTJV Kal fJbzAoTTO ild)V T€ Kal pvOjJLOTTOLlWV * 7TpOT€pa 

jjiev ydp rj Tepirdvopov Kaivoro^da koXov riva rpo- 
ttov els ttjv /JiovGtKrjv eluryyayev HoAvfJLV7]<JTOS Se 
pberd tov TepnavSpetov rpoirov Kaivto* ixprjaaro, 
Kal avTos jxevToi i)(6[JL€Vos tov koAov tvttov, djoav- 
ra>9 Se Kal QaArjTas Kal HaKaSas' Kal yap ovtoi 
Kara ye Tas pvOpiOTTodas Katvoi, 6 ovk eK^aivovTes 

fieVTOL 7 TOV KoAoV TVTTOV. 6GTTL 06 Kal, 8 TLS 'AA~ 

KfiaviKTj KaivoTOpua Kat 2jTrjoi)(opeios, /cat avTai 
1 dovvderov] ovvQerov W. 2 rcov pvdfiwv] tov pvdfMOV W. 

3 fX€Xo7TOUO)V T€ Kal pvO/JLOTTOUCOV a C?2?SS N (N Olllit.S Te) : /X€- 

Xottoicov re Kal pvOfioiroicbv. 4 Kaivco Westphal : Kal to. 

5 (hoavrcos (oj? avrtos a)] avrtos M (V with a space of 2-3 
letters [indicating a paragraph or a lacuna] preceding). 

G Kaivoi Weil and Reinach : IkovoI. 

1 \xivToi Wyttenbach : /zei\ 8 Kal added by Ziegler. 

9 Kal aN v c or 2 : the rest omit. 10 avral Diibner : avrai. 

a The ditone (F-a) in the middle tetrachord (E-a) is ad- 
mittedly incomposite ; and even the semitone (E-F), when 
treated in the old-fashioned way, has no intervening note. 
It is possible to translate " for even in the middle tetrachord 
the semitone ..." with Weil and Reinach. This implies 
that in the upper tetrachord the semitone is a fortiori incom- 
posite. In that case the author does not have abc* in mind 
as part of the scale he is talking about. 

378 



ON MUSIC, 1135 

the old-fashioned way ; for even the semitone in the 
middle tetrachord is intended to be incomposite. a 

" Such then were the earliest enharmonic composi- 
tions. Later the semitone was divided in both the 
Lydian and the Phrygian pieces. Olympus, it is 
seen, advanced music by introducing what had never 
been done before and what was unknown to his pre- 
decessors, and thus became the founder of music of 
the Hellenic and lofty style. 

12. " There is also something to say about the 
rhythms, for certain additional genera and species 
of rhythm were invented, and indeed of melodic and 
rhythmic composition. Thus the originality of Ter- 
pander b had preceded the rest in introducing a 
certain noble style into music ; while Polymnestus, 
after the introduction of the Terpandrian style, em- 
ployed a new one, although he too remained faithful 
to the lofty manner ; so too did Thaletas c and Saca- 
das, these also, at least in the conduct of rhythm, 
being innovators, but nevertheless not departing 
from the lofty manner. There is also some originality 
in Alcman and again in Stesichorus, d though their 

b See 1140 f, infra. 

c Cf. 1134 e, supra. Strabo too (x. 480) speaks of his use 
of cretic rhythms. 

d The following metres are termed Stesichorean : 
-v^^-^^-^-^-^ Marius Plotius Sacerdos (Keil, Gramm. 

Lat. vi. 543. 26). 
-^w-^w-w^-ww-w Servius (Keil, iv. 461. 2). 
-ws^-w^-wv-'-ww-wvy-ww-w Servius (Keil, iv. 46 1 . 20). 
ww-v^-w^-ww-^w-ww- Servius (Keil, iv. 462. 20). 

- ^ yj ^ — Schol. Pind. 01. 3 (vol. i, p. 105. 4, 12, ed. 

Drachmann). 
Even more are called Alcmanic : 
-v^w-v^^-w Servius (Keil, Gramm. Lat. iv. 460. 21). 
-w^-ww-wv*- Hephaestion, p. 376. 11 (ed. Consbruch) ; 
Servius (Keil, iv. 460. 25). 

379 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1135) ovk d(f>€(jTO)(jai rov koXov. ¥±pei;os Se Kal lifio- 
deos Kal <$>iX6t;evos koX ol Kara ravrrjv rrjv 1 rjAiKtav 
yeyovores rrorqral ^opriKwrepoi Kal <f)iXoKaivoi ye- 
yovaoiv, to 2 (fyiXdvOpcorrov Kal OepbanKov vvv dvo- 
D /JLa^ofievov Siw^avres 3 -' rrjv yap dXiyoxopSiav* Kal 
ttjv drrXori-jra Kal Gep^vorrjra rrjs puovGLKrjs Travre- 
Xws dpx^KTjv elvai Gvpi^e^rfKev. 

13. " ElprjKcbs Kara ovvapuv Trepi re rrjs rrpcoriqs 

fAOVGlKfjS Kal TCOV TTpCOTOV evpOVTOJV aVTTjV, Kal VTTO 

tlvojv Kara xpovovs rats rrpOGe^evpeGeGiv rjv^rjrai, 5 
KaraTravaa) rov Xoyov Kal wapaSwGa) rw iraipcp 
Y^u)Tr\piya) , eGirovoaKOTi ov puovov rrepl {jlovgiktjv 
dXXa Kal Trepl ttjv dXXrjv eyKVKXtov iraioeiav Pixels 
yap puaXXov yeipovpyiKtp pbepei ttjs plovglktjs eyye- 
yvp,vaGp,eda." 6 p,ev KvGtas ravr elircbv Kare- 
iravGe rov Xoyov. 
E 14. iLwrripi^os oe puera rovrov cSSe ttojs ecfrrj' 
" virep Gepivov emrrjSev pharos i<al 6eois pidXtGra 
dpeGKovros, (hyaOe ^OvrjGLKpares, rovs Xoyovs rjpuas 
TTpoerpiijjo.) iroirjGaGOai. d,iro8e)( l J ' ac A 6 ^ °$ v T V$ 
GweGeojs rov oioaGKaXov AvGiav, dXXa prqv Kal rrjs 

1 Kara ravrrju ttjv (or Kara ttjv avrrjv) VVyttenbach : /car* 
aurrjv ttju (kcit' avrovs [from -aVj ttjv W ac ). 

2 to Ziegler : top. 

3 hia>£avT€s\ €K$ia>£avT€s aN d (in an omission in N 1 ). 

4 oXiyoxophiav Valgulius : SAiyoxopelav (-xopiav V ac a 1 '- 88 
[iav SS.] N c ; ~xpO€iav N ae ). 5 7)v£7)tcu] r)v£r]VTai V 1 . 



- v> \J — v^v-/ — V-/V 



^ Marius Victorinus (Keil, vi. 73. 12, 115. 
9) ; Servius (Keil, iv. 460. 30). 
-^w-w^-^w-wv-,- Servius (Keil, iv. 460. 32). 
-^w--w-^w-^w-^w-^w- Servius (Keil, iv. 461. 17). 

380 



ON MUSIC, 1135 

innovations do not desert the noble manner. But 
Crexus, Timotheiis, Philoxenus, and the composers 
of that time had a streak of coarseness in them and 
were fond of novelty, aiming at the manner that is 
now called " popular " and " mercenary " a ; thus re- 
striction to a few notes and simplicity and grandeur 
in music has come to be quite obsolete. 

13. " Now that I have spoken, so far as my ability 
allows, of the earliest music and its first inventors 
and told who advanced it in the course of time by 
new inventions, I shall end my talk and make way 
for my friend Soterichus, a student not only of music 
but of the whole round of the liberal arts ; my own 
training has rather been in the part of music that 
deals with execution." With this Lysias concluded 
his speech. 

14. After him Soterichus spoke to this effect : "It 
is a high pursuit and one especially pleasing to the 
gods, most excellent Onesicrates, that you have 
urged us to discuss. Now I commend our preceptor 
Lysias for his discernment, & and again for the powers 

^-v^-^-w-w- Marius Plotius Sacerdos (Keil, vi. 521. 1); 
Servius (Keil, iv. 458. 16). 
-v^-^-w Servius (Keil, iv. 459. 17). 

/-w Servius (Keil, iv. 462. 10). 
>-^^-^ Servius (Keil, iv. 462. 18). 
/-wv^-w^-wv^- Servius (Keil, iv. 462 
24). 
v^--^--^--^-- Servius (Keil, iv. 464. 25). 

° " Thematikon " ; see Pollux, iii. 153 : " The so-called 
sacred contests, where the prize was only a crown, were called 
' stephanitai ' and ' phyllinai ' (crown and leaf contests) ; 
while the so-called ' thematikoi ' [literally ' deposit '] contests 
were for money," and compare I. During in Gnomon, xxvii 
(1955), p. 435. 

6 Lysias has the right taste in music ; cf. oweroi at 1142 
e, infra, 

381 



- V^ \J — \~/ \~/ - 



v> ^ - 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1135) pLvrjfjLrjs TfS 1 irreSet^aTO rrepi re rovs evperas rrjs 

J 1 7TpCOTrjS fAOVGLKrjS Kal 7T€pl TOVS T(X TOiaVTCL GVyy€" 

ypa(f)6ras' viro/JLvrjaa) Se rovd' on rots dvayeypapu- 
fjuevois iiovois 2 KaraKoXovdrjaas 7T€7Toirjrai rrjv 
Sel^LP. rjpuels S' ovk avOpamov riva TrapeXdfiopLev 
evperrjv tcov ttjs puovoiKrjs dyaQcov, dXXa top ird- 
oats* dperals KeKoopLrjpuevov Oeov ' AttoXXcjovcl . ov* 
yap Mapovov rj 'OXv/jLttov rj ^'dyvtoos a>s rive? 
olovtcu evprjpua 6 avXos, \16vr) ok Ktddpa 'AttoXXlo- 
vo$, dXXd Kal avXrjTiKrjs Kal KiOapioTLKrjs evperrjs 
6 deos. SrjXov 8e €K twv ^opcov Kal tcdv Ovglwv 
as rrpoorjyov puerd avXcov rco deep KaOdrrep aAAoi re 
1136 Kal 'AA/cacos* eV tivi tcov vpuvajv loropel. Kal rj 
ev A^Aco Se 5 rod dydXpiaros avrov d(f)lopvois e^ec 
iv puev rfj Se^ca to^ov, iv Se rfj dpiorepa Xaptras 1 , 
tcov rrjs pbovoiKrjs opydvojv iKaoriqv tl e^ovoav rj 
puev yap Xvpav Kparel, rj Se avXovs, rj S' iv puiooj 
7rpooK€ipL€vr}v Q e^€t rep OTOfiaTL ovptyya' OTl S' 
ovros ovk efjbds 6 Xoyos y 'AvtlkX€i8t]s 8 Kal "\orpos 
iv rals ^Km(/)av€Lats rrepl tovtojv dfirjyrjoavTO. 
ovtojs Se iraXaiov ioTi to dfilSpvfia tovto ware 9 
rovs ipyaoapuevovs avTO tcov 10 Kad* 'Hpa/cAea Me- 
porrojv c/>aolv etvai. dXXa pur)v Kal Tip KaTaKopui- 

l^OVTL TTaiSl TTjV TefJLTTLKTJV 8d(f)Vr)V els &eX</)ovs 

1 ^S" M : ty. 2 fxovots] jxovov aN. 

3 irdoais M V : rraoais rat?. 

4 ov Stegmann : ovre. 5 Se] re vq. 

6 7TpOOK€lfJL€Vr)V TlimebllS : 7rpOK€lfjL€V7)V (K€lfl€V7)V N 1 ). 

7 After Xoyos Ziegler supposes a lacuna. But cf. a similar 
construction with on at 1139 b. 

8 'yVvTt/cAetS^s" Valesius ('A^n/oWS^? iv rots AtjXiclkois Weil 
and Reinach) : avriKXfjs (-tjs a). 

9 wore a 2 aN s : the rest omit. 

10 avro tcov (-to tow a c in an erasure)] oltto tojv vq. 

382 



ON MUSIC, 1135-1136 

of memory that he has displayed with regard to the 
inventors of the earliest music and to those who have 
written on the theme ; but I will remind you that in 
this display he has confined himself to written ac- 
counts. I, on the other hand, have learned that the 
inventor of the blessings of music was not a man, but 
one graced with every virtue, the god Apollo. For 
the aulos is no invention of Marsyas or Olympus or 
Hyagnis, as some suppose a (only the cithara being 
Apollo's), but the god is the inventor both of the 
music of the aulos and of that of the cithara. This is 
shown by the choruses and sacrifices presented to the 
god to the accompaniment of auloi, as is recorded 
among others by Alcaeus b in one of his hymns. Again, 
the statue of the god at Delos holds a bow in the right 
hand, and Graces in the left, c each of them holding a 
musical instrument, one a lyre, another auloi, and 
the one in the middle has pipes of Pan at her lips. 
That this is no tale of my own devising d is shown by 
what is told of this by Anticleides e and by Istrus in 
his Epiphanies/ So ancient is the statue that it is 
said to be the work of the Meropes of Heracles' time. 
Again, the boy who fetches the laurel from Tempe 

a Cf 1133 f, supra. 

b Frag. 3 (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr* iii, p. 147) ; Frag. 307 
(Lobel and Page, Poet. Lesb. Frag., p. 259). 

c Cf. Pausanias, ix. 35. 3, with Frazer's commentary. 
d An echo of Euripides' Melanippe (Nauck, Trag. Graec. 
Frag., Eur. 484. 1) : 

kovk ifios 6 fJivOos dXXa rrjs firjrpos irdpa 
" Not mine the tale, but told me by my mother." 
e Frag. 14, ed. Jacoby (Frag. d. gr. Hist, ii b 140, p. 802). 
/ Frag. 52, ed. Jacoby (Frag. d. gr. Hist, iii b 334, p. 
182). The full title was Epiphanies of Apollo ; cf. Harpo- 
cration, s.v. <j>apiiaKos and Photius, Lex., s.v. Tptrrvav. 

383 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1136) Trapo/Jbaprel clvAtjttJs' kcll ra e£ 'Yrrep^opecov Se 
B Upa fjuera clvAojv kcll ovpiyytov kcll KL0dpas els rrjv 
ArjAov <f)CLOL to ttclAcllov OTeAAeoOaL. clAAol Se kcll 
clvtov tov deov <J)Clglv clvAtjgcll, Kaddnep loTopel 6 
apLoros pueAcov 7TOLrjrrj§ 'AAk/jlclv' rj Se K.6pwva kcll 
StSa^&^ycu cf)7]GLV tov 'AttoAAco 1 V7T* 'AOrjvas avAelv. 
oefjuvrj ovv /cara ttolvtcl rj llovglktj, detov evprjLta 
cjvo a. 

15. " 'Ej)(prjGavTO S' avTrj ol ttclAcllol /cara ttjv 
a^lav, Loonep kcll tols clAAols eTrLTrjSevjJLCLGLV ttulglv 

OL Se VVV TCL GCLLVCL CLVT7JS 7TapaLT^G(XLL€VOL CLVTL Tl\s 
avSpLO&OVS €K€LVTjS KCLL 0€G7T€GLCLS KCLL 06OLS (f>LAl]S 

KCLTeay vlav kcll kcotlAtjV els tol OeaTpa elodyovoLV. 

TOLydpTOL iIAdVa>y €V TO) TpLTCp TTJS HoAtTCtaS" OVG~ 

C XepCLLVZL Tjj TOLCLVT7) LLOVGLKTJ' TTJV yOVV* AvSlOV CLp- 

LLOVLCLV 7TapCLLT€LTCLL, eVetS^ 6£eLCL KCLL e7TLTTjheLOS 

jrpos Oprjvov. fj 3 kcll ttjv TrpcoTTjv gvgtclglv clvttjs 
cj)CLOL OprjvcoSr] TLvd yeveoQcLL. "OAvllttov yap rrpcT)- 

TOV ' ApLGTO^eVOS €V TO) TTpCOTCp TT€pl LLOVGLKTJS €7TL 

Tcp UvdojVL <f>7)OLV iiTLKrjSeLOV clvAtjgcll AvSlgtl. 

eloLV S' OL MeAaVLTTTTLSrjV TOVTOV TOV LieAoVS CLp^CLL 
(j)CLGLV. HlvSapOS S' €V WcLLaOLV €7TL TOLS NtOj8^9* 
ydfJLOLS (f)TJGLV AvSlOV dpilOVLCLV TTptOTOV SiSa^ftf^at, 

d'AAoi Se Toprjfiov 5 irpGiTOv ttj 6 dpLLovia xptfaaodaL, 
Kaddirep Alovvglos 6 "IcLfifios loTopel. 

1 'AttoAAw] -oiva V ar ? AE W ac D (as at 1135 f, supra). 

2 yovv] ovv vq. 3 fj] rj M ; ^ V. 

4 rols Nid/fys] tols viofiois M ; rrjs viofirjs V c^A 1 a ac ? ; 
rots rrjs VLofirjs vq. 

5 Toprjpov] Toppypov Volkmann. 

6 rj]] ravrrj ttj Weil and Reinach. 

a Frag. 51 (Page, Poet. Mel. Gr., p. 49). 
b Frag. 15 (Page, Poet. Mel. Gr., p. 339). 
384 






ON MUSIC, 1136 

to Delphi is accompanied by an aulete, and it is said 
that the sacred objects sent by the Hyperboreans 
were in ancient times conducted to Delos to the 
music of auloi, of pipes of Pan, and of the cithara. 
Others say that the god himself played the auloi, as 
Alcman, a that admirable composer, records ; while 
Corinna b even says that Apollo was taught the auloi 
by Athena. Thus music is in every way a noble pur- 
suit, being an invention of the gods. 

15. "In their cultivation of music the ancients 
respected its dignity, as they did in all other pursuits ; 
while the moderns have rejected its graver parts, 
and instead of the music of former days, strong, in- 
spired, and dear to the gods, introduce into the 
theatres an effeminate twittering. Hence Plato in 
the third book of the Republic c shows distaste for 
such music ; thus he rejects the Lydian mode, since 
it is high-pitched and appropriate to lamentation. 
Indeed it is said to have been first composed as a 
dirge. For Aristoxenus in his first book On Music d 
says that Olympus was the first to perform on the 
auloi a lament for the Python in the Lydian mode ; 
while some say that Melanippides e originated this 
kind of composition. Pindar f says in his Paeans that 
the Lydian mode was first presented at the wedding 
of Niobe, while others, as Dionysius Iambus g re- 
cords, assert that Torebus was the first to use this 
mode. 

c QQg Y) g_ v g 

d Frag. 80 (ed. Wehrli) ; Testim. 105 (ed. Da Rios). 

e Frag. A 3 (ed. del Grande) ; cf. Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr.* 
iii, pp. 592 f. 

f Frag. 75 (ed. Turyn) ; cf. the note on Paean xiii (Frag. 
52 n.) in Snell's edition. 

9 A teacher of Aristophanes of Byzantium. 
vol. xiv o 385 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1136) 16. " Kat rj MifoAvSios" 8e rradr]TiKrj tls ioTiv, 
TpayqjSiais dp/juo^ovoa. ^ApiUTo^evos 84 cf>rjcnv 
D 2a7T^a> TTptorrp' 1 evpacrdcu* ttjv M.i^oXv8igt(, nap* 
fjs tovs rpaytoSoTToiovs fiaOeiv XafSovras yovv* 
avrrjv* itvE,€v£(u rfj AojpiOTi, inel rj fiev to fM^yoAo- 
Trpeircs Kal d^iajpiaTiKov djrohihojuLV, rj 8e to 
TradrjTiKov, fiefiiKTai 8e Sid tovtojv TpaycoSla. iv 
8e toXs laTopiKOLS ol dp/JboviKol 5 YIv6okX€l8t)v (f>aol G 
tov avXrjTrjv evpeTrjv olvttjs yeyovevat, avOis 7 8e 
AaparpoKXea tov *A6r)vcuov ovvi86vTa otl ovk £v- 
tolvOol €%€!, ttjv Sidt^ev^LV ottov o)(€8dv drravTes 
coovTOy aAA' €7Tt to 6£v, toiovtov clvttjs aTrepydoa- 

odat TO O^TJp^a olov TO (Z770 7TapafJL€07]S €TTL 8 VirdTTjV 
E VTTOLTCOV. dXXd fl7]V Kal TTJV 'ElTaV€LfJ,€Vr)V AvStOTl, 

7]7T€p 9 ivavTta rfj M.l£oXv8lgtl, TrapaTrXiqoiav ovoav 
Tjj 'IaSt, vtto AdpLcuvo$ evprjod at (f>aoi tov ^AOr)- 
vatov. 

17. " Tovtojv 8rj twv dp/JLovicbv tt)s puev Oprjvco- 

SlKTJS TIVOS OVOTjS, TTJS S' €KXeXvp,€V7]S , etKOTOJS 6 

YlXaTOJV 7rapaiTr)odiJL€vos aura? ttjv AojpiOTi d>g 

iroXepuKoZs dvSpdoiv Kal oujcfrpooiv appio^ovoav 

F elXero, ov pbd Ala dyvorjoas, <hs '' ApioTo^evos <fyr)ow 

1 7Tpa)Tr)v] npcorov V 1 . 2 evpaoOai] cvpaodat, M. 

3 yovv] ovv vq. 4 avrrjv Ziegler : olvtovs. 

5 ol apfjLoviKol nos : toIs apfxovLKols. 

6 faurl] fool Wyttenbach. 

7 au6\s Westphal : Avon?. 8 im] hrl ttjv vq. 

9 TJnep s and Wyttenbach : eiTrep. 

a Frag. 81 (ed. Wehrli) ; Testim. 106 (ed. Da Rios). 

b Frag. A 2 (ed. del Grande). 

c As we pass from the paramese (b) to the hypate hypaton 
(B) we find that the disjunction is between b and a, and that 
the remaining notes belong to two conjunct tetrachords, that 

386 






ON MUSIC, 1136 

16. " The Mixolydian mode is also emotional, and 
suited to tragedy. Aristoxenus a says that Sappho 
was the first to invent the Mixolydian and that the 
tragedians learned it from her ; thus when they took 
it over they combined it with the Dorian, since the 
Dorian produces the effect of grandeur and dignity, 
the other, that of passion, and tragedy is a blend of 
the two. In their historical accounts the writers on 
harmonics say that the inventor was Pythocleides 
the aulete, and that later Lamprocles b of Athens, 
observing that it does not have its disjunction at the 
point where nearly everyone had supposed, but at the 
upper part, shaped it to resemble the passage from 
the paramese to the hypate hypaton. c They say 
further that the lower-pitched Lydian, which is the 
opposite of the Mixolydian and similar to the Ionian, 
was invented by Damon of Athens. 

17. "As of these modes the one is of a plaintive 
sort, the other enervated, Plato d naturally rejected 
them and chose the Dorian as proper for warlike and 
temperate men/ It was not due, I assure you, to 
the mistake (as Aristoxenus f asserts in his second 

of the middle notes (a-E) and that of the lower notes (E-B). 
Weil and Reinach suppose that previously the Mixolydian, 
true to its name, had been a scale with one Dorian tetrachord 
(semitone, tone, tone in the ascending order in the diatonic 
genus) and one Lydian (tone, tone, semitone). As disjunc- 
tion at the upper extremity is excluded, the possible combina- 
tions of Dorian (D), Lydian (L) and the disjunction (d) are 
dDL, DdL, dLD, LdD. Of these they eliminate DdL and 
dLD as not euphonious, and prefer LdD to dDL. 

d Cf. Republic, iii, 398 e 2 for the Mixolydian and e 10 
for the low-pitched Lydian. 

6 Cf Republic, iii, 399 a 6-b 3 (the music of warlike and 
violent action) and 399 b 3-c 1 (that of temperate and volun- 
tary action), summed up at 399 c 1-4. 

' Frag. 82 (ed. Wehrli) ; Testim. 108 (ed. Da Rios). 

387 



PLUTARCH'S MORALTA 

(1136) ev tco Sevrepa) tlov Movglkcov, otl Kal £v eKeivais 

TL )(pr]GLfJLOV TjV TTpOS TToXlTZlCLV (f)vAaKLKT)V l ' TTGLVV 

yap rrpoa4ux €V T fj plover ikjj im(7Tr)fMrj nAdra>7', 
CLKovaTT]? yevofxevos ApaKovTos 2 tov *A6rjvaiov i<al 
MercAAot; 3 tov * Ak pay avT Lvov . dAA' irreL, d)$ 

7r/90€t770/X€^, TToAv TO 0€fJLVOV COTLV €V Tjj AwpLGTL, 

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Kal HtpbajviSr) Kal T5aK)(vAl8r} TTeTTolvyrai, dAAd pL7]v 
Kal en 8 TlpoaoSta Kal Y\aiav€s, Kal puevroi on 9 Kal 
rpaytKol olktol ttot€ cttI tov AwpLov Tporrov ipbeXco- 
1137 Srjdrjcrav Kal Tiva epojTiKa. i^rjpKet S' avTtp tcl 6tV 
top "Aprj 10 Kal *A9rjvav Kal tcl OTrovoela* iirippcboai 
yap TavTa iKava dvSpos ooj(j)povos i\svyy\v Kal 7T€pl 
tov Avotov 11 oe ovk rjyvoet Kal 7repl ttjs 'IdSos" 
rynioTaTO yap otl rj TpaycoSLa tovttj ttj p,eAoiroda 
K€*)(pr)Tai . 

18. " Kat ol TraAaiol 8e rravTes ovk a7T€Lpojs e- 
)(ovt€s 7raoa)v tcov dppLovLCov zviais e^prjcravTO . ov 
yap rj ayvoia 7-779 TOLavTTjs OT€vo)(a)plas Kal SXtyo- 
XOpStas avTols atria yeyevrjTat y ovSe 6V ayvoiav ol 
irepl "OAvpbTTOv Kal Tepnavopov Kal ol aKoAovOrj- 

1 (/>vAa« lkJv] <f>vXaKi]v v. 

2 ApoLKovros] Aa/xcovos- Wyttenbach. 

3 MereWov] MeyiWov Cobet. 

4 TTpovrifirjaev] TrporjTLfirjaev M. 

5 Scbpia a a 2 : Bcopeia M ; Sojpeta V a*N vq ; Scopela W. 

6 After Uapdeveta (unaccented in M) Burette omits d'AAa, 
for which Wyttenbach conjectures a/ia or fieXr). 

7 dAAd our supplement. 8 ert a : on. 

9 otl] a 1 omits. 10 "ApTj] dpij M ; dp-qv vq. 

11 AvSlov] AIoXlov Weil and Reinach. 

a 1136 d, supra. 
b Of. Frag. 16 (Page, Poet. Mel. Or., p. 36). 

388 



ON MUSIC, 1136-1137 

book On Music) of assuming that the other two were 
of no use to a state controlled by Guardians, for Plato 
had studied the science of music with great care, 
receiving instruction from Dracon of Athens and 
Metellus of Agrigentum. No, he preferred the 
Dorian because, as I said earlier, a it has a preponder- 
ance of noble gravity. Yet he knew very well that 
many Dorian Maiden Songs had been composed by 
Alcman, & and others by Pindar, Simonides, and Bac- 
chylides ; so too had Processionals and Paeans c ; 
certainly he knew too that even lamentations in 
tragedy had been set to the Dorian mode as well as 
certain love songs. But he was content with songs 
to Ares and Athena d and with Spondeia, e as these 
are well fitted to fortify the spirit of a temperate man. 
Nor was he ignorant either of the Lydian or the 
Ionian mode, for he knew that tragedy employed 
such music. 

18. "So too with all the ancients : it was not be- 
cause they had never heard of the various modes that 
they employed only a few. No, it was not to ignor- 
ance that such restriction of range and confinement to 
a few notes was due, nor was it from ignorance that 
Olympus and Terpander and those who followed in 

c For Bacchylides' Paeans ef. Frags. 4-6 (ed. Snell), for his 
Processionals, Frags. 11-13 (ed. Snell) ; for Pindar's Paeans 
(/. for instance Frag. 42 (ed. Turyn), for his Processionals, 
Frags. 101, 102, 104 (ed. Turyn), and for his Maiden Songs, 
Frags. 110, 116 (ed. Turyn). 

d Weil and Reinach (p. 72) suppose that the nome of Ares 
(1 141 b, infra) and that of Athena (1143 k, infra) are meant. 
These were both anletic, and it is probable that the nonie of 
Athena was in the Phrygian mode {ibid.). Perhaps our 
author is indeed excerpting unskilfully. But Ares and 
Athena are eminently warlike, whereas Athena is at the same 
time temperate, and as such, they are suitably addressed by 
warlike and temperate music. e That is, "libation songs." 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1137) „ , , , 

-p aavres rrj tovtcov upoaipeoei rrepLetAov ttjv ttoAv- 

XOpScav re koli TTOiKiXiav. pbaprvpet yovv 1 ra 'OXvp,- 

7TOV T€ KCLL TepTTOLvSpOV TTOtr^/XaTO, KCLL TCjOV TOVTOIS 

opLOLorpoTTCDv ttolvtodv TplyopSa yap OVTCL KCLI drrXa, 
Sia(f)ep€L ro)v TTOiKiXajv^Kal rroXvyophcoVy cos* parjSeva 
SvvaoOat puLfirjaaoOai tov 'OXvpLnov rporrov, varepi- 
^eiv Se tovtov tovs 2 iv rep rroXvyopSo) re Kal ttoXv- 
rpoTrcp KarayivopLevovs . 3 

19. " 'Ort Se oi TraXcLLol ov 8t' dyvoiav arrelyovTO 
ttjs rpirrjs iv rep orrovSeid^ovTi rporrcp (f>avepov 
TToiel tj iv rfj Kpovoet yevop^evrf yprjois' ov yap dv 
7Tore avrfj rrpos ttjv TrapVTTarrjv Kexprjodai ovfJb(f)a)- 
vqjs, purj yvajpi^ovras ttjv yprjoiv, dXXd SrjXov on to 
C rod kolXXovs rjOos* o ytVerat iv rep orrovSeiaKcp 
rporrcp Stct ttjv rrjs rpLT7]s i^aipeoiv, tovt rjv to 
rrjv aloOrjoiv avrcov irrdyov irrl to Sta^t^d^eLV to 
pbeXoS €776 TTJV Trapavr\Trp; . 

c avTOS Se Xoyos Kal rrepl ttjs vrjTiqs' Kal yap 
TavTrj rrpos* {lev ttjv Kpovoiv iypcovTO, Kal irpos 

1 yovv] odv vq. 

2 he tovtov tovs Bern. (8' clvtov tovs Wyttenbach) : Se 
tovtovs. 

3 KOLTayLvo/JLevovs] -yev- N. 

4 yevofjLevr]] yiv- aN. 

5 kolXXovs (kolXovs V) -qdos] rjdovs kolXXos Laloy. 

6 TTpos] kcltol Westphal. 

a The three notes are those of the tetrachord in the gapped 
scales, as in the Spondeion of Olympus (1134 f — 1135 b, 
supra). Cf. T. Reinach, La Musique grecque (Paris, 1926), 
p. 16 and note. 

b Presumably the trite of the disjunct tetrachord, b* in the 
enharmonic genus (c in the diatonic). In this paragraph 

390 



ON MUSIC, 1137 

the way these men had chosen eschewed multiplicity 
of notes and variety. Witness the compositions of 
Olympus and Terpander and of all the composers who 
resemble them. These compositions, although con- 
fined to three notes a and simple, are better than 
those that make use of variation and many notes, so 
that no one is able to copy the style of Olympus, and 
all the composers of music of many notes and a variety 
of scales are his inferiors. 

19- " That ignorance does not explain the failure 
of the ancients to employ the trite b in libation airs 
is evident from their use of it in the accompaniment ; 
for they would never have employed it to make a 
concord c with the parhypate if they had been ig- 
norant of its use. No ; it is evident that the noble 
moral character produced in the libation airs by the 
elimination of the trite d was what led their ear to 
let the melody pass to the paranete. 

" The same holds for the nete : this too they em- 
ployed in the accompaniment, both as a note dis- 

and the two following we assume that the source had in mind 
the Dorian mode and the enharmonic genus. The following 
diagram may be convenient. : 

Disjunct tetrachord nete e 

paranete c 
trite b* 

paramese b 
Middle tetrachord mese a 

lichanos F 
parhypate E* 
hypatfc E 

c The trite is a fifth above the parhypate. 
d To eliminate the trite in a Dorian enharmonic scale is to 
pass (reading down) from ecb*b to ecb. This result is exactly 
equivalent in the tetrachord of the disjunct notes to Olympus's 
omission of the diatonic lichanos in the tetrachord of the 
middle notes : aFE, 

391 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1137) rrapavrjrrjv 8ca(f)d)vajs /cat 77009 pueorjv ovfjucfrcovajs 1 ■ 
Kara 8e to pueXos ovk i<f>atv€TO clvtols ot/ceia elvou 
ra> G7Tov8etaKO) rpOTrco. 

Ov puovov 8e TovroL? dXXd /cat rfj 2 ovvrjpLp,€vojv* 
vrjrr] ovtoj K€)(pr]VTai rravres' Kara puev yap rrjv 

D KpOVOLV aVTTjV 8l€(f)OJVOVV 7TpOS T€ TTCLpaVrjTTjV* KOL 

rrpos TTapapbeorjv 5 /cat rrpos A^avoV Kara 8e to 
pieXos Kav alo)(yv6fjv ai rov ^p^aa/xevo^ 6 iirl rep 
yivopuevoj oV clvttjv rjdet. 8rjXov 8' elvai /cat £k tcljv 
QpvyLoov otl ovk rjyvorjro vtt* 1 ^OXvpurrov re /cat 
rcov aKoXovOrjadvrcov e/cetVar ixpojvro ydp avrfj 
ov puovov /caret rrjv Kpovaiv aAAa koX /cara to /ze'Ao? 
iv rots' yirjrpcpois /cat iv aXXois* riolv ra>v Qpvyicov. 
ArjXov 8e /cat to 9 rrepl rcov vttcltojv, on ov St' 
dyvoiav direiyovTO iv rot? Atoplois rod rerpa^opSov 

TOVTOV aVTlKCL inl TCOV XoLTTWV TOVOJV i^pGiVTO , 

1 hia<f><l)V(Ds . . . ovfi(f)a)VQ)s Burette : hcacfrtbvtuv (with a sign 
of corruption by v 28S ' m ; Sia <f>a)voj W) . . . ovfi(j>a)va)v. 

2 rfj] rcov aN ; rrjs v ac ? 

3 OVVTjflfJbdvOJV aN : -OV (oVV7]fJL€VOV a 1 ). 

4 hi€(j)(x>vovv rrpos re rrapavqrrjv] v omits. 

5 After irapafieorjv Meziriacus would add kcll ovvecfxjuvovv 
rrpos re fxecrrjv. 

6 rov xP r ) (7( ^l JL€vov Ziegler : rep xpiqaapilvoj. 

7 r)yvor)ro vrr* Burette : rjyvoec rod (r)yv6oi rod v [with a sign 
of corruption by v 2?ra ] ; rjyvorjro rod s). 

8 aAAoi9 added here by Weil and Pteinach ; after now by 
Westphal. 9 to] N omits (n- in an erasure) ; no vq. 

° The Greeks did not recognize the major third as a con- 
cord. 

392 



ON MUSIC, 1137 



cordant with the paranete and a as concordant with 
the mese ; but in the melody they did not feel that 
it was suitable to libation airs. 

" Not these notes alone, but also the nete of the 
conjunct tetrachord b was treated in this way by all : 
in the accompaniment they used it as discordant 
with the paranete, the paramese, and the lichanos c ; 
but in the melody the user would actually have felt 
ashamed at the moral character resulting from this 
note. It is also clear from the pieces in the Phrygian 
mode that Olympus and his followers were not ig- 
norant of it ; for they used it not only in the accom- 
paniment but also in the melody in the songs in honour 
of the Mother of the Gods and in certain other Phry- 
gian compositions. 

" Again the case of the lowest tetrachord is also 
clear : they did not omit it in the Dorian pieces 
through ignorance (since they employed it in the 
other modes, obviously with full knowledge of it), 

b The following diagram (Dorian enharmonic) may be 
convenient : 



Conjunct 


nete 


d 


Disjunct 


nete e 
paranete c 




paranete 


a# 




trite b* 




trite 


a* 




paramese b 


Middle 


mese 

lichanos 

parhypate 


a 
F 

E* 






Lowest 


hypate 
lichanos 
parhypate 
hypate 


E 
C 
B* 
B 






c The nete of the conjunct 


tetrachord 


(d) is two tones 


above the paranete of the same 


;etrachord (. 


i), one tone above 


the paranete 


of the disjunct tetrachord (c), 


a tone and a half 


above the paramese (b), 


and four tones anc 


a half above the 


lichanos (F). 








393 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

' StjXovoti elSores' §ta oe rrjv rod TjOovs (pvXaKrjv 
■^ dcfrrjpovv errl tov Acopiov tovov, tijjlcJovtzs to /caAoV 
avrov. 

20. " OiOV Tl KCLl €776 TO)V TTJS TpayCpSlaS TTOlTj- 

tuiv T(p yap ^pcopbarMKcp yevet /cat ra> ttvkvcx) 1 
rpaycpSla [xev ovoerroo /cat Tr\\iepov KexprjTai, kl- 
ddpa 2 Se, ttoXXo.ls yevecus irpea^vrepa t pay too las 
ovaa, e£ dpxrfs ixptfoaro, to Se xptopba on irpe- 
ofivrepov eonv ttjs apjiovias ora<f>€S> Set ydp SrjXov- 
otl /cara rrjv ttjs dvOpajTTLvrjs Svoeojs €vt€v£lv /cat 
Xprjcriv to Trpeofivrepov Xeyecv Kara ydp avrrjv rrjv 
tG)v yevcov <f>vaiv ovk eonv erepov irepov Trpeofiv- 
repov. el ovv tls A.lo)(6Xov rj Qpvvixov (pair) 8t' 
F dyvoiav aVecr^a^at rod ^pa)jLtaro9 dpd ye ovk dv 
drorros etrj; 6 ydp avros /cat HayKpdrrjv dv eluoi 
dyvoeiv to xP OJ l JiaTlKOV yevos, direiyero ydp /cat 

OVTOS d)S €7TL TO TToXv TOVTOV , €)(p r r]OaTO §' €V 

Ttatv. ov St' ayvoiav ovv SrjXovori, dXXd Std rrjv 
rrpoalpeoiv d7T€L)(€TO' etpqXov yovv , ojs avros efi?}, 
tov HivSapeuov T€ /cat TiLfxojvlSeiov rpoirov /cat 
KadoXov to 3 dp)(alov KaXovfJievov vrro rtov vvv. 

21. f O avros oe Xoyos /cat 7rept Tvpralov T€ 
to v MavTivews /cat 'AvSpea 4 tov KopcvOlov /cat 
SpaovXXov tov tf)Xio.olov /cat irepajv ttoXXcov, ovs 
TrdvTas 5 LOfJiev Sid Trpoalpeuiv a77€cr^/>teVou9 XP^' 
pharos T€ /cat p,€TafioXr}s /cat 7roXvxopSlas /cat dXXcov 

1138 noXXcov iv fiecra) ovtojv pvOpbcov tc /cat appuoviajv /cat 

1 /cat tw ttvkvco n OS : /cat TO) pvd/jLoj (/cat TO) evap^wvico Valgil- 
lius ; /cat tw rrpog tovto fwdjioj Westphal) ; Weil and Reinach 
would omit. 

2 Kidapa (-a e)] KiOapcohla Bury. 

3 to) tov Turnebus. 

4 dVSpe'a] -iov vq. 5 iravras] -es vq. 

394 



ON MUSIC, 1137-1138 

but wishing to preserve the moral character, they cut 
off the lowest tetrachord in the Dorian mode out of 
regard for the dignity of that mode. 

20. " So too with the tragic poets : to the present 
day tragedy has never employed the chromatic genus 
with its pycnon, a whereas the music of the cithara, 
which is many generations older than tragedy, has 
done so from the outset. That the chromatic genus 
is older than the enharmonic is clear ; for we must 
evidently use the expression ' older ' of what our 
human nature has earlier hit upon and employed, 
since when we consider the genera in their own essen- 
tial character no one genus is older than another. If 
then someone should assert that Aeschylus or Phry- 
nichus avoided the chromatic genus through ignor- 
ance, that would surely be nonsense, would it not ? 
It would be the same as saying that Pancrates h was 
ignorant of the chromatic genus, since he, too, for 
the most part avoided it ; yet he did use it in a few 
compositions. Evidently then his avoidance was due 
not to ignorance, but to choice, for as he said himself, 
he was an admirer of the style of Pindar and Simonides 
and, to sum up, of what is nowadays called old- 
fashioned. 

21. " The same applies to Tyrtaeus of Mantinea, 
Andreas of Corinth, Thrasyllus of Phlius, and many 
more. All, we know, avoided on principle the chro- 
matic genus, modulation, multiplicity of notes, and 
many other things — rhythms, scales, styles of poetical 
or musical composition and rendition — that were 

° As there was an enharmonic that lacker! the pycnon (cf. 
1135 b, supra, with the notes) it may have seemed proper to 
the source our author is following here (Aristoxenus ?) to add 
" with the pycnon." The mss. read " and its rhythm." 

b Otherwise unknown. 

395 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1138) Xe^eojv Kal 1 p,€XoiroiLas i<al ip/JLrjvelas. avriKa 
Ty]\e(f)dvr}s 6 MeyaptKos ovtcds erroXepurjoev 2 rats' 
avpiy^tv ojgt€ tovs avXoTroiovs ouo' 3 emdeivaL nto- 
7tote ecacrev iirl tovs avXov?, dXXa Kal rod UvOlkov 
dytovos fjbdXiora oia ratb"' 4 drreorr]. KadoXov §' el 
tis rep firj xprjaOoLL TeKfioupopLevos Karayvcooerai 
tlov firj xpajfjLevtJOV ayvoiav, iroXXtov av rt (f>ddvoi 
Kal tcxjv vvv KarayivcoGKOjv , olov rwv p,ev Awpioj- 
B vetojv 5 rod ' AvrtyevecSeLov 6 rpouov Karacfrpovovvratv 
€7T€iSrjTT€p ov xptovTCLi avrco y rwv 8' ' AvriyeveiSelajv 1 
rod AajpLOJV€iov 8 Sid rrjv avrrjv alrcav, tojv Se 
KidaptpSwv rod TifMoOelov 9 rpoirov cr^eSdy yap 

s *" j f >r x / 10 x > x 

a7T07T€(pOiTrjKaOLV €L$ T€ TO* KaTTV/JLara KCJLL €LS TO. 

HoXvetSoV TTOLTJfJLCLTa. 

YldXcv S' av €L rts* Kal rrepl rrjs iroiKiXias opdtos 

T€ Kal €[jL7T€LpOJS €7T IOK OTTO 17] , T(X TOT€ Kal T(Z VVV 

GvyKpivatv, evpoi av iv y^pr\oei ovoav Kal rore rr)v 
TTOLKiXlav. rfj yap uepl rds* pvOpbOTrodas iroiKiXia 
ovorj 11 7roLKiXa)T€pq ixprfo-avro oi rraXaioi' irifxajv 

^ 12 x e n \ \ ' x x 13 >x 

yOVV TTJV pvUfJLLKTJV TTOlKiAiaV , KOI Ta 7T€pL Ta9 

1 Kal J /caret Westphal. 

2 €7ro\efiT]a€v M c (-(re the rest) : -oav M au . 

3 ovb*] ovk v 1 . 

4 raur*] tovt Weil and Reinach. 

5 haypuoveicDv vq c : -icov. 

6 avTiyeveibeiov W ac N ac Cronert (Hermes, xxxvii [1902], 
p. 225) : -vtSeiou. 

7 ayriyei^iSeiW Ziegler : -iheiatv (-toiW W). 

8 8copia)u€iov vq : -coviov (-tbvov N ac ). 

9 Tifiodeiov a q : -Oetov (-deov v). 

10 Karrufiara PS a 2 W S : Kararrvfjiara. 

11 7ToiKi\ia ovor]\ Weil and Reinach would omit ttolkiXlo., 
Ziegler would omit ovorj. 

12 yovv] ovv vq. 

13 raj M omits ; rij W. 

396 






ON MUSIC, 1138 

current at the time. Take Telephanes of Megara. 
So hostile was he to the syrinx a of the aulos that he 
never even permitted the aulos-makers to add it to 
his instruments ; indeed it was mainly on this account 
that he refused to perform at the Pythian games. In 
short, if ignorance is to be imputed to anyone who 
does not follow a certain practice, that will involve 
you in a hasty verdict against many moderns b — as 
against the school of Dorion, c since (holding it in con- 
tempt) they do not employ the style of Antigenei- 
das d ; against the school of Antigeneidas in turn, 
who on the same ground do not employ the manner 
of Dorion ; and against the singers to the cithara who 
have no use for the style of Timotheus, for they have 
to all intents abandoned it for the ' patches ' e and 
the compositions of Polyeidus. 

4 'Again, take also the matter of complexity and 
study it properly and with a thorough acquaintance 
with the subject, comparing the compositions of a 
former day with those of the present, and you will 
find that complexity was current in those days too. 
Thus in the conduct of the rhythm the ancients em- 
ployed a complexity greater than that in use today, 
for they set great store on complexity in rhythm. 
Further, the interplay of the accompaniment was 

° A device for raising the pitch of the aulos. For the nature 
of the device cf. I. During, Ptolemaios and Porphyrlos (Gote- 
borgs Hogskolas Arsskrift, vol. xl, No. 1 [1934]), pp. 172 f. 
and K. Schlesinger, The Greek Aulos (London, 1939), p. 54. 
In non-technical Greek syrinx is a whistling or a tube. 

b The words are those of the source, perhaps Aristoxenus, 
who nourished about 320 b.c. 

c An aulete at the court of Philip of Macedon. 

d A Theban aulete who flourished about 400-370 b.c. 

• Literally a sole stitched on a shoe. The musical meaning 
has not been ascertained. 

397 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1138) KpovofJiariKas 1 8e SiaAe ktovs tot€ TroiKiAcbrepa rjv 
C ol jJbev ydp vvv ^tAojLteAeis", 2 ol 8e rore fiiAoppvdpLoi. 3 
ArjAov ovv on ol rraAacol ov 81 ayvoiav aAAa, 
Sia npoaipeuiv arreiyovTO rodv KeKAaapuevojv pueAcov. 
kcll ri Oavpuaorov ; 7ToAAa yap Kal aAAa ra>v /caret 
tov f3tov eTTiTifievpuaTajv ovk ayvoelrai puev vtto tcov 
jjLif xpwpLevajp, OLTrrjAAoTpi curat 8e o.vra>v, rrjs ^peias 
d^atpc^etary? Sta to els evia arrperfes. 

22. IXeoetyixevov oe ort o liAarojv ovre ayvoia 
ovre aiTeiplq ra aAAa Traprjrrjoaro, aAA' J)S ov rrpe- 
TTovra Tocavrr) 77oAtreta, 8ei^op,ev e£rjs ore epareipos 
dppbovlag rjv. ev yovv 1 rfj \\ivypyoviq rfj ev rep 
Tt/zatco rrjv re irepl ret /.tadrjpiara Kal pLovotKrjv 
D o7tovSt]p erre8et^aro d>8e Traps' * 

Kal puerd ravra GwerrArjpov 9 ra re cWAacrta 
Kal ret 9 rpiirAaaia 8iaorr]p,ara > puolpas re 10 eKeldev 
dirorepLvajv Kal riOels els to puera^v rovr ojv 
wore ev eKaoroj 8iaGrrjpLart 8vo elvai pLeoorrjras . 

appboviKTJs yap rjv 11 epiTTeipias rovro to 7Tpooipaov y 
ojs avTLKa 8et£opLev. rpets eloiv pueoorrjres at 
rrpchraiy dcj) y tov Aapb^dverat rraoa pLeoorrjs, dpidpLrj- 
TLKrj, appLoviKTj, yeajpuerpovpuevrj . 12 rovrajv 13 r) puev 

1 KpovofxcLTLKas] KpovfjLaTiKas vq (all have Kpovfidrcov at 
1142 b). 

2 <£iAo/xeAefr Bergk (modos . . . amplectebantur Valgu- 
lius) : cfriAojjLadels. 

3 <j>iA6ppvdfjLOL a 2 aN c : <j)iA6pvdiioi. 

4 fir) added by Westphal ; add ye instead ? 

5 heheiyixevov M V a W : -ov aN ; -wv vq (all put a stop 
after this word, none before). 

6 Se on Diibner (St) on Wyttenbach) : on Se. 

7 yovv] ovv v 2 q (a ac omits). 

398 



ON MUSIC, 1138 

then more varied, as moderns like music for the tune, 
whereas the ancients were interested in the beat. 

It is clear then that the ancients abstained from 
overmodulated music not from ignorance but on 
principle. Need this surprise us ? Thus there are 
many other practices of daily life that are not un- 
known to those who do not adopt them but are re- 
garded as unacceptable, their utility being cancelled 
by their unsuitability for certain ends. 

22. " I have shown that Plato rejected other forms 
of music not through ignorance or unfamiliarity, but 
because they were not suited to his kind of state. I 
shall next show that he was acquainted with har- 
monics. Thus in the passage of the Timaeus a that 
deals with the creation of the soul he shows his study 
of mathematics and music in the words that follow : 

And thereafter he rilled out the double and triple inter- 
vals, cutting off portions from that source and inserting 
them into the interstices of these ; and the result was the 
presence of two means in each interval. 

These introductory remarks rest on an acquaintance 
with harmonic science, as I proceed to show. There 
are three primary means, and from them all means 
are derived b : the arithmetic, the .harmonic, and that 
obtained geometrically. Of these means the first 

° 35 c 2—36 a 3. 

b For other means see Sir T. L. Heath, A History of Greek 
Mathematics (Oxford, 1921), vol. i, pp. 86-89. 

8 KOLl fJL€TCL TOLVTOL aVV€7rXi]pOv] fl€Ta Se TOLVTa OVV€7rAr)pOVTO 

Plato. 

9 to] Plato omits. 

10 re] en Plato. 

11 rjv ifiTT. (and so a c )] efxir. rjv vq ; a ac omits rjv. 

12 yeoj/zerpou/zeVq] yeou/zer/H/a) W ac ? 

13 TOVTCJv] TOVTO) MW. 

399 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1138) too) apiOfJLtp vrrtpeyei /cat vrrepe^eraL, 1 r) Se lata 
Aoytp, rj 8e ovre Aoytp ovre apiOfito. 6 toiwv 
HXcltqjv rrjv ipv)(tKrjv dppuoviav tojv reaodpcov gtol- 
^€lojv /cat ttjv alriav rrjs irpos dAArfAa ££ dvopboicov 

E avjjLcfxjQvlas Set^ac appLOVLKcos fiovArjOeLS, iv e/caoTeo 
8iaoTr)p,aTi ovo fJLeaorrjras i/a^t/cds* aiTecjirjve Kara 
rov puovoiKov Aoyov. T'rjs yap Sea rraaa>v iv pbov- 
glkjj ovpbtfiojvlas 8vo OLaoTrnJuara puiaa elvai ovpbpe- 
/3rjK€V, d>v rrjv dvaAoylav Sel^opbev. rj puev yap Std 
rraotjov iv hnrAaoiov* Aoyto deajpecrat' TrocrjaeL S' 
€lkovos %dpiv rov hnrAdoiov Aoyov /car' dpcOpbov rd 

F c^ /cat ra SaiSc/ca* eon Se tovto to SidorrjpLa drro 
virdrrjs pbiatov irrl vrjrrjv Sie^evypbevtuv. ovrwv ovv 
rtov e£ /cat txov 4 StoSc/ca dt<pa)v, e^€t r) pbev virdrrj 
pbeocov rov tcov 5 e£ dpuOpbov, 6 r) 8e vryrr] 8te£et>- 

1 VTT€p€X€L KOLL V7T€p€X€Tat] V7T€p€X€L V aC ; U7T€/)e^€Tat V C ; 7T€pL- 
€X€TCLL S. 2 TTJs] T1)V M N. 3 8l7rAaCTlOVl] -OJVL M. 

4 tcov added by yE. 5 rov ra>v] tovtcov M. 

6 dpLdfxov] -tov M. 

a This is the arithmetic mean. Thus 9 is such a mean be- 
tween 12 and 6, as 12 - 9 =3 and 9 - 6 =3. 

b The harmonic mean. Thus 8 is such a mean between 12 
and 6, as 12-8=4, a third of 12, and 8-6=2, a third of 6. 

c The geometric mean. If one extreme is twice the other, 
both being integers (2a and a), the mean is a-y/2, and thus 
must be represented by a line, as it is not a true number and 
cannot (being " irrational ") enter into a ratio. 

d The four elements are the four fixed notes of the octave. 
These are represented by the numbers 6, 8, 9, and 12 : 
Middle tetrachord hypate E 6 
mese a 8 

Disjunct tetrachord paramese b 9 
nete e 12 

Each number illustrates one of the four kinds distinguished 
by Plato (cf. Laws, vii, 819 b) and the Pythagoreans (cf. 

400 



ON MUSIC, 1138 

exceeds the one extreme and is exceeded by the 
other by the same number,^ the next by the same 
ratio, b and the last by neither a ratio nor by a num- 
ber. So Plato, wishing to show in terms of the 
science of harmonics the harmony of the four elements 
in the soul d and the cause of the concord of dissimilars 
with one another, presents in each interval two means 
of the soul, in accordance with the ratio of music. 
For it so happens that in music the consonance of the 
octave has two mean intervals. e The progression 
that they constitute I shall proceed to show. Now 
the consonance of the octave is seen to be in the duple 
ratio f ; and this ratio, expressed in numbers, is 
illustrated by six and twelve, and the interval is that 
from the hypate of the middle tetrachord to the nete 
of the disjunct tetrachord. Six then and twelve 
being the extremes, the hypate of the middle tetra- 
chord is represented by the number six, the nete of 

Nicomachus, Introduction to Arithmetic, i. 8-10 [pp. 14-25, 
ed. Hoche] ; Theo of Smyrna, On the Mathematics Useful for 
Reading Plato, pp. 21. 20-24, 25. 5-26. 13 [ed. Hiller] ; see 
also Philolaiis, Frag, b 5 [Diels and Kranz, Frag, der Vorso- 
kratiker, i, p. 408]) : 9 is odd, and the rest represent the three 
kinds of even number. Thus 8 can be halved, and the halves 
halved, and the process can be repeated until unity is reached ; 
6 can be halved only once, when an odd number is reached 
and the process cannot be repeated ; while 12 can be halved, 
and the halves halved, but here the process must end, as an 
odd number is reached. Thus 8 represents pure evenness, 9 
pure oddness, and 6 and 12 varying degrees of intermixture. 
The odd represents limit, the even the unlimited : cf 1139 
f — 1140 a, infra. 

e The author means that the interval of the octave (12 : 6) 
is composed of the intervals 12 : 9 and 9 : 6 or 12 : 8 and 8 : 6. 
These he oddly terms " mean intervals." 

f " Duple," " sesquialteran," " sesquitertian," and " ses- 
quioctavan " render the Pythagorean names of the ratios 
that we should call 2 : 1, 3 : 2, 4 : 3, and 9 : 8. 

401 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1138) ypLevoov tov tojv ScoSeKa. Aa^elv Srj 1 Aolttov XPV 
irpos tovtols dpiOpLOvs tovs fJbera^v Trirrrovras, cov 2 
6 p,ev errirpiTOSy 6 Se rjpuoXios tfiavrjoeTai* elolv Se 

O 3 TOJV OKTCO KOI TOJV iwea' TCOV yap ££ TO, fJLeV OKTCO 
€7TLTplTa, TOL §€ lw£(X VjflloXia. TO pL€V €V CLKpOV 

tolovto, to §' d'AAo to* tcov ScoSeica tG)v p,ev evvea 

1139 €7TLTpLTa, TCOV S' OKTO) T)pu6Aia. TOVTOJV OVV TOJV 
apldfJLOOV OVTOJV {JL€Ta£v TOJV e£ KOLl TOJV SojSeKO, 
Kol TOV SiOL 7Tao6)V SiaOTTjfJLaTOS €K TOV Sid T€TTOL- 
pOJV 5 Kol TOV Sid TT€VT€ OWeGTCOTOS , SrjAoV OTL €^€l 

rj {lev fJLeor] tov tojv oktoj dptOpiov, rj Se 7Tapap,eor} 
tov to)v evvea. tovtov yevopuevov e£ei rj vnaTrj 
TTpog /Jbeorjv 6 cos rrapa/xecrr; irpos vtjttjv Ste^evypLe- 
vcov 1 ' dno ydp viraTiqs* pLeocov Sid TeTTapcov 9 enl 
pLeorjv, airo oe Trapapueorjs cooavTcos em vrjT7]v 
Sie^evypuevcov , 11,12 rj avTrj Se dvaAoyia Kal enl tcov 
B dpt9fJbO)v evpioKeTai' cos yap k\ei rd e£ rrpos ra 
oktoj, ovtojs tol evvea Trpos rd ScoSeKa' Kal cos e^et 
rd e£ 7rpos Ta evvea, ovtojs to, oktoj Trpos rd Sa>- 
Se/ca* eiriTpiTa yap rd {lev oktoj tcov e£, tol oe 
ojoeKa tojv evvea, rjpLioAia oe Ta puev evvea tojv eg, 
rd Se ScoSeKa tcov oktoj. dpKeoei to, elprjpLeva els 
to err tSeSetxevai rjv elyev rrepl tol pLa6rjpiaTa ottov- 
Srjv Kal epmeipiav XWaTCov. 

23. " "Qti Se oepLvrj rj dppLovla Kal delov tl Kal 

1 hrj] he v. 2 After wv we omit ol aKpoi. 

3 6] <hs W. 4 to] tcD M. 

5 hid rerrdpcov (-era- a)] hiaTeaadpcov M ; hid reoodpcov V. 

6 fJLecqv] T7]V fJL€G7)V N. 

7 Siefeuy/ieVojv MEs: -ov. 

8 v7rdT7)s aN v 2 Valgulius : TmpwndTf)<s. 

9 hid rerrdpcDV V a aN vq {hiarerrdpajv W) : hid reaadpaw M . 

10 <hoavT(x)s added by Weil and Reinach. 

11 hie^evy/xevcov A 2ss E S : -ou. 

402 






ON MUSIC, 1138-1139 

the disjunct tetrachord by the number twelve. It 
remains to obtain in addition to these the numbers 
that fall between, so that one of these shall have the 
sesquitertian ratio, the other the sesquialteran. a 
These are eight and nine, for eight has the sesquiter- 
tian ratio to six, nine the sesquialteran. Such then 
are the ratios involving the one extreme. The other, 
represented by the number twelve, has the sesquiter- 
tian ratio to nine, the sesquialteran to eight. Since 
these are the numbers intermediate between six and 
twelve, and since the interval of the octave is com- 
posed of the interval of the fourth and that of the 
fifth, it is evident that the mese will be represented 
by the number eight, the paramese by the number 
nine. When this is done the hypate will have the 
same ratio to the mese as the paramese to the nete 
of the disjunct tetrachord, since the interval from the 
hypate of the middle tetrachord to the mese is a 
fourth and so too the interval from the paramese to 
the nete of the disjunct tetrachord. The same pro- 
portion is found in the numbers as well ; for six is to 
eight as nine to twelve, and again six is to nine as 
eight to twelve, since eight has the sesquitertian 
ratio to six and twelve has it to nine, whereas nine has 
the sesquialteran ratio to six and twelve has it to 
eight. What has been said will suffice to show Plato's 
study and knowledge of mathematics. 

23. " That harmony is august and a thing divine 

a The ratio can only be with the lesser extreme, 6, since 
the terms sesquialteran and sesquitertian imply the ratio of 
a larger number with a smaller. 

12 After SteJcuy/LtcVcov Weil and Reinach omit Std naacov (Sid 
rerrapcxiv v 2 and Valgulius ; Sid rerrapcov SrjXov 8' on kcll o\tt6 
VTrariqs fidacuv im vrjTrjv SieJeuy/ueVou, Sid 7racra>v aN). 

13 rjfjuoAia Se] rjfjLLoXtd re aN. 

403 



PLUTARCH \S MORA LI A 

(1139) fieya ^ApiaroreX^g 6 TlXdrajvos 1 ravrl Xeyec 

f H Se apjjLovia 2 earlv ovpavia y rrjv (f)voiv e^ouaa 
delav /cat KaXr]v ko1 Saipboviav . rerpafJi-eprjs oe 
rfj Svvdpuei ue^VKvla, Svo /xeaorr/Ta? e^et, ^P l ~ 
dpLrjTiKijv* r€ /cat apjJLovLKrjv, <j)aiv€Tai re ra p>€prj 
avrrjs /cat to, pbeyeOrj /cat at vrrepo^al /car' dpi- 
9jjl6v /cat LGOfJuerplav' iv yap Svol rerpa)(6pSois 
pvOpLi^eraL tol pueXr] . 

C ravra fiev rd prjrd. 5 

iLvveordvai oe avrrjg to Utopia eXeyev c/c pbepwv 
avopbOLOJV, ovpLcfrajvovvTwv pbevroi 7Tpos aXXrjXa, dXXd 
fjirjv Kal ras /xeaor^ra? avrrjs Kara, rov dptdfir^rtKov 
Xoyov Gvpb<f>ojv€lv. rov yap vearov rrpos rov vrrarov 
£k SiTrXaoiov Xoyov rjpfjLoajJLevov rrjv Sux rraawv 
avfjb(f)a)viav drroreXelv. e^et yap, a>9 TTpoeLTrojjLev, 

1 HAdrcuvos] TrXarcoviKOS vq. 

2 dpfxovla — apixovia] appiovia M. 

3 dpiQfxr}TLKrjv\ rrjv dpidp^riK^v vq. 

4 avrrjs] ravra (cf. Plato, Tim. 32 a 6) ? 

5 prjrd] prjfjiara V. 

a Aristotle, Eudemus, Frag. 47 (ed. Rose), On Philosophy, 
Frag. 25 (ed. Ross). Cf. M. T. Cardini in La Parola del 
Passato, vol. xvii (1962), pp. 300-312. 

6 The world soul contains the ratios or intervals of music 
(Plato, Timaeus, 35 b — 36 b), and the world or heaven is a god 
(ibid. 34 b 1). 

c The parts are the four terms, which can be represented 
by the numbers 6, 8, 9, and 12. I. During (Gnomon, vol. xxvii 
[1955], p. 435) takes the parts to be the tone, fourth, fifth, and 
octave. " Harmonia " also means octave, and the phrase 
" in its operation " includes the means with the " parts," for 
which cf. note h, infra. 

d The magnitudes are the intervals (1) 12 : 8, 8 : 6, and (2) 
12 : 9, 9:6. The excesses of (1) are 12 - 8 (a third of 12) 

10L 



ON MUSIC, 1139 

and great is remarked by Aristotle, the disciple of 
Plato, in these words a : 

Harmony is celestial, since its nature is divine, noble, 
and wonderfully wrought. b Being in its operation naturally 
quadripartite, c it has two means, arithmetic and harmonic, 
and its parts and magnitudes and excesses'* are manifested 
in conformity with number e and equality of measure ; for 
melodies are given their form in the range of two tetra- 
chords. / 

Such are his actual words. 

" He said that its body 9 was constituted of parts 
dissimilar, yet concordant with one another, 71 and that 
furthermore its means were concordant in conformity 
with arithmetical ratio.* Thus the highest note, 
attuned to the lowest in the duple ratio, produces the 
concord of the octave. For as we said earlier/ har- 

and 8 - 6 (a third of 6), and show equality of measure ; the 
excesses of (2) are 12-9 and 9 - 6, or three, and show equality 
of number. 

e To conform to number is to be expressible as integral 
numbers or in terms of them. Thus the geometrical mean 
between 6 and 12 is excluded, as it is not a number in the 
Pythagorean sense, being irrational. 

s The middle (E-a) and the disjunct (b-e). 

9 As Plato distinguishes between a soul of the universe 
and the body enveloped by it (cf, Timaeus, 31 b 10 — So a 1), 
so here a distinction is apparently drawn between harmony 
itself (a set of ratios) and its body, consisting of sounds. 

h Cf. 1188 d, supra : " concord of dissimilars." Cf. Philo- 
laiis, Frag, b 6 (Diels and Kranz, Die Frag, der Vorsokratiker, 
i, p. 409. 2-9) and Plato, Symposium, 187 a-b. The dis- 
similars are the high-pitched and low-pitched. These corre- 
spond to the nete and hypate ; hence " parts " earlier in the 
sentence is contrasted to the " means." 

1 Arithmetical ratio is one that can be expressed as holding 
between one integer and another ; cf Nicomachus, Introduc- 
tion to Arithmetic, i. 5. 1 (p. 11. 5-10, ed. lloche). 

> 1138 f, supra. 

105 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1139) tov vearov SdJSe/ca [JLovdScov, tov Se vttcltov e£, ttjv 
Se 7TapajJL€Grjv avjM(f)a)vovoav rrpos vrrdriqv /ca# n 
tjijlioXlov Xoyov evvea pbovdScov rrjs Se fjbeorjs 2 o/creo 
elvai puovaSas iXeyopuev. ovyKeloOat Se Sid tovtoov 
rrjs fJbovoiKrjs ra Kvptdrrara otacrr^jitara ovpbfiaivei, 
to re Sid Teoodpcov, 6 eon /caret tov eTTirpirov 

D Xoyov, /cat to Sid trevTe, o eoTiv /cara, tov tj/jlioXlov 
Xoyov* /cat to Sid rraooov, 8 eoTi /cara, tov* cWAa- 
glov dXXd yap /cat tov erroySoov ocp^eoOat, os Ioti 
/caret tov tovlcllov Xoyov. rats' clvtolls S' virepo^als 
virepeyeiv /cat VTtepeyeoBai ttjs dppbovias ra p>eprj 
vtto tcov fieptbv /cat ras* /xeadr^ra? vtto tcov p,eoo- 
ttjtcov 5 /cara re ttjv ev dpiOpuols vnepox^v /cat /cara, 
ttjv yeojfieTpLKrjv Svvcljjliv au/x/3atWt. aVo^atVet 
yovv auras' ^AptoTOTeX^s ra? Swdfieis exovaas 
TOiavTas, Tt]v [lev veaTiqv ttjs [Jieorjg ra> rptrco fjuepei 

E Tip avTrjs vuepeypvoav y ttjv Se VTraTrjv vtto ttjs 
/JbeG7]s 6 vuepeypihevrp? 6p,oiajs, d>s ylveaOai ras - vrrep- 
o^ds tcov TTpos tv tois ydp avTols fiepeoiv VTrep- 
exovoi /cat VTrepex ovraL ( t °ls yovv s avTois Xoyois 
ot 9 a/cpot ttjs iieor]s /cat rrapapbeor]? virepexovoi Kai 
virepexovTai, erriTpiTCp /cat rjfJbioXiq)) . toiclvttj Srj 
VTrepox^j eoTiv rj dpfJboviKrj. rj Se ttjs veaTrjs vnep- 

1 Kad' E aN v 2 : irpos Ka9\ 2 ^iearjs] fiovrjs v 1 . 

3 Xoyov] vq omit. 4 tov] to a. 

6 fxepajv . . . ix€GorrjTOJv] fi€GOT^rcov . . . fi€pa>v Weil and 
Reinach. 

6 fjLeorjs Weil and Reinach : Trapafieo^s. 

7 yiveodat] yiyvzoOai vq. 

8 yovv] ovv q (in an omission in v). 

9 ot A 2 E aN : the rest omit. 

a 1139 a, supra. 

b The mss. have paramese, perhaps added by the com- 
piler ; thus it occurs in the interpolation pointed out in the 

406 






ON MUSIC, 1139 

mony has its highest note of twelve units, its lowest 
of six, and its paramese, which is concordant with the 
hypate in the sesquialteran ratio, of nine units ; and 
we said a that there were eight units in the mese. 
These ratios, it so happens, enter into the principal 
intervals of music : the fourth (which follows the ses- 
quitertian ratio), the fifth (which follows the sesquial- 
teran), and the octave (following the duple) ; indeed 
the sesquioctavan is also accounted for, as it is the ratio 
found in the tone. And it turns out that the parts and 
means of harmony exceed and are exceeded by one 
another by the same differences both when reckoned 
in numbers and in terms of geometrical relation. 
Thus Aristotle assigns to the means the following 
properties : the nete exceeds the mese by a third 
part of itself, and the hypate is exceeded by the mese 
in the same way. 5 Thus the excesses are relative, 
for it is by the same submultiples that the exceeding 
and being exceeded take place c (since it is in the 
same ratios that the extremes exceed and are ex- 
ceeded by the mese and the paramese, the sesquiter- 
tian and the sesquialteran). d Such then is the har- 
monic exceeding and being exceeded. The difference 

next note but one. The subject here is the harmonic mean, 
represented by the mese or the number eight, while the 
extremes are represented by the nete and hypate or by the 
numbers 12 and 6. 

c One extreme (the nete, 12) exceeds the mese or " mean " 
(8) by 4, which is one third of 12, while the other extreme, the 
hypate (6) is exceeded by the mese by 2, which is one third of 
the hypate. The interpolator (perhaps the compiler himself) 
who read paramese above thought of the hypate (6) as being 
exceeded by the paramese (9) by 3, which is a third of 9. 

d The words in parentheses are an interpolation, probably 
by the compiler. The paramese has no place in the discussion 
of the harmonic mean. 

407 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1139) ox?) koI r) 1 rfjs fieGrjs Kar dpiQp,r]riK6v Xoyov loco 

fl€p€L 2 TCLS V7T€pOXaS ifMc/xiLVOVOLV. (d)GaVra)S KOLL 

F rj Trapa/xearj rrjs virdrrjs' rrjs yap fJbearjg r) rrapa- 
liearf Kara rov erroyhoov Xoyov vrrepexei' rrdXiv r) 
vedrrj rrjs vrrdrrjs hnrXaoia iartv, r) Se rrapapbeGrj 
rrjs vrrdrrjs rjpuoXios, r) Se puearj errirpiros rrpos 
VTrdrrjv rjpp,oGr at.) koll rols p>ev Repeal koX rols 
TrXrjdeaL koll Kara ^ ApiGroreXrf r) ap\iovia ovrojs 

e^OVGa 7T€(j)VK€V. 

24. " HvV€GTTjK€ §€ (f)VGLKOJrara €K T€ TTjS (17761- 
pOV KOLL 7T€pCLlV0VO7]S KCLl €K TTjS apriOTTepiGGOV 

cf)VG€cos Kcd avrr) koll rd fieprj avrrjs rrdvra. avrr) 
[lev yap oXrj apria €gtlv, rerpap,epr)s ovGa rots 
Spots* rd Se p>eprj avrrjs 5 Kal oi Xoyoi aprioi Kal 
1140 rrepLGGol Kal 6 dpriorrepiGGOi. rrjv puev yap vedrrjv 
k\ei dpriav €K SojSeKa jJiovdSojv, rrjv Se TrapapueGrjv 
TrepLGGTjv e£ evvea fJLOvdSojv, rrjv Se pLeGrjv 1 dpriav 
i£ oKrco [JLovdSojv, rrjv Se vrrdrrjv apriorrepiGGOv e£ 
[Aovd8o)v ovGav. ovroj Se ire^vKvla avrr] re Kal rd 
jJbeprj avrrjs rrpos dXXrjXa rats vrrepoxals re Kal 
rols Xoyois, oXrj re oXrj 8 Kal rols puepeGL GVjJLtfiojvel. 

1 r) added by Bern. 2 fiepci] nXi/jOei ? 

8 7rapafjL€ar) — 7Tapaixdor)] 7iapa[iiar\ M V. 

4 apiGTorcXr) V a 1 W N (M and a omit the termination) : 
-rjv a 2 AE vq. 5 avrrjs] avrols M. 

6 kol] N omits. 7 fjidorjv] irapa iieorjv W. 

8 oXrj T€ oXrj aN c (-77 from -et) vq : oXy re 6X-q A (re E) ; 
oXrj re (or re) SXtj (o- W). 

° The arithmetic mean or " mese " between 12 and 6 is 9 ; 
and it is represented by the paramese, and not by the note 
called mese. We assume that the words rendered " the 
difference of the nete and that of the arithmetical mes£ " 
mean " the difference of the nete from the arithmetical mese 
and that of the arithmetical mese from the hypate." 

408 



ON MUSIC, 1139-1M0 

of the nete and that of the arithmetical mese a present 
on the other hand remainders that are equal. (So 
too does that of the paramese and hypate ; for the 
paramese exceeds the mese in the sesquioctavan 
ratio, and again the nete exceeds the hypate in the 
duple ratio, the paramese the hypate in the sesquial- 
teran, and the mese the hypate in the sesquitertian.) b 
Such then according to Aristotle as well is the con- 
stitution of harmony both in the matter of sub- 
multiples and of numerical amounts. 

24. " Harmony and all its parts are composed in 
their ultimate substance of the natures of the Un- 
limited, of Limit, and of the Even-odd. c Thus har- 
mony d itself, taken as a whole, is even, having four 
terms e ; whereas its constituents and ratios are 
even, odd, and even-odd. Thus it has an even^ 
nete, of twelve units, but an odd paramese, of nine ; 
again an even mese, of eight units, and an even-odd 
hypate, of six. Since harmony itself is of this struc- 
ture, and since its constituents have this natural rela- 
tion to one another in their numerical differences 
and their ratios, harmony is concordant with itself as 
a whole and with its parts. 

6 This is another interpolation, perhaps by the compiler 
himself. The interpolator took the arithmetical " mese " 
(" mean ") to be the note actually called " mese " (" middle"). 

c According to the Pythagoreans even belongs to the Un- 
limited, odd to Limit : cf. Aristotle, Physics, iii. 4 (203 a 
10-15). 

d The Pythagoreans used " harmony " of the octave ; cf. 
Philolaiis, Frag, b 6 (Diets and Kranz, Frag, der Vorsokratiker, 
i, p. 409. 10). 

e The nete (12), paramese (9), mese (8), and hypate (6). 

1 One would expect " odd-even " ; cf. Nicomachus, Intro- 
duction to Arithmetic, i. 10. 

409 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1140) 25. " 'AAAct p,r)v /cat at aloOrjoets at 1 rots' ow/JLa- 
oiv eyy ty v 6 puevai 2, Sta rrjv dpfxoviav, at \xev ovpdvcai, 3 
Qeiou ovuaiy puera Oeov rrjv atoOrjoiv irapzypiizvai 
B rots* avOpdiiTOis, oifiis re /cat aKorj, pberd (fxjovfjs /cat 
(Jxjotos rrjv dppLoviav zTTujyaivovoi' /cat 4 aAAat Se 
avracs (xkoXovOoi, fj aloOrjaeis, /ca# J dp\xoviav ovv- 
eordotv' rravra yap /cat avrai emreXovcnv ovk dvev 
dpjxovias , 5 eXdrrovs fiev €/cetVa>v ovooll, ovk drro S' 
€K€iva)v e/cetVat yap a/xa deov irapovoia irapayiyvo- 
fievai* rot? awpuauiv /cara Aoyta/xov laxvpdv re /cat 
KaArjv (f>vocv h'xovoi. 1 

26. " Oavepo^ ovv e/c tovtojv on rots ttclAouols 
t(x)v 'EAAt^ow et/cora)? /xaAtara Trdvrojv epueArjae 
TreTTOuSevodaL puovoucqv. rtbv yap veojv rds ifjvxds 
ipovro Selv Sta fJbovcriKrjs TrXdrreiv re /cat pvOpbi^etv 

€7TL TO eVOXTjfJLOV, XP 7 ] ^ 7 ]^ StjXoVOTL TtJ? fJLOVOlKTJS 

C virapxovor)s irpos irdvra Kaipov /cat 8 rraoav iu7TOV- 
SaofJbevrjv Trpa^iv, TTporjyovpLevcos Se 77-00? tou? 7roAe- 

fJLLKOVS KtvhvVOVS . 77/30? OU9 Ot /X£> auAot? €^0CO>TG >, 

KaSduep Aa/ceSat/xoVtot, 9 7ra/)' ot? to KaXovfievov 

1 at] eV V v (aV q ac ). a iyyiyvofievai] ~yiv- N. 

3 After ovpdviai Thurot would add /cat. 

4 After Kal Hose would add at. 

5 riWu dp/iowas] aV zvapftovias M. 

6 7rapaytyi/o/xej^at] -ytr- a a ; -yei>- N. 

7 exovGi] -iv v 1 ; -at v 18s (now struck out). 

8 Kaipov /cat] /cat a. 

9 Aa/ceoatftdvtot] Aa/ceSat/xdvtotS' M. 

a Of. Aristotle, Eudemus, Frag. 48 (ed. Hose), On Philo- 
sophy, Frag. 24 (ed. Ross) : "And Proclus would have it that 
the celestial bodies have only sight and lira ring, as does Aris- 
totle ; for alone of the senses they have those that contribute 
to well-being, but not to being, while the other senses con- 
tribute to being ..." 
410 



ON MUSIC, 1140 

25. " Again, of the senses which are engendered 
in our bodies because of harmony those that are 
celestial, sight and hearing, being divine b and having 
God as helper in providing men with sensation, reveal 
this harmony c to the accompaniment of sound and 
light ; and other senses too that come in their train 
are by virtue of being senses composed in conformity 
with a harmony. For these senses also in all of their 
effects have some harmony , d and while inferior to the 
first are not severed from them. 6 For the first, as they 
appear in our bodies along with the presence of God 
by way of reasoning/ have a powerful and noble 
nature. 

26. " It is evident then from this that the ancients 
among the Greeks were with good reason concerned 
above all with training in music. For they thought 
that the minds of the young should be moulded and 
modulated by music to a pattern of graceful bearing, ' 
since music is helpful for every occasion and all serious 
activity, but especially for meeting the perils of war. 
In meeting these some employed auloi, like the 
Lacedaemonians,' 1 among whom the so-called Air of 

& Cf. Aristoxenus ap. Philodemus, De Musica, iii, Frag. 
76. 15-19 (p. 54, ed. Kemke ; p. 116, cd. van Kreveien) ; 
Aristoxenus, Frag. 73 (ed. Wehrli). 

c Cf. Plato, Timaeus, 47 b 5-d 7. 

d For proportion in sensation cf. Aristotle, De Anima, iii. 
2. 9 (426 a 27-b 7). 

e The Greek in this paragraph is often strange and very 
probably corrupt. 

f That is, their cause is intelligence, not necessity : cf. e.g. 
Plato, Timaeus, 47 e 3-5. 

Cf. Plato, Republic, iii, 401 d 8. 

h Cf. Life of Lycurgus, chap. xxii. 4-5 (53 e-f) and Aulus 
Gellius, Attic Nights^'i. 11. 1. 

411 



PLUTARCH'S MOKALiA 

(1140) KoLGTopetov 1 rjvXelro pueXos onoTe rols TroXepLLOts ev 
KOOfAtp TrpoGrjeoav /xa^ecro/xevcH. 2 ol Se koli npos 

XvpaV €7TOLOVV TTJV TTpOGoSoV TTjV 77/00? TOVS eVCLV- 

riovs s KaOdrrep loropovvrai p^eXP 1 ^oAXov xP^ aa " 
adai tco rpoiTO) tovtoj- rrjs irrl tovs rroXepLLKOVS* 
klvSvvovs e£6Sov Kprjres. ol S' ere koX kolO* 
rjpb&s GaXmy^Lv 4 oiareAovGiv ^paj/xewn. 'Apyetot 
Se TTpos T7jv tcjv Ysdeveicov tcov KaXovpbevojv Trap 
avTols TraArjv* ixpwvro rep auAar tov Se aywva 
tovtov irrl Aaraaj puev ttjv apx^v TeOrjval (fxioiv, 

D VGTepov Se dvaTedrjvac Aa S0€Vta>. 6 ov pbr)v dXXd 
erx 7 koll vvv rols irevTaOXois vevopLLorai irpoGavXel- 
odai* ovSev jjlcv KeKpLfxevov oi)S' dpx^uov, oi)S' 
olov ivofjbe^ero uapa rots dvhpdaiv eKeivois wGirep 
to vtto 9 *YepaKos TreTroirjixevov irpos rr)v dycovlav 
ravriqv 6 eKaXetTO 'EvSpofATj' opuojs Se koI ei 
aGdeves tl koI ov KeKptpuevov, aAA' ovv rrpoG- 
avXelrai. 10 

27. " 'Em fJbevroL tojv en dpx^iOTepoiv ovSe 
eiScVcu </>aox tovs "FjXXrjvas ttjv OearpiKTjv pLovGav, 
oXijv Se avrois rrjv e7TiGTi)\x>i)v irpos re Oetbv ti[jl7]v 
kg! ttjv tow veoyv rraiSevGiv 7rapuXa(if$dvea0ai, pbrjSe 

E to TTapduav rjSrj OeaTpov rrapd toIs dvSpdaw €K€i- 
vois KaTeGKevaGfievov , dXXd ert ttjs pLovGiKrjS ev 
tols lepols dvaGTpecj)op,evr]S , n ev ols TipL7]v re tov 

1 liaoropeiov] Kaarajpiov M ac ; Kaoopiov V ac . 

2 /xa^ead/tevot] /xtt^d/xevot W. 

3 noAe/jUKovs] noAepLiKov M ; \Y omits. 

4 GaAmy^i (-w M)j oaA-m£i V a ac . 

5 irdXriv aN : TraAiv. 6 £#eyio>] -eia> N 1 . 

7 en] /cat en a ar ? V. 
8 77y)ocrai;Aetcr#cu] TrpoavAzlodai V c (from -Ar/-)(j. 

412 



ON MUSIC, 1140 

Castor was played on the auloi whenever in well- 
ordered ranks they advanced to fight the enemy. 
Others marched to battle to the music of the lyre ; 
thus the Cretans a are on record as having long main- 
tained this practice when setting out to face the perils 
of war. Others again even in our day maintain the 
use of trumpets. b The Argives played the aulos at 
the wrestling match belonging to the festival called 
by them the Stheneia. It is said that the contest was 
originally instituted in honour of Danaiis, and was 
later consecrated to Zeus Sthenius. Nay even now it- 
is the rule to conduct the pentathlic contests to the 
sound of the aulos. The music, to be sure, is in this 
case nothing distinguished or in the classic style, nor 
like the pieces that were the rule among the men of 
old, such as Hierax's G composition for this contest 
which was called Endrome d ; yet feeble and un- 
distinguished though the music is, the aulos is never- 
theless played. 

27. " Certainly in still more ancient times the 
Greeks, it is said, did not even know of the music of 
the theatre, and for them the whole of this science 
was handed down for the purpose of honouring the 
gods or educating the young. No theatre at all had 
as yet even been set up among the men of those days ; 
rather music still had its abode in temples, where it 

a Cf. Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights, i. 11. 6. 

6 Presumably the Romans are meant. 

c Cf Pollux, iv. 79. 

d Weil and Reinach suggest that the word may refer to 
the run up to the long jump. It means " launching " or 
11 charge." 

9 to vtto) rov a. 

10 77-pocrauActTou] TrpoavXeTraL vq. 

11 dvaoTpe(f)Ofi€vr)S (-arp- v)] -ois V. 

418 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1140) Oelov Sia, ravrrjg Zttoiovvto kcu tojv dyaOcov dvSptov 
erraivovs' €ikos Se ztvcu, on 1 to dearpov vorepov 
koll to Oeojpelv ttoXv irporepov aVo rov deov rrjv 
rr poorly opiav eXafiev. em \l£vtoi twv /«x#' rj[J,as 
Xpovcov togovtov irnSeScoKev to ttJs* SccufrOopas 2 
elSos ware rov jjuev TTai&evTLKOv rpoTTOV fJbrjSefJbiav 
F puveuav fJLTj&e dvrlXrjifjLV elvai, iravras Se tovs /jlov- 

(TLK7JS CLTTTOfJLeVOVS TTpOS T7JV deOLTplKTjV 7TpOGK€)(Oj- 
p7]K€Vat 3 fJLOVGCLV. 

28. " EiVoi tls aV 4 * ' d) rdv, ovSev ovv vtto 5 tcov 
dp^aiojv TTpooe^evprjrai kclI K€Kaivor6jJir)TaL ; ' (f>r)- 
fjl koL clvtos on TTpoGetjevprjrai, dXXd fxera rov 
aejJbvov koI upeuovTo^. ol yap loroprjoavres rd 

TOLOLVTOL TepTTOLVOptp pL€V TTjV T€ AojpLOV VrjTTjV lipOO- 

ertdeGav, ov )(pr]GafJL€VOJV avrfj tojv efJLirpooOev 
Kara to jiteAos" kclI tov M.i£oXv8lov Se rovov oXov 
irpooe^evpfjodou Xeyerac, teal rov rr\s opOiov fieXoj- 
Stas" rpoTTOV rov Kara tovs opOiovs upos re ra> 
opdtcp koX rov arjfjbavrov 6 rpo^alov. ert 7 Se, Kadd- 
Trep YllvSapos (frrjGi, kqX ra)v gkoXio)v [JbeXcov Tep- 
TTdv&pos evperrjs rjv dXXd fJLTjv kcll 'Ap^iAo^os 1 rrjv 

1 klvai on Aid. 2 Xylander : on (e omits) elvai (on koX 
Dubner). 

2 hia<f>Qopas M a (-as W) a q : hiacf)opds V N v. 
:j 7rpooK€x<Dpr)K€vai] K€x<*> pi) k4v at V. 

4 eiiTOi ns aV nos : eirroi ns (ioojs S' aV €lttol ns Bern. ; /cat 
jir)v av €lttol ns or rt 8* aV €lttol ns Ziegler). 

5 vtto] ol7t6 vq. 

6 TTpOS T€ TW Opditp Kdl TOV OrjfJLCLVTOV RoSSbach I TT. TOV 6p6lOV 

O7)fxavrov (tt. t. opdiov [end of line] -orj/jLavrov M ; tt. t. opOiov 
or\[iavTov V ; tt. r. opOioorfpLavTov W). 

7 ert (praeterea Valgulius) Wyttenbae.h : et. 

414 






ON MUSIC, 1140 

was used in worship and in the praise of good men. a 
This they say is likely, since the word theatron & at a 
later time, and the word theorem c much earlier, were 
derived from tkeos. d But in our own day the decadent 
kind has made such progress that there is no talk or 
notion of an educational use, and all who engage in 
music have entered the service of the music of the 
theatre. 

28. " Here someone might ask : ' You mean then, 
my friend, that the ancients made no new inventions 
and introduced no innovations ? ' I too say that new 
inventions were made, but without derogating from 
nobility and decorum. Thus those who have looked 
into these matters assign to Terpander the invention 
of the Dorian nete e (his predecessors having made 
no use of it in the melody) ; and it is said that he in- 
vented the whole Mixolydian mode and the style of 
orthian melody which uses the orthios foot/ and in 
addition to this foot that he also invented the marked 
trochee. 5 ' Again, as Pindar h says, Terpander was 
also the inventor of the music of scolia. Further, 
Archilochus invented a new rhythmical system, that 

a Cf. Plato, Republic, x, 607 a and Laws, vii, 801 e. 

b " Theatre." 

c " To be a spectator," especially at a religious ceremony. 
The etymology is attacked by Philodemus, De Musica, iv, 
col. 4. 40-col. 5. 12 ; cf. also i, Frag. 23. For this etymology 
of theoros (" spectator ") cf. Etym. Mag. 448. 42 and Etym. 
Gild. 260. 41. 

d " God." 

e Cf [Aristotle], Problems, xix. 32 (920 a 14-18). 

/ The orthios has an arsis of four morae and a thesis of 
eight (Aristides Quintilianus, Be Mus. i. 16 [p. 37, ed. 
Meibom ; p. 36. 3-4, ed. Winnington-Ingram]). 

9 The marked trochee has a thesis of eight morae and an 
arsis of four (Aristides Quintilianus, De Mus. i. 16). 

h Cf. Frag. 129 (ed. Turyn), 125-126 (ed. Snell). 

415 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1.1.40) TtOV TpLfJLerpCDV 1 pv9fJL07TO UCLV TTpOO€^€Vp€V KCLI TTJV 
1141 €6? TOVS OVX 6jMOy€V€LS pvdflOVS €VTCLOlV KCLI TTjV 

7rapaKaraXoyy]v koL ttjv nepl tclvtcl Kpovoiv rrpojTcp 
Se avrcp rd re incpSa kcli to, rerpapierpa kcli to 

Kp7]TlKOV KCLI TO TTpOOoSlCLKOV OLTToSeSoTCU KCLI Tj 

tov rjpcpov 2 avtjrjois, vji ivitov 8e kcli to eXeyeiov, 
npos §e tovtois ij t€ tov laLifieiov* rrpos tov im- 

f$CLTOV TTCLLCOVa €VTCLOLS KCLI 7] TOV rjV^rjLieVOV TJpOJOV 
€LS T€ TO TTpOGOOlCLKOV KCLL TO & KpTjTlKOV. €TL Se 

Ttov laLifleiow to tcl fiev XeyeoOai rrapd tt)v Kpov- 
oiv, tol 0€ aoecsdai, 'ApxiXoftov tfraoi /caraSeifai, 
€i6* ovTto xP" / j aa(J $ ai tovs TpayiKOvs TTOirjTas' 
B Kpe£oi> Se XaftovTci els oidvpaiifiov dyayeiv. 1 oiovtcli 

Se KCLI TTjV KpOVOlV TTjV V7T0 TTjV OJOTJV TOVTOV TTpCO" 

tov evpelv, tov? Se apxalovs rrdvTOS 8 rrpooxopSa 9 
Kpoveiv. 

29. " YloXvLivrjOTOj 10 Se tov 0' 'YttoXvSiov vvv 

1 rptfierpcov] fierpwv aN. 

2 KprjTLKOv Burette (7rp0KprjTLK6v Ritschl) : upoKpniKov. 

3 rjpcpov Salmasius : -nptoTov. 

4 lailpelov M a c N 1 vq : -tow. 

5 TO 77. KOL TO S : TOV 77. Kol TOV. 

6 iafifj€ia>v M a c vq : -lcov. 

7 hidvpaixfiov dyayeZv Lasserre : hidvpa}.ifiov (SidvpapLptov Volk- 
mann ; Bi[bv v]Gv\\afiov vq) xPV oa<J ^ aL (xPV mv j/ ^ 2 ) dyayciv 
(Sidvpafji^cov [-ov] xprjoaadat aytoyr)v ?). 

8 TrdvT as] TrdvTo. Westphal. 

9 77pda^opSa] TrpoaxovSpa W ; 7rp6axopSa v ; 77po^opSa q 188 . 
10 UoXvfimjcrra) Weil and Reinach : TroXvpLvdoTco. 

a That is, the iambic trimeter. Perhaps the term rhyth- 
mopoeia (rendered " rhythmical system ") is intended to ex- 
clude the use of occasional iambic trimeters in the Margites, 
ascribed to Homer : Archilochus composed whole poems in 
iambic trimeters. 

416 






ON MUSIC, 1140-1141 

of the trimeter, a the combination of rhythms of 
different genera, 6 and the declamation with its in- 
strumental accompaniment ; and he is the first to be 
credited with epodes, c tetrameters,^ the cretic, e the 
prosodiac/ and the augmented dactylic hexameter 9 
(some add the elegiac couplet), and again with the 
combination of iambic verse with the paeon epibatos h 
and that of the augmented dactylic hexameter with 
the prosodiac and the cretic* Further they say that 
Archilochus introduced for iambics the mixed recita- 
tion of some and singing of others, both to an accom- 
paniment, and that the tragic poets followed him in 
this, while Crexus took it over and applied it to the 
dithyramb. And it is thought that he first invented 
the accompaniment that is of higher pitch than the 
song, whereas his predecessors had all let the accom- 
paniment follow the melody. 

29. " To Polymnestus is ascribed the mode now 

6 Thus he combined dactyls (a rhythm of the " equal 
genus," thesis and arsis being of the same length) with 
trochees (which belong to the " duple genus," where the 
thesis is twice the length of the arsis) in such a line as 

V^i — ^/ V - \~/ \^ — s-/ — W — V^» — <^>. 

c An epodos is a verse of different rhythm or length coming 
after (literally " singing after ") another verse with which it 
forms a distich. The elegiac couplet is an instance ; hence 
its attribution to Archilochus. 

d That is, the trochaic tetrameter. 

e Perhaps here the ditrochee (as found in the ithyphallic) ; 
possibly the foot - ^ - which when prefixed to the iambic 
trimeter turns it into a trochaic tetrameter. 

f Perhaps the rhythm ^-^w-^^-^. 

9 No doubt the verse -^^-ww-^^-ww | - w — w- v^. 

h Perhaps here - w w - ^ ^ - - . Archilochus combines it 
with iambics in such verses as - w ss — w w - | ^-w-^-^- 
and v— \j — \s — \s — I -ws^-v^^-. 

* No such combination is found among the fragments of 
Archilochus. 

vol. xiv p 417 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1141) ovopLa^opuevov tovov avariOeaaiv, koX ttjv €kAvolv 
kolI ttjv €Kf$oAr)v rroXv /xet£o> TTZTroirjKzvai <f>aoiv 
avTov. kolI avrov 8e tov 1 "OXv/jlttov £k€lvov, to St) 
ttjv <ipxy v r y$ ' EAAyji'LKrjs re koll vofMKrjs fJbovcrqs 
airoSiSoaGiv, to re ttjs appbovias ytvos e^evpetv 

(frcLGLV KOLL TO)V pvdfJLOJV TOV T€ TTpOOoSlOLKOV, 2 €V Lp 

6 tov "Apecos 3 vopLos, kolI tov xopelov, to ttoAAo) 
K£~)(pr}Tai ev tols M.r)Tptpois' evioi Se kcll tov j8a/c- 

)(€LOV "QAvpLTTOV OLOVTCLL €VpT]K€Vai. SrjAoL* S' €K0L~ 
GTOV TO)V apXULOJV (JLeAoJV OTL TOLVTCL OVTCOS ^X €L ' 

C " Aacro? 5 Se 6 'EpfiLovevs els ttjv SiOvpapi^tKrjv 
dyojyrjv {JLeTaoTTjoas tovs pvOpbovs, koi ttj twv 
avAcov rroAv(f)OJvia KaTaKoAov6r)cras , TrAeiooi* T€ 
<j)d6yyoLS koi SieppcfJUfievoLS^ xP r J (J( ^l J,€V0? > € ^ /^€Ta- 
deoLV ttjv rrpovTrdpxovoav rjyayev jjlovolktjv. 8 

30. " 'OpLolcos Se koll M.eAav LTnTL&rjs 6 pLeAorroLos 

€7TLy€v6pL€VOS Ol)K €V€fJL€LV€V 9 TTJ TTpOVlTapXOVOT) fJLOV- 

OLxfj, aAA' ovSe <4>LA6£evos ovSe 10 Ttjuo^eos" ovtos 
yap, iiTTa(f)96yyov tt)s Avpas vrrapxovGrjS ecus els 

TepTTCLvSpOV 11 TOV ' AvTLGGOLLOV, 8L€ppLlfj€V els TrAeLOVOLS 

(f)66yyovs. dAAa yap koll avArjTLKTj a7ro 12 a7rAot>- 

1 8e tov a 2 W a vq : oe tov Be tov M V a 1 (the second Be 
unaccented) ; tov N. 

2 TTpOOoSlOLKOV] TTpOOoBlKCJV W 1 (-OV W 2 ). 

3 "Apecos] dpeos aN. 

4 877A01 Wyttenbach : BfjAov. 

5 Aaoos Volkmann : Aacros-. 

6 7T\€lOGl] Tt\£ooL V r . 

7 BieppipLfxevois a 2 aN vq : -ipue- M V a 1 W. 

8 tt\v up. rjyaye (-ev M) /x.] ttjv /x. 7Tp. rjyayev aN 2 ; ttjs fiov- 
oiktjs Trp. rjyayev N 1 . 

9 evefietve (-ev W)] evep.eivev ev M. 

10 ovoe D v 2 Aid. 2 : 6 Be. 

11 TeprravBpov] y ApioTOK\eiBr]v TepTrdvBpeiov Westphal. 

12 dno] v omits. 

418 






ON MUSIC, 1141 

called Hypolydian, and it is said that he greatly in- 
creased the eclysis and the ecbole. a Again, the great 
Olympus himself, who is credited with having initi- 
ated Greek and nomic music, is said to have invented 
the enharmonic genus and among rhythms the pros- 
odiac h (in which the nome of Ares is composed) and 
the choree, which he largely employed in his compo- 
sitions in honour of the Great Mother ; some think 
that Olympus also invented the bacchius. d The 
various pieces of ancient music all show the truth of 
this. 

" Lasus of Hermione/ by altering the rhythms to 
the tempo of the dithyramb, and by taking the ex- 
tensive range f of the auloi as his guide and thus 
using a greater number of scattered notes/ trans- 
formed the music that had heretofore prevailed. 

30. " Similarly Melanippides h the composer, who 
flourished later, did not stick to the traditional music, 
nor yet Philoxenus or Timotheus ; for Timotheiis 
broke up the seven notes which the lyre had had as 
far back as the time of Terpander of Antissa,* in- 
creasing their number. Indeed aulos-playing as well 

° Cf Aristides Quintilianus, Be Mus. i. 10 (p. 28, ed. 
Meibom ; p. 28. 4-6, ed. Winnington-Ingram) : " The lower- 
ing of pitch by three non-composite dieses [that is, quarter 
tones] was called eclysis, the raising of the pitch by the same 
interval was called spondeiasmos, and the raising of the pitch 
by five dieses ecbole." Cf also Bacchius, Isagoge, 37, 41-42. 

6 See the note on 1141 a, supra. 

c Different authors apply the name to - ^ and ^ ^ ^ . 

d Different authors apply the name to — w, ^ — , — w v^ -, 
w — ^, and ^ w — . 

e Frag, a 10 (ed. del Grande). 

' Cf. Plato, Republic, iii, 399 d 3-5. 

9 No doubt the notes filled the gaps in the old scales. 

* Frag, a 4 (ed. del Grande). 

* Frag. 5 (Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Gr* iii, p. 11). 

419 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1141) ore pas els TTOLKiXajrepav fjLeTafiefirjKev iiovgiktjv to 

yap iraXaiov, ews els M.eXavnnTiS'qv rov rwv 8i6v- 

pdfifioDV 7ToirjT7]V } uvp^fie^Kei rovs avXrjrds irapd 

D rCov TTOiTjTOJV Xajifiaveiv rovs jjlujOovs, irpwraycovi- 

orovarjs 8tiXov6tl rrjs Troirjoecos, ra>v 8' avXrjrojv 

VTT^peTOVVTOJV 1 Tols SlScLGKOlXoIS' VOTtpOV 8i KCLl 

tovto Siecfyddprj, cbs koll Oepe/cpar^ 2 rov KOjpuKov 
eloayayecv tt)v M.ovoiKrjv 3 iv yvvaiKeito a^rifiari 
oXrjv KaTrjKiofjLevrjv to ocopia' iroiei 8e rrjv At/cato- 
ovvtjv 8ia7rvv6avopbivr]v ri)v alriav rrjs Xuyftrjs kgll 
rrjv UoirjGLV Xeyovaav 

Ae£oj fjuev* ovk olkovocl' ooi re yap kXv€lv 
ifJLoi re Xe^ac pivdos 5 rjSovrjv ^X €L - 
ifMol ydp fjpiz Tcov kolkojv M.eXav ltt7t I8rj s , 
E iv toloi 7Tpa)Tos* os Xaficbv dvrJKe JJb€ 

XaXapojrepav 1 r' 8 irroLrjoe )(op8ats SojSe/ax. 
dAA' OVV OfJLOJS ovros fJ,ev rjv diroxp&v dvrjp 
epuocye irpos ra vvv /ca/ca. 9 
Kivrjoias 8e fi 10 6 Kardparos 'Attlkos 
e^apfJbovLOVs Kapbrras ttoicjv 11 iv rats orpo<f>aZs 12 

1 V7Trjp€TOVVT(x)v] V7T7)p€TOVV TOiV M \ VTTT) pCTOVTCOV Vq 1?aC? . 

2 Oe/36/c/oar^] -rjv N vq. 

3 rrjv MovaiKrjv] rov jjlovolkov M ac . 

4 Ae£o> fj.€v (Ae£a) fi€v N)] Xeyw fxev V. 

6 fjivdos Weil and Reinach (jjlvOov Kock) : dvfxos. 

6 7Tpa>ros Meineke : irpwrois. 

7 xaAapa>T€pav (and so V 2 )] ^aAtttcurcpav M V c (from a*-). 

8 t*] N vq omit. 

9 Bothe supplies 7rplv cv&ck ovgwv before dAA', omitting 
ovv ; Kock suggests eis r-qv rexvrjv before e^oiye^ but prints a 
lacuna instead ; During supposes a lost remark by Justice 
after /ca/cd. 

10 fi added by Meineke. 

420 



ON MUSIC, 1141 

passed from simpler to more complex music. For 
formerly, up to the time of the dithyrambic poet 
Melanippides, it had been the custom for the auletes 
to receive their pay from the poets, the words evi- 
dently playing the major role, and the auletes sub- 
ordinating themselves to the authors of them ; but 
later this practice also was lost. Thus Pherecrates 
the comic poet introduces Music in the guise of a 
woman whose whole person has been brutally mauled ; 
and he lets Justice ask how she came to suffer such 
an outrage. Poetry replies a : 

Then gladly will I speak ; you in the hearing 

Will find your pleasure, in the telling I. 

My woes began with Melanippides. 

He was the first who took and lowered me, 

Making me looser with his dozen strings. 

Yet after all I found him passable 

Compared with what I suffer now. 

But the Athenian, curst Cinesias, 

Producing off-key shifts b in every movement c 

a From the Che iron of Pherecrates : Frag. 145 (Kock, 
Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta, vol. i, p. 188 ; Edmonds, 
Fragments of Attic Comedy, vol. i, p. 262). Perhaps the 
author introduced this comic fragment and the next to lend 
to his " symposium " the element of playfulness and comedy 
that the literary symposium was supposed to join with 
seriousness : cf. Josef Martin, Sympbsion. Die Geschichte 
enter Uterarischen Form (Paderborn, 1031), pp. £-18. 

For the interpretation of the fragment see I. During, 
** Studies in Musical Terminology in 5th-Century Literature," 
E ratios, vol. xliii (1945), pp. 176-197. 

6 I. During interprets kampe (literally a " bend, 1 ' here 
rendered " shift ") as a modulation. 

e Strophai (literally " turns " or " twists," here rendered 
" movement ") has presumably also a musical sense, perhaps 
that of " stanzas." 

11 7tol6jv \ Tt a 2 aN vq : ttoicos M a 1 ? W ; ttolws V 1ss . 
12 orpo<f>als a 2 aN q : rpocjxus. 

421 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1141) 0,770 AcoAe^' 1 ovtojs coare rfjs iroirjoecos 

F Ttov oi9vpdp,fiajv KaOdirep iv rats dairluiv 

apiGrep* avrov (fxiiverai to. oe^td. 

dAA' ovv" dveKTOS 3 ovtos rjv ofjucos ifJLoL 41 

<!)pvvis 5 §' lSlov oTpofiiXov ipuBaXcLv riva 

KapUTTTCOV [JL€ KOLL (JTp€<f)WV 8XrjV 8l€(f)9op€V, 
€V 7T€VTa)(6p8oLS 6 ScoSc^' dpfAOVLCLS €^0)F. 

dAA' ovv epLocye ^ovro<s rjv diroy^pojv dvrjp- 
el 1 ydp tl 8 Ka^rjfjLaprev avOis 9 dveXafiev. 
6 Se TtpuoOeos fjb\ 10 c5 cj)tXrdrrj f Karopcopv)(€v 
kolI oiaKCKvaac 11 ata^tcTTa. 12 — II olos ovrool 
6 1 " TifJboQeos ; — M.lXtjgl6s tls 7rvpptas. 
1142 KCLKa fioc 7rap€(7)(€V ofs* 14 diravTas 1 * ovs Xeyco 

irapeAfjAvu enaycov eKrpaireAovs fivpfMrj- 

' 19 

Kias. 

•>\ y / / 20 O <*: Y ' ' 

kolv evrvxD ttov fJboi paOL^ovar] fiovri 
dneXvae hcdveXvae 21 xopSax? 22 ScoSeKa. 

1 airo\(x>\€x Meineke : aVoAwAeKe fie. 

2 ovv Wyttenbach : ovk. 

3 olv€ktos Emperius : av etVot?. 

4 ofjLton ifjioi Wyttenbach : Sfiws ojjlqjs (Sficos v). 

5 QpvvLs Runkel : </>pvvis. 

6 irevraxopbois vq : Trevraxopbais (no accent in V aN) M 
a 1 A 1 W ; Trivre xop&ais a 2 A 2 E. 

7 el ft : fjv M V W] rjv a aN vq. 

8 ti] ns M. 

9 avOis a 2 AE S : avns {avns U 1?ac? ). 

10 \l s : /xe. 

11 hiaK€KvaiK v (no accent) q : SiaKtKvaix '• 

12 CLLGX^o-ra (at- W)] atox LCrraL V c a ar . 

13 o added by Meineke. 

14 oh Wilamowitz : ovros (Lloyd- Jones would place ovros 
before Ka/ca, reading 7rapecrx(<0). 

15 dnavras] irdvras Jacobs. 

422 



ON MUSIC, 1141-1112 

Has so undone me that his dithyrambs 

Like objects mirrored in a polished shield 

Show his dexterity to be left-handed. 

Yet still and all I could put up with him. 

But Phrynis had a screwbolt all his own a 

And bent and twisted me to my perdition ; 

His pentachords would play a dozen keys.'' 

Yet him too in the end I could accept, 

For he recovered later when he slipped. 

But Oh ! my dear, Timotheiis is murder, 

Mayhem and outrage !— And who is the man ? 

— A redhead c from Miletus. He's been worse 

Than all the other fellows put together ; 

His notes crawl up and down the scale like ants, d 

And when he finds me on a walk alone e 

He tears f and breaks 9 me with his dozen strings. 

a Literally a " pine-cone." During suggests that it was a 
mechanical device for raising or lowering the pitch. 

b Instead of the trichords of Olympus or the tetrachords of 
Aristoxenus we here have pentachords, that is, five notes in 
the range of a musical fourth. 

c Pyrrhias (redhead) was a slave's name. Cf. also [Aris- 
totle,] Physiognomonica 6 (812 a 16) : " Redheads are great 
rascals ; this is explained by reference to the fox." 

d Cf. Aristophanes, Thesmophoriazusae, 100, where Aga- 
thon is said to be humming " ant's paths." Perhaps when 
the great gaps in the earlier scales were broken down the 
movement from one note to the next was felt to be so slight 
as to resemble the crawling of an ant. 

c That is, not accompanied by words or the dance. 

/ Cf. apolelumena (" set free ") in Aristides Quintilianus 
(he Musica,i. 29) of metres lacking r< sponsion. 

9 Aneluse " broke up " is perhaps to break up larger 
intervals into smaller ones. 

16 TrapeXrjXvd' 8 2 (-dev s) : TrapeXrjXvde (-ev M V W) TrapeATJXvO*. 

17 iiraywv Lloyd-Jones (ioaywv Weil and Reinach) : dycov. 

18 eKTpaTTeXovs (and so q lss )] ev- q 1 . 

19 fjLvpfjL7)Ktds Meineke : -to.?. 

20 pLoc] pur) vq. 

21 drreXvoe KaveXvae] aTrehvoe KaveSvoe Wyttenbach. 

22 x°/°Sat?] x o P$as -I an d Wyttenbach. 

fc23 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 
(1142) Kal ' ApiuTO(f)dvr)s 6 KtofJUKOs p,vr)p,ovevei, tf>iXoi;evov 

KOLL (f)7jGlV OTt €1$ TOVS KVkXlOVS ftOpOVS TOiaVTCL 1 

/jieXrj elGTjveyKO.ro . r) Se hlovGiKrj Xeyei ravra' 

i^apfjbovtovs vrrepfioXalovs re avoaiovs 

koX viyXdpovs , axJirep re ras pa<f)dvovs oXrjv 

KCLJJbTTCOV 2 fJL€ KOLTefJLiEGTCOGe . 

kolI dXXot Se KCjDfJLcpooTTOLol eSetfjav rrjv drorriav TWV 
B puerd ravra rrjv [aovglktjv KaraKeKepjiariKorojv . 
31. " "On Se irapd rds ayojyds Kal rds fiaOrjGeis 
Si6p9a)Gis rj Siaarpo^rj ylverai SrjXov ' Apiaro^evos 
€7TOir)G€v. rcov yap Kara rrjv avrov* rjXtKtav (f)rjGlv 
TeXeGia rco Qrjfialci) GvpbfifjvaL veto puev ovri rpa- 
(firjvat ev rfj KaXXtarrj fjuovaiKfj Kal pbaOelv dXXa re 
rwv evooKipiovvrcov Kal Srj Kal rd WivSdpov rd re 
Alovvglov rod Qrjfiaiov Kal rd Adpurpov Kal rd 
Uparivov Kal rojv Xolttcov ogol rwv XvptKcov dvSpes 
eyevovro rroirjral Kpov/xdrajv dyaOoi' Kal avXijaai 
C Se KaXcos Kal irepl rd Xonrd p>eprj rrjs GvparaGrjs 
rraiSeias LKavojs Siarrovrjdrjvai' rrapaXXd^avra Se 
rrjv rrjs aKfJbrjs rjXiKtav ovroj G<f)6Spa e^aTrarrjdrjvai 
V7to rrjs GK7]viKrjs re Kal ttoikIXtjs pbovGLKrjs* ojs 
Kararf)povrJGat rcov koXcov eKeivojv ev ols dverpdcprj, 

1 Toiavra our supplement ; Westphal would supply fiovw- 
8tfca, Weil and Reinach would add -npo^arioiv aiy&v tc. 

2 KafATTOJv Elmsley (KafnTcov PS ; s omits) : KafinTcov. 

3 avrov Wyttenbach (iavrov T) : aurov. 

4 fjiovGiKrjs] (JLovorjs a. 

° Frag. 641 (ed. Kock). Weil and Reinach suppose that 
the allusion is to Plutus, 293-294. 

6 Frag, a 15 (ed. del Grande). 

c For these see A. W. Pickard-Cambridge, Dithyramb, 
Tragedy and Comedy (Oxford, 1927), pp. 48-49. 

d This seems to mean (if the text is sound our author is an 

424 



ON MUSIC, 1142 

Further, Aristophanes a the comic poet mentions 
Philoxenus b and says that he introduced this kind 
of music into the cyclic choruses. Music speaks as 
follows d : 

. . . damnable and off-key treble quavers 
Infecting me with wrigglers like a cabbage. * 

Other comic poets as well have demonstrated the 
absurdity of those who since then have minced our 
music fine/ 

31. " That success or failure in music depends on 
one's training and instruction is shown by Aristo- 
xenus. 9 ' Thus he says that of his contemporaries 
Telesias h of Thebes had in youth been brought up 
on the finest kind of music, and had been taught 
among other approved compositions those of Pindar, 
Dionysius i of Thebes, Lamprus/ Pratinas, and those 
other lyric poets who had shown themselves excellent 
composers for the cithara ; and that he also performed 
well on the auloi, and had laboured to good purpose 
in the other branches of the musical art ; but when 
past his prime he had been so taken in by the elabor- 
ate music of the theatre that he lost interest in the 
noble works on which he had been reared, and set to 

unskilful excerptor) that Music (in the fragment of Phere- 
crates) speaks as follows (of Philoxenus). 

e Kampon are either " turns " (modulations) in music or 
" cabbage- worms," named from the bend they make in 
crawling (cf. " bend- worms," " loopers "). 

' That is, they introduced smaller intervals. 

9 Frag. 76 (ed. Wehrli) ; Testimonium 26 (ed. da Rios). 

h Otherwise unknown. 

* Probably the celebrated musician who taught Epaminon- 
das the playing of the cithara and singing to it (Nepos, 
Epam. 2. 1). 

i Mentioned by Plato (Menexenus, 236 a). 

425 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1142) to, OtAo£eVot> §e /ecu TifioOeov eKpLavOdvecv Kal tov- 
tojv avrcov tcl TTOiKiXojrara koll TrXetGTTjv iv avrols 1 
eypvra Kaivoropbiav oppbrjGavrd re errl ro iroielv 
fJbeXrj koI ScaTreipcofJLevov dfi(fjorepojv rcov rpoircov, 
rod re UivSapeiov koll rod 2 QiXo^eveiov, purj SuW- 
oOai KaropOovv ev rco <$>iXot;eveUp yevet' yeyeviyjQai 
he air lav rrfv £k ttollSos KaXXiGrrjv dyojyrjv. 

32. Ei ovv ns fiovXerai {iovglktj kolXojs Kal 
D KeKpip,evajs -xpfjoOcu, rov dpx^lov aTTopLipbeLGda) rpo- 
ttov, dXXd pbrjv Kal tols dXXois avrrjv fJLadrjpbaGiv 
dvarrXr] povroj , i<al cj)iXoGocf)Lav eTTLGrrjGarco iraih- 
ayojyov avrrj yap LKavrj Kplvai to pbovGLKjj irpeirov 
fierpov Kal to xpr^Gip^ov . rptcov yap ovrojv puepcbv 
el? a 8ir)pr)rai rrjv KaOoXov hiaipeGiv rj iraGa p,ov- 
glkt], hiarovov, xpojfJLaros, appcovias, eiriGrrjpiova 
Xprj eivai rfjs rovrois xpco/xeV^s" 7TOLr)G€0)s rov p,ov- 

GlKTj TTpOGLOVra KOL TT)S ip(J,7]V€iaS TTjS TO, 7T€7TOir]- 

pueva rrapaSiSovGTjs eirrj(3oXov. 3 

llpcorov puev ovv Karavorjreov on iraGa p,d6rjGis 

E TOW 7T€pl T7]V* p,OVGLK7]V iOiGpbOS 5 CGTLV QvheiTOJ TTpOG" 

1 avrols ZE C : avrols. 
2 rod aN : the rest omit. 

3 ilTTj^oXoV (-TTL- V aC )] €7TLpoAoV V. 

4 rrjv] a omits. 
5 iOiorfjios] iOifJLOS M ; edifjios N. 

a In chapters 32-36 our author's source, Aristoxenus, makes 
extensive use of Plato's programme for a scientific rhetoric 
(Phaedrus, 268 a 1 — 274 b 5). The various musical disciplines 
correspond to Plato's necessary preliminaries (Phaedrus, 268 

426 



ON MUSIC, 1142 

learning by heart the works of Philoxenus and Timo- 
theiis, and even of these choosing the pieces most 
complex and full of innovation. Yet when he set out 
to compose music and tried his hand at both manners 
of composition, Pindar's and Philoxenus', he found 
himself unable to achieve success in the latter ; and 
the reason was his excellent training from boyhood. 

S2. a "And so if one wishes to cultivate music nobly 
and with discrimination, one should copy the ancient 
manner. But one should not stop here ; one should 
supplement it with the disciplines, b and take philo- 
sophy c for guide in youth, since philosophy is com- 
petent to decide the point to which the various skills 
can be employed so as to be appropriate to the musical 
art, and thus determine the whole question of their 
use. d Thus music in general has three main divisions 
— the diatonic, chromatic, and enharmonic genera — , 
and anyone entering a course of study in music should 
have learned the kinds of composition that employ 
these three and have acquired facility in interpreting 
the pieces so composed. 

" Now first it must be understood that all the in- 
struction given in music is a mere habituation which 
has not yet advanced to any insight into the reason 

e 5-6, 269 a 2-3, b 7-8). The art (of music or rhetoric) com- 
bines the products of the various disciplines or the necessary 
preliminaries so that they are appropriate to one another and 
to the whole speech or composition, and aims to produce a 
moral character (in the case of music), or persuasion or virtue 
(in the case of rhetoric). 

b Cf Plato, Phaedrus, 268 e 6, 269 b 8. 

c Cf Plato, Phaedrus, 269 e 4—270 a 8. 

d Cf Plato's example of the would-be musician who can 
produce the highest and lowest possible notes (268 d 7-e 1) 
and his words " to what extent " (268 b 7-8). For " appro- 
priate " cf 268 d 5. 

427 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(J 142) eiArjff)ajs to twos eVe/ca tlov StSaoKOfxevajv (ekolotov 
toj jjbavOdvopTi [xaOrjTeov iartv, j^era Se tovto iv- 

6vfJbr)T€OV OTC 77/30? T7JV TOtaVTTjV dyO)y7]V T€ K(ll 

fidOrjoLV ovSerrco irpoodyeTai Tporrcov e^apiOp^-qois' 
ctAAa ol fjuev 770AA06 elhcfj p,av9dvovoiv o dv tlo Stoa- 
okovtl rj 1 to) ixavddvovTi dpeorj, ol Se ovveTol to 

€LKfj dTToSoKLjJbd^OVGLV, d)OTT€p AcLKeSoUfjiOVlOL TO 

TTaXaiov /cat NlavTivels /cat TleAArjvets' eva ydp Tiva 
Tpoirov rj uavTeAws oAiyovs eKAe^dpuevoi ovs coovto 

F TTpOS TTjV TLOV TjdcOV €7Tav6p0COOtV dpfJLOTT€tV, TaVTlff 
T7J fJLOVOLKTJ €)(ptOVTO . 

33. " Qavepov S' dv yevotTO et tls £t<do*Tr]v i^e- 
ra£ot 3 tlov i7TLOT7]p,u)v tlvos €otI deojprjriKij' SrjAov 
yap otl 77 fjiev dppiovLKr) yevtov re tlov tov rjppio- 
opuevov /cat SiaoTrjpidTcov /cat ovoTTjpidTCov /cat <f)96y- 
ytov /cat tovow /cat pL€TafioAtov ovoTTjp.aTLKCov €otlv 

yVCOOTLKTj' TTOppOJT€pOJ Se OVK€TL T0LVT7) TTpoeAdelv* 
OLOV T€. COOT OvSe l,r)T€LV TTCipd TOLVTTJS TO Sta- 

yvtovai SvvaoOai rroTepov OLKeltos elAr]<f>ev o 7701777-779, 
opuoiov elirelv ev Mvaot?, 6 tov 'YrroStopiov tovov 
errl ttjv apx^v 77 tov 7 Ml^oAvSlov re /cat Atopiov irrl 

TTjV CK^aOLV Tj TOV ' YlTofipVyLOV T€ /Cat fypVyiOV €7TL 

to p,eoov* ov ydp otaretVet 77 dpp,ovit<r} rrpa- 

1 77] rj M. 2 rainy Weil and Reinach : avrfj. 

3 i^erd^oL Pohlenz : e^era^oiTo. 

4 TTpoeXOclv aN ac : rrpocreAdeiv. 

5 ofiotov gIttclv] Cf. Aristoxenus, cited by Porphyry on 
Ptolemy's Harmonics^ p. 79. 16 (ed. During), Menander, 
'F>7riTp€TrovT€s 9 730, Chrysippus, Frag. 892 (Stoiconim Vet. 
Frag, ii, p. 243. 32, ed. von Arnim), Diodorus, ii. 58, and 
Diogenes Laert. vii. 105. 

6 iv Mucrot? Bergk : iv fxovoois (no accent a ; eV [aovoikois 
V qiss . e ' v fjLovacus q 1 ). 

428 



ON MUSIC, 1142 

why each detail is a necessary part of what the 
student must learn." We must next observe that to 
achieve this sort of training and instruction no re- 
course has so far been made to the enumeration b of 
the modes. Instead the majority learn at random 
whatever happens to strike the fancy of master or 
pupil, while the discerning reject such lack of system, 
as did in ancient times the Lacedaemonians and the 
men of Mantineia and Pellene. For these made a 
choice of some single mode or else a very small number 
of them, which in their belief tended to the formation 
of character, and cultivated this music and no other. 
33. " This will become clear if we pass in review 
the various disciplines and note the province of each. 
Thus take harmonics. It is evident that it studies 
the genera of movement in pitch, its intervals, its sets 
of tetrachords, its notes and modes and the modula- 
tions from one set of tetrachords to another ; and 
further than this harmonics cannot proceed. Hence 
we may not go on to ask it to determine whether the 
composer (in the Mysians c for instance) acted with 
propriety in taking the Hypodorian mode for the 
overture of the piece or the Mixolydian and Dorian 
for the finale or the Hypophrygian and Phrygian for 
the central part. For the science of harmonics does 

° Of Plato, Phaedrus, 270 b 5-6, 270 d 9—271 c 1. 

b Cf Plato, Phaedrus, 270 d 6, 273 e 1. 

c Cf Aristotle, Politics, vii. 7 (1342 b 7-12) : " Thus the 
dithyramb is admittedly held to belong to the Phrygian mode. 
Of this the experts in the subject give many examples, among 
them telling how Philoxenus attempted to compose a dithy- 
ramb, the Mysians [Mvoovs Schneider; fivdovs], in the Dorian 
mode, and was unable to do so, the very nature of the genre 
forcing him back into the suitable mode, the Phrygian." 

7 tov] rrjv a v. 8 to fieoov Volkmann : ttjv fieorjv. 

429 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1142) y/xareta 1 rrpos tcl rocavra, rrpoohelTai Se ttoAAcov 

1143 eripcov tt)v yap rfjs oIk€i6tt)tos Svvapuiv dyvoel. 

ovre yap to xP a) l x ' aTlK ° v yevos ovre to ivappuovtov 

r\^ei 7tot€ <z.ypv tt]v ttjs oIk€c6t7]to9 Svvaf.uv TeAelav 2 

Kal Kad' TjV TO TOV 7T€7TOLrjlJL€VOV puiAoVS* rj9o$ €7TL- 

(fraiverai, dAAd tovto tov t€)(vltov epyov. (f>avep6v 

Srj OTL €T€pa TOV GVOTTjpLaTOS r) (pOJVrj TTJS €V Tip 

ovoTTjpLaTL 4 ' KaTaoK€vao9€iorj£ pbeXoTTodas , rrepl rjs 
ovk eon 5 Oeajprjoat ttjs dppboviKrjs tt pay pi,aT etas. 

c O avTos Se Aoyos Kal Trepl tcov pvdputdv 6 ' 
ovdels 7 yap pvOpuos tt\v ttjs reAeta? olk€i6t7]tos 
B Svvapav 7]£eL eyjuov eV avTw 8 ' to yap olk€lojs del 
Aeyopuevov rrpos rjdos tl fiAerrovTes Aeyopuev. 

Tovtov Se' (j>api€v aiTcav elvat 9 ovvdeoiv rtva rj 
jjbl^iv t) dpifpoTepa. olov 'OAvpLrrcp to €vapp,6viov 
yevos irrl <$>pvyiov tovov TeOev Tralojvi irn^aTcp 
pLixOev tovto yap ttjs dpxfjs to rjOos iyevvrjoev irrl 
Tip ttjs *A9r)va$ vofjbtp' rrpooA^Oeiorjg yap pueAo- 
Trodas Kal pvOpbOTTOLLas, TexyiK&s re pb€TaArj(j)6ev- 
tos tov pvOpuov puovov avTOv Kal yevopuevov rpo^atou 
dvTl Traiojvos, ovveoTT] to y 0Avpt,7TOV evapp,6viov 

1 r) apjjLoviKT) Trpayixareta Burette (place after toklvtcl ?) : 
rfj dpfjiovLKTJ 7rpayfJLar€La. 

2 reXetav] reAetas" ? {cf rrjs reXelas oIk€i6tt)tos infra). 

3 fieXovs aN : /xc'Aos. 4 cruarTJjU-art] SiaoTTJ (jloltl V. 

5 OVK €GTi] OVK 6TL M . 

6 twv pvdfxaiv] tov pvdfxov M. 

7 ovQeis] ovSeis V lss . 

8 avrco S (eavra> eE aN) : avra>. 9 elvai] a omits. 

Cf. Plato, Phaedrus, 270 b 4 — 271 c 4, where the steps 
necessary if one is to apply discourse and lawful practices to 
the mind by art, and not by mere habituation, and thus 
impart persuasion and virtue, are described. 

b Cf Plato, Phaedrus, 270 d 9—271 a 1. 

430 



ON MUSIC, 1142-1143 

not extend to such questions but requires many sup- 
plements, since it is blind to the significance of pro- 
priety. For neither the chromatic nor the enhar- 
monic genus ever brings with it an understanding of 
the full scope of propriety, that makes clear the moral 
character of the music that has been composed. This 
instead is the function of the possessor of the art. a It 
is thus evident that the sound of a scale and that of 
the melody composed in it are two distinct matters, 
and that it is not the province of harmonics to study 
the latter. 

" The same holds of rhythms as well. No rhythm 
brings with it an understanding of the meaning of 
propriety in its fullest sense ; for whenever we use 
the term ' propriety ' we always have in mind some 
moral character.** 

" This moral character is produced, we assert, by 
some manner of combining elements or of blending 
them or of both. c Take Olympus : the enharmonic 
genus is put in the Phrygian key and blended with 
the paeon epibatos. d It is this that engendered the 
moral character of the opening of the nome of Athena; 
for when you add to this the conduct of the melody 
and the conduct of the rhythm, and when you skil- 
fully modulate the rhythm by itself so that it changes 
to trochee from paeon, e the whole thus constituted is 
Olympus' enharmonic genus. Furthermore you may 

c Perhaps " blend " refers to the union of melodic and 
rhythmical elements, whereas " combination " refers to the 
building of larger musical or rhythmical complexes from 
smaller. 

d The foot (with the thesis on the first, third, and 

fourth syllables). 

6 Probably to the marked trochee (thesis of eight times, 
arsis of four) from the paion epibatos. 

431 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1143) yevos. dXXa p/rjv /cat tov ivappuovlov yevovs /cat 
tov QpvyLov tovov S la fjuevovTOJV /cat irpos tovtols 

TOV GVGTTJfJLaTOS TTCLVTOS , fJLeydXrjV dXXoLOJOLV €G)(r)- 

C Kev to tjQos' r) yap KaXovfievrj appbovla ev rep rfjs 
'AOrjvas vofjucp uoXv Sie&TrjKe Kara 1 to rjdos rfjs 
avaTTeipas . el ovv irpooyevoiTO ra> rrjs [JLovoLKrjs 
ijjLTrelptp to KpiriKov, SrjXov ort ovtos dv eir) 6 
aKpifirjS ev puovoiKfj' 6 yap elScbs to Aojptart avev 
tov Kplveiv eTTioraodai ttjv ttjs xpfjoeajs avTov 
oiKeioTryra ovk etcrerat 5 rroiel' dAA' ovSe to fjOos 
aojoei - errel /cat rrepl avTOJV tcov Aojplojv pLeXorroucov 
drropelraL iroTepov eoTiv hiayvojOTiKT] r) dpfioviKr) 
rrpay/xareta Kaddrrep Tives olovTai tcov Aojptojv r) 
ov. 

f O avTOS he Xoyos /cat rrepl ttjs pvOpLiKfjs em- 

D GTTjjJLrjS TrdorjS' 6 yap elSdjs tov Traiojva ttjv ttjs 
Xprjaeoos ovtov ot/cetorr/Ta ovk eioeTai hid to avTr)v 
jjbovrjv elSevat ttjv tov rraioovos £vv9eoiv 2 ' eirel /cat 
irepi avTchv tojv iraiojviKOJV pvOfioTroiLcov aVooetrat 
TTOTepov eoTi SiayvojOTLKrj rj pvdpuKrf Trpay/xareta 
tovtojv KaOdnep* Tives (j>aoiv y r) 5 ov StarctVet f^e^pi 
tovtov . 

' 'Avay/catov ovv 8vo TovXd-^LOTOv yvojoeis virdp- 
%eiv tw pbeXXovTi SiayvojoeoOat to Te ocKelov /cat to 
dXXoTptov TrptJoTOV p,ev tov rjOovs ov eVe/ca rj ovv- 
deois yeyev7)Tai y eireiTa tovtojv et; cov rj ovvOecris. 
OTi pi,ev ovv ovd' rj dpfJLoviKrj ovO* rj pvOjJLLKrj 6 ovTe 

E aXXrj ovbefjbia tojv /ca#' eV fJbepos Xeyopuevcov avTap- 

1 /caret] a omits. 
2 gvvOecnv Wyttenbach : £vvoioiv (tjvveotv V aN vq). 

3 pvdfXLKrj] pV0fJb7]TLK7] M W. 4 Kada7T€p] TJ Ka9aTT€p aN. 

432 



ON MUSIC, 1143 

keep the enharmonic genus and the Phrygian key, 
and the whole set of tetrachords to boot, but still 
find that the moral character has undergone a great 
alteration. Thus the so-called ' harmonia ' in the 
nome of Athena differs greatly in character from the 
introduction. It is clear then that to familiarity with 
music you must add the ability to judge, and only 
then will you have your musical expert. For one who 
knows the Dorian mode without the skill to pass 
judgement on whether it belongs here or there will 
not know what effect he is producing ; in fact he will 
not even preserve the moral character of the mode. 
Indeed the question is raised about compositions in 
the Dorian mode themselves whether the science of 
harmonics (as some think) can tell one piece from 
another or not. 

" The same holds for the whole science of rhythm 
as well : for one who knows the paeon will not know 
when it is appropriately used, since all he knows is 
how the paeon is put together. Indeed in the case 
of compositions in the paeonic rhythm the question 
is raised whether rhythmics (as some assert) can tell 
them apart or whether it does not cover so much 
ground. 

" Hence if you are to distinguish the appropriate 
from the inappropriate you must have knowledge of 
at least two things : first of the moral character at 
which the composition is directed, and second of the 
elements out of which it has been composed. These 
remarks, then, suffice to show that neither harmonics 
nor rhythmics nor any of the recognized special 
studies is competent unaided both to know the moral 

5 rj vq : the rest omit. 
6 ovO* r) pvOfjuK-rj] V omits. 

433 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1143) ktjs avrrj kcl6' avrrjv /cat rod rjOovs elvai yvojorihcrj 1 
/cat rwv dXXojv KpiriKrj, dpKeoei rd elprjp,eva. 

34. " Tpitbv §' ovtojv 2 yevcbv els a Siaipelrat rd 
rjppboopievoVy Ioojv rots re rtbv crvarrj fidr a>v p,eye- 
deac /cat rals rwv (f)66yya>v Svvdp,eoiv, ojjlolojs ok 
/cat rals rwv rerpa^ophajv, 7T€pl evds pbovov ol 
rraXaiol errpayp^arevoavro, erretSrjrrep ovre rrepl 

XpdjJJLCLTOS OVT€ 7T€pl SiOLTOVOV OL* 7Tp6 TJpLCOV €7T€Ok6' 

rrovv, aAAa irepi p,6vov rod evappbovlov, /cat av rov- 

TOV* 7T€pl €V Tt JJbeyeOoS GVOTrjflOLTOS , TOV KClAoV- 

puevov Sta Traowv. rrepl pbev yap 5 rrjs XP oa? ^iec^e- 
povro, rrepl 8e rod pbiav etvac fiovrjv* avrrjv rrjv 
F dp/JLOVLCLV o^eSov rrdvres ovve^wvovv . ovk av ovv 
rrore ovvcSoi rd rrepl rrjv dpptovLKrjv rrpayp.areiav 6 
pbeXP L a vTr)s rrjs yvwoeajs ravrrjs rrpoeXrjXvOws, 7 
aAAa SrjXovon 8 o 9 rrapaKoXovOcov rats re Kara 
puepos emorrjp,ais /cat rep ovvoXcp oajpuari rrjs pbov- 
oiktjs /cat rat? rtbv puepcov fj,l£eoi re /cat ovvdeoeoiv. 
6 yap puovov appboviKOS rrepcyey parrr -at rporrcp tlvl. 

Ka#oAou jjuev ovv elrrelv ofioSpopuelv Set rrjv re 
aioOrjotv /cat rrjv Stdvoiav ev rfj Kpioei rcov rrjs 

1 koX rod rjdovs €ivai yvojorcKT] nos : rov yjdovs elvat kcli yvoj- 

OTLKTj. 2 OVTCOV] OVTCOV TCOV M . 3 Ol] M OITlitS. 

4 av rovrov V a W c vq : avrov rov M (avrov rov W ac ) ; au- 
rov rovrov aN. 6 yap] a omits. 

6 fji6v7]v] a omits. 7 rrpoeX-qXvOws} rrpoaeXriXvBaiS M. 

8 hrjXovori M aN (hrjXovori W ; SfjXof ltl V a) : orjXov ws vq. 

9 o added by Weil and Reinaeh. 

° In all three genera the notes have the same names and 
the same sequence, though the two internal notes of the 
tetrachord (the " moveable " notes) would hardly to our 
feeling have the same values. 

b In all three genera the tetra chords have the same names 
and the same sequence. 
434 



ON MUSIC, 1143 

character and to pass judgement on the other ele- 
ments that enter into the composition. 

34. " Of the three genera into which musical move- 
ment is divided, all of them equal in range and in the 
value of their notes, a as well as of their tetrachords, 6 
the ancients studied only one, the enharmonic, our 
predecessors never considering either the chromatic or 
the diatonic, and again in this they considered only 
the one range, that of the so-called octave.** For as to 
its shading they differed ; but that ' harmony ' e itself 
was but one all we may say agreed/ Hence no one 
could ever embrace the whole subject of harmonics 
who had advanced no farther than this knowledge ; 
this can evidently be done only by one who can follow g 
not only the particular studies but the whole body of 
music and the blends and combinations of its ele- 
ments, for one who knows harmonics and nothing else 
is in a fashion circumscribed. 

" Thus, to speak in the broadest terms, the ear 
and the mind must keep abreast of each other 
when we pass judgement on the various elements in 

c Cf. Aristoxenus, Harm. i. 2 and Proclus' comments {On 
Plato's Timaeus, hi, 192 a, vol. ii, p. 169, ed. Diehl). Perhaps 
Aristoxenus here is making an inference from the Greek 
instrumental notation, which was evidently devised for the 
enharmonic genus. 

d " So-called " because octave in Greek (dia pason) is 
literally " through all the strings." 

6 " Harmony " can also mean " the enharmonic genus." 
Here it is used in both senses : all agreed that " harmony " 
was enharmonic and nothing else. 

f Aristoxenus, Testim. 99 (ed. da Rios). 

9 With this discussion of ' following " cf. eTraKoXovOelv in 
Plato, Phaedrus, 271 e 1 and the whole passage 271 d 7 — 
272 b 2. The whole notion of a laggard or over-hasty percep- 
tion may have been suggested by Plato's d£eW at Phaedrus 
271 e 1. 

435 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

1144 /xouox/ct]? pLepwv, /cat fjurjre irpodyziv, o ttolovglv at 
77po7T€T€LS re /cat c^epofievaL Ttov alodrfoeoov, fJLrjT€ 
vorepit^eiv, o ttolovglv at /3paSetat re 1 /cat Svgklvtj- 
tol. ytveraL Se irore iiri tlvojv aLGdrjGetov koX to 

GVyK€L[JL€VOV €K TOV GVVapb(/)OT€pOV , Kdi VGT€pOVGLV 

at aural /cat Trporepovow Sta rtva c/)Vglkt)v dvoj- 
/xaAtW. irepLaLpereov ovv rrjs fJbeAAovorjs ojJLoSpo- 
pbetv aloOrjoeojs ravra. 

35. " 'Aet 2 yap dvayKalov rpta eAa^tcrra etVat ra 
7TL7TTovra afiOL els ttjv aKorjv, <f)66yyov re /cat ypovov 
/cat ovAAa(3r)v rj ypd/x/xa. ovpL^rjoeraL oe e/c [lev 
rrjs 3 /card top (f>66yyov iropeias to Typ/xoa/xeVor 
yvojpl^€o9aL y €K oe rrjg /card \povov top pvdfjbov, e/c 

B Se rrjs /caret ypd/x/xa i) ovAAafirjv to Aeyofievov 
ofiov oe TTpofiaLvovTOJV d/xa ttjv rfjs Ulodrjoews em- 
(f)opdv dvayKalov iroLeZodaL. dAAd /jLt)v kolkzlvo 
<f>avepov, otl ovk eVSe'^erat, firj SvvafJLevrjs rrjs 
alodrjoeojs yajpi^eLv ckootov twv elprjpuevojv , nap- 
OLKoAovdeZv re SvvoloOcll Tot? Kad* e/cacrra /cat ovv- 
opav to 6' dpuapTavofJievov eV e/cdcjTco avTtov /cat to 
fXTj. TrpojTov ovv TTeplovveyeias yvojoreov. dvayKalov 
yap €otlv vndpyeLV rrj KpLTLKrj Swd/xet ovveyeiav 
to yap ev /cat to ivavTLOJS ovk €v d<f)a)pLop,€voLs 
rotcroe rtat ytVerat <f)66yyoLS r) ypovoLS r\ ypapLfiaaLV, 
dAA' iv ovveyioLV eVetSo] fxl^is tls €otlv toj^ 4 /card 

C ttjv XPV GLV dovvOeTOJV fiepcov. rrepl puev ovv ttjs 
7TapaKoAov6rjcrea)S ToaavTa . 

1 re] vq omit. 

2 aet v : atet. 3 fxkv ttjs] rrjs fiev a. 

4 Volkmann would transpose twv after XPV GLV '•> Weil and 
Reinach would delete it. 

a That is, the " mora " or rhythmical unit. 
436 



ON xVIUSIC, 1144 

a musical composition ; the car must not outstrip the 
mind, as happens when sensibilities are hasty and in 
headlong motion, nor yet lag behind, as happens when 
sensibilities are sluggish and inert. In some the ear 
even suffers from a combination of the two failings, 
and is both too slow and too fast, owing to some un- 
evenness of constitution. All this must be eliminated 
if the ear is to keep step with the mind. 

35. " For three smallest components must always 
simultaneously strike the ear : the note, the time/' 
and the syllable or sound. 6 From the course of the 
notes we recognize the structure of the scale ; from 
that of the times, the rhythm ; and from that of the 
sounds or syllables, the words of the song. As the 
three proceed in concert we must follow all with the 
ear simultaneously. Yet it is also evident that unless 
the ear can isolate c each of the three, it is impossible 
to follow the details of the three movements and 
observe the beauties and faults in each. Before we 
can do this we must know about continuity. Indeed, 
continuity is required for the exercise of critical 
judgement, since beauty and the opposite do not 
arise in this or that isolated note or time or speech- 
sound, but in the series, as they are a blend of the 
smallest elements in an actual composition. So much 
for the subject of following. 

b Literally " letter." The grammarians used the word 
not only of the letters of the alphabet but of the sounds repre- 
sented by them. The word syllabi (syllable) is literally " a 
taking together " ; it therefore could not properly be used 
of such a syllable as the a- in a-ri-ston, which contains a 
single sound. To include such a syllable (in our sense of the 
word) the author adds " or sound." 

c That is, isolate the note from the continuum of notes, 
the time from that of times, and the syllable from that of 
syllables. 

437 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1144) 36. " To Se jjuerd rovro emoKerrreov on ol [jlov- 
glktjs ernorrjfioves rrpds rr)v KpiriKrjv rrpaypLarelav 
ovk elolv avrapKeis . ov yap olov re reXeov yeve- 

odai fMOVOLKOV T€ KOI ^KpiTlKOV €*£ OLVTOJV TCOV 8o~ 

Kovvrojv elvai pbepcbv rrjs oXrjs fJbovoiKrjs olov eK re 
rrjs rcov opydvojv ijJLTTeiplas Kal rrjs rrepl rrjv coSrjv, 
en Se rrjs rrepl rrjv alodrjoiv ovyyvpLvaalas (Xeyco 
Se rrjs ovvreLVOvorjs els rrjv rod rjppboofjievov £vveoiv 
koX en ttjv 1 rod pvOfxov) * rrpos Se rovrois eK re rrjs 
pvOfJLLKrjs koX rrjs appLovLKrjs rr pay pare las Kal rrjs 
J) rrepl rrjv Kpovoiv re koX Xe^iv Oewplas, Kal el rives 
dXXai rvyydvovoiv Xotrral ovoai. 

At' as §' air Las oi>x olov r e£ avra>v rovrcov 
yeveoQ ai KpiriKov rreipareov Kara,p,a6elv. rrpcbrov 
eK rod rjjjuv viroKelodai rd pXv rwv Kpivo\xevuyv 
reXeia, ra S' dreXrj' reXeia pbev avro re rcov rroirj- 
fidrajv eKaorov, olov rd dSopuevov r) avXovfJbevov r) 
KidapilojJLevov /cat rf eKaorov avrcov* eppLrjveia, 
olov 7] re avXrjois /cat rj cbSrj /cat rd Xoirrd rcov 
roiovrojv dreXrj Se ra rrpds ravra ovvreivovra /cat 
rd rovrojv eVe/ca ytvopueva' rocavra Se ra fJbeprj rrjs 
E epfJLTjveias. Sevrepcv €K rrjs rroirjoeajs' cboavrcos 
yap /cat avrr)* vrroKeirai. 

K/nVeie 5 yap dv res aKovcov avXrjrov rrorepov 
rrore ovpbcbojvovaiv ol auAot r) ov, Kal rrorepov r) 

1 rrjv] vq omit. 

2 Kal r) Westphal : rj r) (rj N v). 

3 avro)v Volkmann : clvtov. 

4 avT-q W a : avrr) M ; avrr) V N ; avrr) a. 

5 V7TOK€LTaL. KptV€L€ LaSSerre (v7TOK€LTai. OV fJLOVOV KpiV€l€ 

Weil and Reinach) : vTTOKpLveie M V a ; between vno and 
Kplv€i€ W aN have a blank (of 6 letters in W a, of 4 in N). 

a That is, music as understood in Aristoxenus' day. 
438 






ON MUSIC, 1114 

SO. " We must next observe that experts in music a 
are not thereby equipped with all that is needed for 
the exercise of critical judgement. For it is impos- 
sible to become a thoroughly rounded musician and 
critic merely from knowing the various branches that 
are taken to constitute the whole of music, for ex- 
ample from facility in the use of musical instruments 
and facility in singing, and again from the training of 
the ear (I mean the training that aims at the recog- 
nition of notes and again of rhythm), nor yet in 
addition to these from the disciplines of rhythmics 
and harmonics and the theory of accompaniment and 
verbal expression, and from any other studies there 
may be. 

" The reasons that make it impossible to be a good 
critic from possessing these alone we must endeavour 
to see clearly. In the first place there is a distinction 
in the matters on which we pass judgement : some 
are ends in themselves, some not. Such an end are 
(1) each separate piece of music taken by itself, as 
the piece sung or played on the auloi or on the cithara, 
and (2) the performance by the artists of each such 
piece, as playing it on the auloi, singing it, and the 
rest. Not ends in themselves are the matters that 
contribute to these ends and that are brought in only 
to serve them. Examples are the various particulars 
of the interpreter's art. In the second place there is 
composition of the piece ; for the same distinction 
also applies here. 

" Thus if you hear an aulete you can pass judge- 
ment whether the two auloi are concordant or not, 
and whether the discourse b of the instrument is dis- 

b So literally. The word, evidently technical, occurs at 
1138 b, supra, and in Aristotle, Be Anima, ii. 8 (420 b 8). 

439 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1144) SidAeKTOs oa(j>7]s rj rovvavriov tovtojv S' (ekclcftov 
pbepos iarl rrjs avXrjriKrjs epfJLrjvelas, 1 ov fjuevrot 
reXog, dAA' evehca rod reXovs yivop.evov irapd tclvtcl 
yap av koll ra roiavra ttolvtcl KpiOrjoeraL to rrjs 
ippbrjveLOLS rj9os y el 2 olk€Iov aTroSlSorai rep irapaSo- 
0€vtl 3 TTOirnxariy o pierage tptaao 6 at koll epfjLrjvevoat, 
6 ivepy ojv PefiovXrjrai.* 6 avros ok Xoyos koll eVi 
rwv rradcov rebv vrro rrjs 7TOi7]riKr\s orjfJLOuvofJLevcov 

iv rots TTOlTjliaUlV. 
F 37. "Are ovv rjOcov pudXtora (frpovrlSa 7T€7TOLr)- 
jMevoi oi iraAaiol to oepuvov kclc dnepUpyov rfjs 
ap^aia? pLovaiKrjs Trpoeripbwv. *A.pyeLovs /xev ydp 
koX KoXaoiv imdelvaL rrore (f>aoi rfj els ttjv piovoi- 
kt]v 7TapavojJLia, & tpr^putooai re rov eTrtx^iprjoavra 6 
TTpcjrov rots 7 TrAeiooiv tcjv eirrd )(prjoaodaL rrap* 
avTols ^ophcov kclL Trapapbii;oXvhidt ) €iv lTTiyz.ipr\- 
oavra. 

Yivdayopas S' 6 oepbvos drreSoKLpba^ev ttjv Kpi- 
oiv rrjs fJbovaiKrjs rrjv Sta rrjs alodrjoeajs' vto yap 
Xr)7T7Tjv ttjv ravrrjs dperrjv €(j>a<JK€V elvai. rotydp- 
roi rfj puev aKofj ovk eKpivev avrrjv, rfj Se dvaXoyiKrj 
1145 dpiAovlq- avrapKes r evopa^ev p,€-)(pi rov hid Traacov 
arrjaat ttjv rfjs pLovGiKrjs irriyvcoGiv. 

38. 01 Se vvv to puev KaXXtarov tojv yevebv, 

1 htvrepov through ipfi-qveias] vq omit. 2 el] rj M ac . 

3 TTapahoBivn aN : irapairoboOevTi M V vq ; irapcmoir\Q£vTi a ; 
TrapanoOevTi W. 

4 fiepovArjrai] jSovAerai v 1 (fiovArjTai V 2 ). 

5 7Tapavofxla] rrapavoixiav M N. 

440 



ON MUSIC, 1144-1145 

tinct or the reverse. Each of these matters forms 
a part of the art of performing on the auloi. Yet 
neither is an end, but only a means to encompass the 
end. For above and beyond all this and everything 
else of this sort judgement will be passed on the moral 
character of the interpretation — whether the per- 
former has given the traditional piece he has chosen 
to execute and interpret the moral character that 
belongs to it. The same holds of the feelings indi- 
cated in the various pieces by the art of the composer.® 

37. " Thus the men of old, whose chief concern was 
with character, preferred the majesty and directness 
that we find in ancient music. Indeed the Argives 
are said on one occasion to have imposed a penalty on 
the violation of musical style, fining the performer 
who first tried in their city to use more than the seven 
traditional strings and modulate to the Mixolydian 
mode. 6 

" The grave Pythagoras rejected the judging of 
music by the sense of hearing, asserting that its excel- 
lence must be apprehended by the mind. This is why 
he did not judge it by the ear, but by the scale based 
on the proportions, and considered it sufficient to 
pursue the study no further than the octave. 

38. " Our contemporaries however have entirely 

a Cf. Plato, Phaedrtis, 268 c 5-d 5, 269 a 2. 

6 Weil and Reinach take the word 77apa/xi|oAu8iafeii; 
(which occurs nowhere else) to mean depart from the Mixo- 
lydian scale. It would appear easier to suppose that the 
Argives (or Spartans, of whom the same story is told else- 
where) were attached to the Dorian mode, and refused to 
allow departure from it in the course of performing the same 
piece. 

6 i-mx^iprjoavra] Volkmann would delete. 
7 tols] rats Volkmann ; Weil and Reinach would delete. 

441 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1145) oirep {idXtoTa hid oepuvoTrjTa rrapa rots apx&loi$ 
eoTrovhd^eTO , iravTeXoos TTap^rrjaavro, cooTe p,r)he 
rrjv rvxovaav dvTtXrjiptv tcov evoppLovlcov hiaoTTjpbd- 
tcov rots ttoXXoIs vrrdpx^tv. ovtcos he dpycos hid- 

K€lVTai KOLL padvfJLCOS (*)GT€ LlTjh' epbCpOLOLV VOpLLL^eLV 

Tcapzyziv kolOoXov tcov vtto tt)v aiodrjoLV tmttov- 
tcov ttjv evappuovtov hieoiv, e^opit.eiv S' avrrjv e/c 
tcov pLeXcpSrjfJbdrojv y TrecfiXvaprjKevai re Xeyeiv 1 tovs 

So^d^OVrds 2 Ti 7T€pl TOVTOV KGLl TO) yevei TOVTCp 

B Kexp^jpievovs. drrohei^iv §' ioxvpordnqv tov rdXrjOrj 
Xeyeiv tpepeiv oIovtcxi jLtaAtara p,ev rrjv clvtcov 3 
dvaiodrjoiav, cog Trdv 6 tl rrep dv avrovs eKcfivyrj 
tovto /cat hrj jrdvTOJS dvvuapKTov ov TravTeXcos /cat 
dxpv)OTOV elra /cat to jjltj hvvaodai Xrjcfidrjvai Sid 
ovpbcfrcovias to pt,eye9os, Kavduep to re r)iiiToviov 
koX tov tovov /cat ra Aot7ra he tcov toiovtcov Sta- 
OTrjLidTCOV. rjyvorjKacnv 8' otl /cat to* TpiTOV fieye- 
6og ovtcos dv /cat to nepbiTTOV e/c/3aAAotro 5 /cat to 
efiSofJbov cov to puev Tpicov, to he rrevTe, to he errTa 
hieoecov eoTi' /cat kolOoXov rrdvO' ooa rrepLTTa </>at- 

C verat 6 tcov hiaoTrfp^aTcov dnohoKipid^oiT dv a>9 
dxpv}OTa rrapooov ovhev olvtcov hid ovpLtficovias 
Xa^elv eoTiv raura 8' dv etrj qua vtto rrjs iXaxio~Trjs 
hieoecos /xerpetrat TrepiooaKis . ols aKoXovdelv dvdy- 
K7] /cat to pbT]SefJbLav tcov TeTpaxophiKcov hioipeoecov 
Xprjcjifjbrjv elvai ttXijv \lovov 1 ravTTjv St' rjs 7rdo.1v 
dpTiots XPV (J ^ CLL hiaoTTjixaoi ovpufiefirjKev olvttj 8' 

1 re Xeyeiv Weil and Reinach : Se vq ; re. 

2 ho^dt^ovrds W : ho^avrds {ho^doavrds Bern., hihd^avrds 
Ziegler). 

3 avrcjv Z a c s : avrtov. 4 to] vq omit. 

5 iKpdXXoiTo (and so V lss )] eK^dXoiro V u . 

6 TrepiTTa (/>alverai] (fyatverai TrepiTrd M. 

442 






ON MUSIC, 1145 

abandoned the noblest of the genera, which owing 
to its majesty was preferred by the ancients ; and in 
consequence the great majority have not the most 
ordinary apprehension of enharmonic intervals. So 
lazy and supine are they that they conceive that of 
matters decided by the ear the enharmonic diesis a 
is quite imperceptible, and banish it from singing ; 
and say that all who hold any views on the point or 
who have employed this genus have done something 
meaningless. They think the strongest demonstra- 
tion of the truth of their view is in the first place 
their own dullness of ear, as if everything that es- 
caped them must surely be entirely non-existent and 
incapable of employment ; and next the fact that 
the interval cannot be obtained by means of concords , 
as we can obtain the semitone, the tone, and the 
other intervals of this kind. 6 They are unaware that 
the third, fifth, and seventh magnitudes c would also 
be rejected on these terms, the first containing three 
dieses, the next five, and the last seven ; and in 
general all intervals that turned out to be odd would 
be rejected as incapable of being used, since none of 
them can be obtained by means of concords. This 
would amount to all internals that are odd multiples 
of the smallest diesis. A consequence is that no divi- 
sion of the tetrachord can be used except one in 
which the intervals are all even multiples of the die- 

a A quarter tone. 

b A tone can be obtained by subtracting a fourth from a 
fifth, a semitone by subtracting two tones from a fourth. 

c The first magnitude would be the smallest interval, the 
diesis of a quarter tone ; the next would be two such dieses 
or a semitone ; and so on. 

7 fxovov] fjLOvrjv a 2 S. 

443 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1145) dv eirj tj re rod ovvrovov 1 hiarovov Kal rj rod 
roviaiov ^oco/xarob . 

39. ' To §6 TCL TOLQLVTCL Xey€LV T€ Kal VTToAciJA- 
paV€LV OV pLOVOV ToZ$ <f)aiVOpL€VOlS €VaVTCOVfJL€VtOV 

earcv aXXd kg! avrols 2 \ia.yo\xivojv . ^pojpievoi 7 a P 

avroi roiavrais rerpa)(6pSa)v pbdXcara cfxiivovrai 

D hiaipeoeoiv ev afs* rd 770 AAd tcov hiaonqpLaraiv rjroi 

7T€pLTTGL €GTIV Tj dAoyO 3 ' fJLaXdrTOVGL ydp del* rd? T€ 

\i)(avovs Kal rd? rrapapr/ra^. 77S77 Se Kal rtov 
eoTwrujv nvas rrapavtauiv (f>d6yya>v, dXoycp rivl 
oLaorrjtiaTi 7rpooavL€VT€s avrols rds* re rpiras Kal 
ra? 7rapav7]Tas , kox rrjv TOiavrrjv evSoKipueZv pbd- 
Xiora 77609 otovrat tcov Gvarr^pbdrajv ^prjaiv ev fj rd 
77oAAd tcov SiaaTrjpLaTOJv earlv dAoya, ov puovov 5 
tcov KiveiaOai TrecfrvKOTcov cfidoyycov, dAAd Kal tlvcov 
aKivrjTCov dvtepievcov, cos eart SrjXov toZs aloddve- 
oOai tcov tolovtcov hvvapievois . 

40. " Xprjotv Se pbovoLKrjs* TrpoarJKovaav dvSpl 6 
E KaXos 7 "Opb-qpos eStSa^ev. SrjXcov 8 yap otl rj puov- 

glktj 7ToXXa)(ov )(prjGtpbr] tov 'A^AAea TreTToirjKe T7JV 

opyrjv TTtTTOvra rrjv npos rdv 'Ayapuepivova Std 

pbovGiKrjs rjs 9 epuadev rrapd tov uo^ojrdrov Xei- 

pcovos ' 

1 Kal omitted after ovvtovov by Burette. 

2 aVTOis eE S (iavTols a.N) : avrols. 

3 dXoya MeziriaCUS : avdXoya. 

4 del vq : atei. 5 fioyov] fj,6va)v V a ar ? 

6 fjLovaiK-fjs] vq omit. 

oxr 
7 dvSpl 6 kolAos] dvSptOKaXo M. 
8 fhjXcbv] SrjXov M. 9 7^9] tjv vq. 

Semitone, tone, tone. Cf. Aristoxenus, Harm. ii. 51 (ed. 
Meibom ; p. 64. 11-13 [ed. da Rios]). 

444 



ON MUSIC, 1145 

sis ; and the only such tetrachords are that of the 
sharp diatonic genus a and that of the tonic chromatic 
genus. b 

39- " To express and entertain such views is not 
only to fly in the face of the facts but to be inconsistent 
with oneself. For these people are themselves ob- 
served to make the greatest use of the sort of division 
of the tetrachord where most of the intervals are 
either odd multiples of the diesis or else irrational, 
for they always flatten the lichanoi and the para- 
netai/ They have even gone so far as to flatten 
some of the stable notes/* at the same time flattening 
along with them by an irrational interval the tritai e 
and paranetai as well, and they fancy that the treat- 
ment of the set of tetrachords is somehow the most 
creditable in which the greater number of intervals 
are irrational, not only the moveable notes but even 
some of the stable ones being flattened, as is evident 
to all who have an ear for such matters. 

40. " The employment of music that is fitting for 
a man may be learned from our noble Homer. To 
show that music is useful in many circumstances he 
gives us Achilles in the poem digesting his anger 
against Agamemnon by means of music, which he 
learned from the most wise Cheiron : 

b Semitone, semitone, tone and a half. Cf. Aristoxenus, 
Harm. ii. 51 (ed. Meibom ; p. 63. 14-16 [ed. da Rios]). 

c The lichanos and paranete are the second highest notes 
in the tetrachords where they occur. The lichanos is the 
next highest note of the middle tetrachord (E-a) and of the 
lowest tetrachord (B-E) ; the paranete of the rest (disjunct 
b-e, conjunct a-d, and excess e-a'). 

d The stable notes bound the tetrachord, which covers the 
interval of a fourth. 

e The trite is the next lowest note of the disjunct, conjunct, 
and excess tetrachords. 

445 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 






(1145) top S' evpop ((frrjatp) <f>peva Teprropbepop (froppuyyi 
Atyet'77 
KaXfj SatSaXerj' irepl S' dpyvpeop tpyov rjev 
ttjp ap€T i£ ivdptav ttoXlv 'Hericovos dXeoaas 1 ' 
rfj 6 ye Ovpuov erepjrev, detSe S' dpa /cAe'a dvSpwv. 

jjbdde, (f)7]olv "OfJLrjpos, 770)9 Set fJLovou<fj xpfjaOai- 
/cAea yap dvSpcop aheiv /cat rrpd^eis rjpaOewp errpe- 
F 7T€v 'A^iAAet to) WrjXeoDS tov SiKouoTdrov. en Se 
/rat top Kaipov rrjs xprjoecog top appLorrovra SiSd- 
okcuv "OfJLijpos dpyovvTL yvfivdoLGv €^€Vp€P CO<f>eXl~ 
[jlov /cat r]Sv. rroXepiLKog yap cop /cat rrpaKTiKos 6 
'A^iAAev?, Std ttjp yepofjudprjp avrco irpos top 'Aya- 
fiefipopa fJLrjpiv ov jLteret^er tcop /card top 2 TroXepbOP 
klpSvpcop. cprjOrj ovp "Opirjpos Trperrop elpai ttjp 
i/jv^rjp toTs /caAAtWots* tlop pueXcop Trapadrjyeip top 
rjpoja iv* eVt ttjp /xerd puiKpop avTco yeprjoopieprjp 
€^o8op irapeoK€vaop,€Pos t) 3, tovto Se eVotet StjXop- 
OTt 4 fjbprjpbopevojp tlop irdXai irpd^ecop. TOiavTTj tjv 
1146 rj dp^ata pt,ovaiKr) /cat ets* tovto xprjo-LpLrj. 'Hpa/cAe'a 
re yap aKovopuep Kexp^puepop puovoiKfj /cat 'A^tAAe'a 
/cat ttoXXovs dAAous", cop rraihevTrfS 6 oo<j)coTaTos 
Xetpajv rrapaSeSoTai, pbovoiKrjs t€ d^u-a cop /cat 
8iKaioovP7]s /cat laTpiKrjs StSda/caAos". 

41. " K.a96Xov Se o ye youv zyoop ov tcop eirioTr)- 
jjlcop dp eyKXrjfia Stjttov 6 6eir] et tis avTOS 1 pbrj 
/card Tponop x?^ TO > dAAd ttjs tcop xpco[Xjipcop /ca- 

1 oXiooas eA 2 E a ar S : oXeaas ((bXeoas N). 

2 r<Sv (tov N) /cara tov] tov W ac ; tojv W c ; riov (rcbv v ac ) 
Kara vq. 

3 0] efy M. 

4 877A0V0V1 (StJAovoti M ; 3-fjXov on V a)] hrjXov (hs vq. 
6 ar added by Ziegler. 

446 



ON MUSIC, 1145-1146 

And him they found delighting in a lyre 
Clear and of curious make, with silver yoke, 
Won in the pillage of Eetion's city ; 
In this he joyed, singing heroic lays. 

See, Homer tells us, the proper way of employing 
music : for to sing the praise of heroes and the 
prowess of demigods befitted Achilles, son of the most 
righteous Peleus. & Homer furthermore teaches us 
the suitable occasion for such employment, presenting 
it as a beneficial and pleasant exercise for one reduced 
to inaction. For though a warrior and a man of 
action, Achilles was taking no part in the fighting of 
the war, because he was wroth with Agamemnon. 
Homer believed, we gather, that it was fitting for 
the hero to whet his spirit on the noblest music, in 
order to be prepared for the sally into battle that was 
shortly to follow. That is obviously what he was 
doing when he rehearsed feats of long ago. Such was 
the music of olden times and that is what it was used 
for. For we are told that Heracles, Achilles and 
many others had recourse to music, and their trainer, 
as tradition has it, was the paragon of wisdom 
Cheiron, instructor not only in music, but in justice c 
and medicine as well. 

41. " Surely in no case would the man of sense 
impute the blame to a science when someone by his 
own act misuses it ; he would consider that the 

a Iliad, ix. 186-189. 

5 Peleus had resisted the advances of Hippolyte (or Asty- 
dameia), wife of Acastus ; for this he was rewarded with the 
hand of the goddess Thetis. 

c Cf. Homer, Iliad, xi. 830-832, where Patroclus is said 
to have learnt medicines from Achilles, who was taught by 
Cheiron, the most just of the centaurs. 

6 S^7rou] ttov V. 7 auro?] avrals aN. 

447 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1146) Acta? loiov etvat rovro vopLiG€i€V. el yovv 1 rts rov 
rraioevriKov rrjs [JbovaiKrjs rporrov eKTrovrjoas rv^oi 
cVt/xeAetas' rrjs TrpOG7)KOVG7]s iv rfj rod rraiSos 
B rjXiKca, to fxev kolXov erraiveoei re /cat aTroSetjerai, 
ifji^ei Se to ivavriov eV re tols dXXots /cat iv rols 
Kara fiovGLKrjv , /cat earai 6 roiovros KaOapos Trdarjs 
dyevvovs 2 Trpd^ecos, Sta fJLOVGLKrjs re rrjv pLeyiGTrjv 
w(/)eX€iav KapircDoaiievos ocfreXos dv [xeya yevotro 
avrco re /cat 770 Act, firjOevl pLrjre epycp fJLrjTe Xoyco 
XpcjbjjLevos dvapfJLOGTO) , gco^cuv del 3 /cat rravra)(ov to 

7Tp€TTOV /Cat OU)<f>pOV /Cat KOGfJLLOV. 

42. " "Ort Se /cat rat? 4 evvo pmyrdr ai? rtov rroXetov 
€7Tt/xcAes >5 yeyevrjTou (frpovrlSa 7rot€tcr#at rrjs yev- 
vaias [AovaiKrjs woXXd puev /cat aAAa fJLaprvpia irapa- 
deadcu €gtlv, TepnavSpov S' dv rt? TrapaXdfioi rov 
rrjv y€vojJL€vr]v Trore napd Aa/ccSat/xoytots' oraatv 
C KaraXvGavra, /cat QaXrjrav 6 rov l&prjra, ov </>aat 
Kara re 7rv66xpy]GTOv Aa/ceoat/xovtoi;? irapayevo- 
fjbevov Std fJLOVGLKrjs IdGOLGdcu aVaAAa^at re rod 

KCLTCLG^OVTOS AotjLtOU ? TTjV iLTrdpTTjV , KaddlTep (j)7]GlV 

Wparivas. aAAa yap /cat "Opbiqpos rov KaraGyovra 
XoLpLov rovs "KXXrjvas TravGaGdai Xeyet Sta \xov- 

GLKTJS' €(f)7] yOVV 

1 et yovv Weil and Reinach : €«■' (cfr' V v) ovv. 

2 ayewov?! ayevou? W N. 

3 det nos : aUl. 

4 rat?] eV rats' aN. 

5 imfieXes] cm/jLcAevs v*q. 

6 daArjTav] dtX-qoavra V. 

7 Xotfxov] XljlOV M ac . 

a 6/. Plato, Gorgias, 456 o 5-e 2 and Isocrates, Nicocles 
(Or. 3), 3-4. 

& Plato, Republic, iii, 401 e 1—402 a 4. 
448 



ON MUSIC, 1146 

defective character of the one who so used it was to 
blame. a Thus if one who has been diligent in the 
study of music for its value as education has received 
the proper attention while a boy, he will commend 
and embrace what is noble, and censure the contrary b 
not only in music, but in all other matters as well. 
Such a man will have no taint of ungenerous action, 
and as he has by way of music reaped the highest 
advantage, he will be of the greatest service to him- 
self and to his country, avoiding any inharmonious 
clash either in deed or in word, everywhere d and 
always upholding the seemly, the temperate and the 
well-ordered.* 

42. " That furthermore the best regulated states 
have taken care to concern themselves with music of 
the grand style we could show by citing many ex- 
amples, especially Terpander, who settled the civil 
strife that had broken out in Lacedaemon/ and the 
Cretan Thaletas, who is said in accordance with a 
Delphic oracle ° to have visited Lacedaemon and by 
means of music to have brought health to the people, 
delivering Sparta, as Pratinas h asserts, from the 
pestilence that had broken out there. Indeed Homer 
too says that the pestilence that attacked the Greeks 
came to an end by music. These are his words i : 

c Plato, Republic, Hi, 413 e 5. 

d Plato, Republic, iii, 402 c 2-6. 

e Plato, Republic, iii, 403 a 7-8. 

' Cf. Philodemus, Be Musica, i, Frag. 30. 31-35 (p. 18, ed. 
Kemke ; pp. 40 f., ed. van Krevelen) ; Diodorus, viii. 28 ; 
Zenobius, Cent. v. 9 (Leutsch and Schneidewin, Paroem. 
Gr.i,p. 118). 

' Cf. H. W. Parke and D. E. W. Wormell, The Delphic 
Oracle, vol. ii, no. 223, p. 92. 

h Frag. 6 (Page, Poet. Mel. Or., p. 369). 

i Iliad, i. 472-474. 

VOL. XIV Q 449 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1146) ol Se TravrjfJbepiOL pLoXrrfj deov IXdoKOVTO 

koXov decSovres Trourjova, KodpoL 'A^atcov, 
IxeXrrovTes ihcdepyov 6 Se (f)peva reprrer aKOVOJv. 

tovtovs tov? otl)(ovs, ayade StSduKaXe, koXoc/xjovol 

TO)V TTCpl TTJS 1 fJLOVCJlKfjS XoyOJV* 77 €77 O L7] fJLOU , €7T€L 

(f)ddaas ov rrjv pLovaLKrjv Svvapiiv Slol tovtojv rrpo- 
aTTecfyrjvas r)(MV' toj yap ovtl to rrpcorov avrrj? koll 
D KaXXiarov epyov rj el? tovs deov? ev^dpLOTO?* eoTLV 
djJLOifir], erropLevov Se 4 tovtoj Kal hevTepov to ttj? 
i/jv)(rjs KaddpGLOi' 5 koll ipLfxeXe? koI evappiovLOV ov- 
aTrjfia." 

TavT elrrcbv 6 HcoTrjpixos, " e^i?, ^4 >r ]> " T0V $ 
i7TU<vXu<€LOvs G TTepI pbovoLKrj? 1 Xoyov? , ayade StSd- 
GKaXe." 

43. 'JLdavpbdodr) pbev ovv 6 HojTTjpLXo? errl toI? 
Xe^OeloL' koll yap evecfraLve Slol tov rrpooajTrov /cat 
Trjs <j)ajpfjs ttjv rrepl {jlovolktjv OTrovSrjv. 6 §' epLo? 
StSao-KaAos 1 , " fJL€Ta tojv oXXojv" efirj, " Kal tovto 
a,77oSe^o/xat eKaTepov vpucov* otl ttjv Ta^LV eKaTepo? 
ttjv 9 avTos avTOv icj)vXa^ev 6 pLev yap Avola? ooa 
fiovov ytLpovpyovvTL KLdapcpSa) rrpoorJKev eloevaL 

TOVTOL? 7]/Xa? €LGTLaO€V ' O 0€ l^WTTjpLXO? OOa KOL 

npo? d)(f>eXeLav Kal irpo? deojpiav, dXXd yap Kal 

SvvafJLLV Kal XprJGLV pLOVOLKTJ? GVVT€LV€L hLOaOKOJV 

rjpba? erreoaipLXevoaTO . eKelvo 8 ol/jlol eKOVTa? 
avTovs ifMol KaToXeXoLTrevaL' ov yap KaTayvojoofiaL 
auTcuy SeLXlav w? aloxwOevrtuv KaTaorrdv [xovoLKrjv 

1 Trjs] V aN omit. 

2 tcov . • . Xoyojv] tov . . . Xoyov M ac ; tov . . . Xoy ojv W ac . 

3 eu^apiCTTO?] evxdpLTos M c (a from p) a ac . 

4 8e] a 1 vq omit. 



5 KaQdpcnov] KaddpGLos M a ac W (-t). 



450 



ON MUSIC, 1146 

The Greeks made supplication to the god 
All day in beauteous song, chanting a paean, 
Hymning the Archer ; he, well pleased, gave ear. 

With these verses, most excellent preceptor, I con- 
clude my speech on music, since you used them at 
the outset ° to reveal to us its power. For in very 
truth its first and noblest office is the grateful return 
of thanks to the gods ; while next in order and 
second in importance is that of composing the soul 
in purity, 6 in sureness of tone, and in harmony/' 

Soterichus then said : " You now have, most excel- 
lent preceptor, my speech on music, delivered over 
the cups/' 

43. Soterichus was admired for his speech ; in- 
deed, both in his expression and in his voice, he had 
shown how devoted he was to music. My preceptor 
said : " This too, among the rest, I observe with 
satisfaction in what you each have done : each has 
observed his station. Thus Lysias has regaled us 
only with what it becomes a practising singer to the 
cithara to know ; while Soterichus has also lavished 
upon us instruction in what pertains to the benefit 
to be gained from music and to its theoretical aspect, 
not omitting, however, its effect and its employment. 
The one thing that they have left for me to say was 
left, I believe, on purpose ; for I will not think so 
poorly of their courage as to suppose that they were 
ashamed to bring music down to the level of our 

At 1131 e, supra. 

6 For purification by music cf. Aristotle, Politics, viii. 7 
(1341 b 38-40, 1342 a 4-16). 

6 €ttlkv\ik€lovs Hemsterhusius : eVi/cuAi/a'ou? (€ttikvk\Lovs M). 

7 7T€pl fJLOVGLKTJs] Vq OITlit. 8 VfJLWv] r)jX(X)V M. 

9 rrjv] vq omit. 10 dorlacrev] laTiaaev V a 1 A 1 W. 

451 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(11 46) €IS TCL GVGGLTia' €1 ydp 7TOV /Cat* ^p^CTt/XT? KCLL rrapd 
TTOTOV, COS 2 6 KCtXoS "OfJbTJpOS <XTT€(f)r]V€V 

F iioAttti, 

ydp 7TOV (f)7]GLV, 

op)(r]OTVs re, rd ydp t dvadrjfjLaTa 3 Sairos. 

/cat \ioi [JLrjSels VTroXafierco on rrpos rep'ftiv /jlovov 
XP?}crifJt,r]v cprjdrj p,ovcnKrjv f 'OfJLr]pos Sta tovtcov aAAa 
ydp fiaOvrepos eon vovs eyKeKpyfipuevos tols erreoLV. 
€ls yap (h<f><=Aeiav /cat j3or)6eLav rrjv fJbeyLorrjv tols 
tolovtols* Kcupots rrapeXafiev jJLOVGiKTjv, Xeyco Se els 
rd Selrrva /cat rds ovvovaias r&y dp^aicov. ovve- 
fiaLvev ydp elodyeoOaL fJLovoLKrjv cos tKavrjv avriorrdv 
/cat TTpavveiv rrjv rod olvov vrroOepfiov Svpapuv, 
KaOdrrep 5 nov (frrjcnv /cat 6 vpuerepos 6 'ApLaro^evos' 
eKelvos ydp eXeyev elodyeoOaL plovolktjv rrapooov 6 
fjuev otvos ocj>dXXeLV rrecf)VKev rcov dSrjv 7 avrco xprjaa- 
1147 /xeVojv rd re crco/xara /cat rds Siavotas, rj Se /jlovolktj 
rfj rrepl avrrjv 8 rd^et re teal ovpLpLerpLa els rrjv evav- 
Tiav KardoraoLV dyei re koX rrpavvei. rrapd rovrov 
ovv rov Kaipov cos fiorjdrjfjLaTL rfj (jlovolktj rovs 
dpxatovs <j>r)ol KexpfjaOai "Op,rjpos. 

44. " 'AAAa 8r) teal to fieytorov vpuv, 9 co eralpoi, 
/cat fidXiora oefJLVordrrjv aTrocfyaZvov jjlovolktjv rrapa- 
XeXeiTrrai. rrjv ydp rcov ovrcov (j>opdv /cat rr)v rcov 

1 /cat] W aN omit. 

2 irapa ttotov <x>s Bryan (in conviviis Valgulius ; aux festins, 
comme Amyot) : 7rapaT€Tovcos MVoW (-(hs a)N ; rrapayeyovebs 
V c q t (7rapay€ya)va)S v ac ) ; 7rapar€rova)S elx €v q 2?S8 « 

3 dVa^/zara] dvaOvfjuara V. 

4 tols tolovtols Ziegler : clvtoTs Ma; iv rots V aN vq ; rot, 
tols W. 

452 



ON MUSIC, 1146-1147 

banquets. For here, if anywhere, music is of service, 
over the cups, as the noble Homer a declared ; there 
is a passage where he says 

Song and the dance, the graces of a feast. 

And let no one, I pray, suppose that in these words 
Homer means that music ministers only to pleasure ; 
no, the verse conceals a deeper sense. It was for 
a most important service and remedial effect that 
Homer included music on such occasions, that is, at 
the meals and social gatherings of the ancients. For 
it is a fact that music was there introduced for its 
efficacy in counteracting and soothing the heat latent 
in wine, as your favourite Aristoxenus b somewhere 
says, for it was he who said that music was introduced 
forasmuch as wine makes the bodies and minds of 
those who overindulge in it disorderly, while music 
by its order and balance brings us to the opposite 
condition and soothes us. Hence Homer asserts that 
the ancients employed music as a remedy to meet 
this issue. 

44. " But in fact, my friends, the greatest con- 
sideration, one that particularly reveals music as 
most worthy of all reverence, has been omitted. It 
is that the revolution of the universe c and the courses 



, i. 152. 
Frag. 122 (ed. Wehrli) ; Testim. 21 (ed. Da Rios). 
c Literally rd ovra, " the things which are." For this use 
of the expression cf. Aristotle, Metaphysics, A 5 (986 a 2) and 
Alexander on the passage (p. 41. 13, ed. Hayduck). 



5 KadaTT€p\ Ka9d vq. 
6 v/jLerepos] rffierepos M 1 vq. 
7 dSrjv M W (dSrjv VaaN; dBrjv A) : 
8 avrrjv Westphal : avrrjv. 
9 vfjuv Turnebus (a vobis Valgulius) : 



dStiv vq. 



453 



PLUTARCH'S MORALIA 

(1147) dorepcov klvtjglv ol uepl TlvQayopav koll ' > Kpx VTav 
koX UXdrcova koX ol Xolttoi tcov dpxaioov (f>i\oGO(f)cov 
ovk dvev pbovaiKTJs yiyvtGdai koL Gweardvat ecfta- 
gkov rravra yap Ka6* appuoviav vtto tov 9eov kojt- 

€GK€vdG6ai (f}CLGLV. aKCUpOV S* dv €LTj VVV €TT€KT€L- 

veiv 1 tov? irepl tovtov Xoyovs, dvwrarov Se koX 
piovGLKwrarov to 2 ttolvtl to 5 7TpoGrjt<ov fxerpov iiri- 
TiOevcu." 

TavT elrrcov €TTaL(jovLG€, koli GTretGas* to) KpoVco 

KOI Tols TOVTOV 7T(11GIV 5 0€OLS UaGl KOX WLoVGCLlS, 

dtreAvGev tovs eGTicopbevovs . 6 

1 €7T€KT€lV€Lv] 0L7T€KT€LV€LV 0. ; V7T€KT€LV€LV N. 

2 to] to) vq. 3 to] M omits. 

4 o7T€LGas] oirioas V a 1 W. 

5 Traiai {-olv Ma) : Traiai ovv W. 

6 No subscription M V o^A 1 W vq ; irXovTapxov nepl /xoucrt- 

K7JS aN 2 ; 7T€pl fJLOVOLKTJS a 2 A 2 E. 



454 



ON MUSIC, 1147 

of the stars are said by Pythagoras, 6 * Archytas, Plato, 
and the rest of the ancient philosophers not to come 
into being or to be maintained without the influence 
of music ; for they assert that God has shaped all 
things in a framework based on harmony. b It is no 
time now, however, to expatiate further on this sub- 
ject. Nothing is more important or more in the 
spirit of music than to assign to all things their proper 
measure." 

With these words he intoned the paean, and after 
offering libations to Cronos, to all the gods his chil- 
dren, and to the Muses, he dismissed the banqueters. 

a Cf. Aristotle, On the Pythagoreans, Frag. 203 (ed. Rose), 
13 (ed. Ross). 

b Cf. Plato, Cratylus, 405 c 6-d 3. 



455 



INDEX 



[An index to the entire Moralia will be published in the final volume o 
the LCL edition. See also W. C. Helmbold and E. N. O'Neil, Plutarch' 
Quotations (Philological Monograph, XIX), Baltimore, 1959.] 



Academy, the, 269, 305 ; cf. 191, 
279 : the school of philosophy 
founded by Plato at Athens 

accompaniment (musical), 397, 
417, 439 

Acheron, 133 : eponym of the in- 
fernal river 

Achilles, 445, 447 : one of the 
Greek commanders at Troy 

active life, 31 ; pleasures of, 85- 
107 

Ada, 101 : dynast of Caria and 
sister of Maussolus 

Aeacus, 133 : father of Peleus, 
and a judge among the dead 

Aegium, 191 : a city of Achaia 

Aeneas, 141 : a Trojan hero 

Aeolian nome, 361 

Aeschylus, 25, 41, 395 : Athenian 
tragic poet ; 525/4-456/5 B.C. 

afterworld, 51, 53, 129, 131, 137, 
235, 337 

Agamemnon, 359, 445, 447 : com- 
mander-in-chief of the Greeks 
at Troy 

Agathobulus, 39 : perhaps to be 
identified with Aristobulus, a 
brother of Epicurus 

Agesilaus, 99 : king of Sparta 
399-360 B.C. 

Agrianes, 75 : a people living on 
the upper Strymon 

Agrigentum, 389 : a city of Si- 
cily 

Ajax, 193 : son of Telamon ; one 
of the Greeks at Troy 

Alcaeus, 383 : lyric poet ; flour- 
ished 600 B.C. 



Alcman, 365, 379, 385, 389 : ly- 
ric poet ; circa 650-600 B.C. 

Alexander, 79, 99, 101, 103, 307 : 
the Great, king of Macedon ; 
356-323 B.C. 

Alexander Polyhistor 363 : a 
historian and antiquarian ; 
circa 100-40 B.C. 

Alexandria, 355 : a city in Egypt 
founded by Alexander the 
Great in 332/1 B.C. 

Amphion, 357 : legendary musi- 
cian of Thebes 

Anaxarchus, 247 : a person to 
whom Epicurus sent a letter 

Andreas, 395 : a musician of Co- 
rinth 

anonymous citations, 75, 79, 91, 
93, 97, 115, 125, 133, 135, 137, 
203, 297, 337 ; anonymous 
citations claimed by Schneider 
for Callimachus, 61, 115, 287, 
335 

Anthedon, 357 : a city of Boeotia 

Anthes, 357 : an early musician 

Anticleides, 383 : a historian ; 4th 
cent. B.C. 

Antidorus, 303 : an opponent of 
Epicurus 

Antigeneidas, 397 : a Theban au- 
lete ; flourished 400-370 B.C. 

Antiope, 357 : mother of Amphion 

Antissa, 419 : a city of Lesbos 

Apelles, 69 : an Epicurean 

Aphrodite, 71, 89, 115, 359 ; 
feast of, 71 (" holiday " renders 
a2)hrodisia, literally " festival 
of Aphrodite "), 89 (with note e) 

457 



INDEX 



Apodeixeis, 373 : a festival in 

Apollo, 121, 337, 359, 367, 383, 
385 ; cf. 355, 451, and Phoebus 

Apollodorus, 67 : an arithmeti- 
cian 

Apollonius, 65 : perhaps to be 
identified with Apollonius of 
Perga, a geometer and as- 
tronomer ; circa 262-190 B.C. 

Apothetos, 361, 365 : a musical 
nome 

appearance (as opposed to reality), 
143, 255, 269, 273, 275, 281, 
285, 289, 291, 293 

Arbela, 103 : a city of Meso- 
potamia, near which Alexander 
defeated Darius III in 331 B.C. 

Arcadia, 373 : a district in the 
Peloponnese 

Arcadians, 305, 365 

Arcesilaus, 269, 277, 279 : of 
Pitane in Aeolia ; became head 
of the Academy on the death of 
Crates (between 268 and 264 
B.C.); 316/5-241/0 B.C. 

Archelaus, 75, 253 : king of Ma- 
cedon 413-399 B.C. 

Archias, 99 : a Theban friendly 
to Sparta ; killed in 379 B.C. 

Archilochus, 363, 365, 369, 373, 
375, 415, 417 : iambic poet ; 
flourished 680-640 B.C. 

Archimedes, 63-69 : a mathe- 
matician of Syracuse ; circa 
287-212 B.r. 

Archytas, 455 : a Pythagorean 
philosopher of Tarentum ; first 
half of the 4t& cent. B.C. 

Ardalus, 365 : of Troezen ; a le- 
gendary musician 

Ares, 389, 419 

Argives, 413, 441 

Argos, 357, 371, 373 : a city and 
state in the Peloponnese 

Aristarchus, 63, 65 : of Samos ; a 
mathematician and astrono- 
mer ; circa 310-230 B.C. 

Aristeides, 91 : Athenian states- 
man ; early 5th cent. B.C. 

Aristobulus, 61 : historian who 
accompanied Alexander the 
Great 

Aristobulus, 123, 329 : a brother 
of Epicurus ; cf. Agathobulus 

458 



Aristodenius, 19, 21, 83, 85, 109, 
129, 191, 193 : member of Plu- 
tarch's school 

Aristonymus, 305 : a pupil of 
Plato 

Aristophanes, 425 : Athenian co- 
mic poet ; his datable plays 
begin 427 B.C., end 388 B.C. 

Aristotle, 17, 01, 71, 77, 79, 85, 
215, 235, 237, 257, 293, 307, 
309, 405, 407, 409 : the philo- 
sopher ; 384-322 B.C. 

Aristoxenus, 61, 77, 375, 385, 387, 
425, 453 : a pupil of Aristotle ; 
flourished 320-300 B.C. 

Ariusian wine, 99 : from Ariusia, 
a district of Chios that pro- 
duced the best Greek wine 

Artemis, 359 

Ascalaphus, 133 : son of Acheron, 
an underworld daemon 

Asclepius, 123 : the god of heal- 
ing 

Asia, 231, 305, 307, 329, 367 

Asian cithara, 367 

astronomy, 61 ; pleasures of, 03- 
67 

Ateas, 77 : king of the Scyths ; 
fell in battle in 339 B.C. 

Athena, 385, 389, 431, 433 

Athenian, 75, 87, 421 

Athenians, 45, 103, 247, 301, 305 

Athens, 253, 305, 311, 331, 387, 
389 

Atlantis, 59 

atoms, 105, 137, 205, 207, 211- 
215, 219, 223, 229, 243 

Attalus, 75 : possibly Attains II, 
king of Pergamum ; 220-138 

aulete(s), 367, 371, 385, 387, 421, 

439 
aulos, 361-375, 383, 385, 397, 411, 

413, 419, 425, 439, 441 ; see 

also flute 
Averter of Evil, 121 : a divine 

epithet 

Babylon, 75 

bacchius, 419 : a metrical foot 

Bacchylides, 389 : lyric poet ; 
earliest and latest datable 
poems, 476 and 452 B.C. 

Bearer of Light, 265 : a divine 
epithet 



INDEX 



Bearing of Light, 265 : a festival 

belief, 233, 235, 273, 277, 285, 
289, 303 ; see also opinion 

Beronicc, 201 : wife of Deiotarus 

Bestower, 121 : a divine epithet 

Bion, 303 ; cf. 277, note e : the 
Borysthenite, a sophist ; 3rd 
cent. B.C. 

Boeotia, 359 

Boeotian nome, 361 

Boeotians, 365 

Boidion, 89 : a member of Epi- 
curus' school 

buffoonery, 17, 73, 75 

CALLIAS, 75 : unidentified 
Callicratidas, 105 : a Spartan ad- 
miral ; fell at Arginusae, 406 

B.C. 

Camillas, 331 : Roman statesman 
and general, who prevented the 
proposed removal of the Ro- 
mans to Veii, taken by him in 
396 B.C. 

Candaules, cf. 197, note /: an 
early king of Lydia 

Carneades, 35 : head of the Aca- 
demy ; 2nd cent. B.C. 

Carneian festival (at Sparta), 367 

Castor, air of, 413 

Cepion, 367 : a disciple of Ter- 
pander 

Cepion nome, 361 

Cerberus, 137, 147 : guardian of 
the entrance to the lower world 

Chabrias, 305 : an Athenian ge- 
neral ; fell 357 B.C. 

Chaeredemus, 329 : brother of 
Epicurus 

Chaerephon, 245, 247 : a follower 
of Socrates 

chance, 237 

Chariot nome, 369 

Cheiron, 445, 447 : a centaur 

choree, 419 : a metrical foot 

chorus(es), 359, 371, 383, 425 

chromatic genus, 81, 375, 377, 
395, 427, 431, 435, 445 

Cinesias, 421 : Athenian dithy- 
rambic poet ; 5th cent. B.C. 

cithara, 77, 79, 357-367, 383, 385, 
395, 397, 425, 439, 451 

Clonas, 359, 363, 365, 371 : early 
musician and poet 

Cnidians, 307 



Cocytus, 147 : a river in the 
underworld 

Colophon, 361, 365, 373 : Ionian 
city in Asia Minor 

Colotes, 15, 17, 105, 191-315 
passim ; quoted, 221, 231, 239, 
247, 251, 255, 263, 269, 295 ; 
called Colly, Collikins, by Epi- 
curus, 191, 221 : a follower of 
Epicurus ; of Lampsacus, 4th 
to 3rd cent. B.C. 

Comarchios, 361 : a musical nome 

Conon, 105 : an Athenian ad- 
miral ; died 392 B.C. or shortly 
after 

Constitutions of Cities, 61 : title of 
a work by Aristotle 

contemplative part- of the soul, 81 

convention, 209, 213, 223, 225 

Corcyra, 359 

Corinna, 385 : lyric poetess, of 
Tanagra ; of uncertain date 

Corinth, 395 

Cotys, 305 : king of Thrace, mur- 
dered in 360 B.C. 

Cradias, 371 : a musical nome 

Crates, 369 : an early musician 

Crates, 75 : of Mallos, a gramma- 
rian ; 2nd cent. B.C. 

Cretan(s), 133, 413, 449 

Crete, 373 

cretic, 417 : a metrical foot 

Crexus, 381, 417 : a dithyrambic 
poet ; 5th to 4th cent. B.C. 

criterion of truth, 205, 233'; cf. 291 

Cronos, 455 : a Titan, father of 
Zeus ; the Latin Saturn, patron 
of the Saturnalia 

custom, 289 

Cyrenaics, 33, 269 

Cythera, 373 : an island off La- 
conia 

Cyzicus, 93 : a city on the Pro- 
pontis 

Dactyls : see Idaean Dactyls 
Daiphantus, 103 : a national hero 

of the Phocians 
Damon, 387 : Athenian musician, 

teacher of Pericles ; 5th cent. 

B.C. 

Danalis, 413 : eponym of the Da- 

nai, and ruler of Argos 
Death (personified), 223 
Deiotarus, 201 : the name of 

459 



INDEX 



several kings of Galatia ; 1st 
cent. B.C. 

Delian, 337 : epithet of Apollo 

Delium, 253 : a temple in 
Boeotia, scene of the Athenian 
defeat of 424 B.C. 

Delius, 307 : of Ephesus, a fol- 
lower of Plato ; 4th cent. B.C. . 

Delos, 383, 385 : an island in the 
Aegean 

Delphi, 245, 247, 359, 365, 385 

Delphic, 257, 359, 449 

Demeter, 263, 265 

Demetrius Poliorcetes, cf. 262, 
note a : king of Macedon and 
famous as a general ; 337/6- 
283 B.C. 

Democritean, 197, 199 

Democritus, 103, 105, 195-217, 
229, 293, 303, 335 : of Abdera, 
a philosopher ; 5th cent. B.C. 

Demodocus, 359 : a bard in the 



Demy 1 us, 307 : a tyrant defied by 
Zeno of Elea ; 5th cent. B.C. 

Description of the World, 61 : title 
of a work by Eudoxus 

Deucalion, 301 : a mythological 
figure 

diatonic genus, 375, 377, 427, 435, 
445 

Dicaearchus, 71, 79, 235 : a pupil 
of Aristotle 

diesis, 377, 443, 445 : a musical 
interval, reckoned by Aristo- 
xenus as a quarter tone 

Diodotus, 75 : unidentified 

Diogenes, 121 ; cf. 311 : of 
Sinope, the Cynic ; circa 400/ 
390-328/3 B.C. ; for the Repub- 
lic ascribed to him see 310, 
note d 

Dion, 85, 305, 331 : of Syracuse, 
friend and pupil of Plato 
assassinated in 354 B.C. 

Dionysia, 93 : festival of Diony- 
sus 

Dionysius, 45 : the Elder, tyrant 
of Syracuse from 405 to 367 

B.C. 

Dionysius, 85 : the Younger, ty- 
rant of Syracuse circa 367- 
357, 347-344 B.C. 

Dionysius, 425 : of Thebes, a mu- 
sician ; 4th cent. B.C. 

460 



Dionysius Iambus, 385 : a histo- 
rian ; 3rd cent. B.C. 

dioptra, 63 : an optical instru- 
ment 

Dioscuri, 123, 125 : the divine 
twins, Castor and Pollux 

Disputed Questions, 73 : title of a 
work by Epicurus 

Disputed Questions in Natural 
Philosophy, 235 : title of a 
work by Heracleides Ponticus 

dithyramb, 361, 375, 417-423 

ditone, 377 

Dorian (mode in music), 371, 377, 
387, 389, 393, 395, 415, 429, 
433 

Dorian Maiden Songs, 389 

Dorion, 397 : an aulete at the 
court of Philip of Macedon ; 
4th cent. B.C. 

Dracon, 389 : Athenian musician, 
teacher of Plato 

Eetion, 447 : king of Thebe and 
father of Andromache 

Egypt, 329 

Eleans, 307 

elegiac verse, 361, 371, 373, 417 

Elegoi, 361 : a musical nome 

elements, 213, 217, 219, 225, 231, 
245, 401, 431-437 

Empedoclean monsters, 287 

Empedocles, 129, 195, 217-229, 
303; quoted, 129, 217, 223, 
225, 227, 287 : of Agrigentum, 
a philosopher ; circa 500-circa 
430 B.C. 

Endrome, 413 : part of an ath- 
letic contest 

Endymatia, 373 : a festival at 
Argos 

enharmonic genus, 81, 375-379, 
395, 419, 427, 431-435, 443 

Epameinondas, 91 (with note c), 
93, 99, 101, 309, 327, 331 : 
Theban general ; circa 420-362 

Ephesus, 307 

Epicurus, 15-331 passim ; quoted, 
37, 47, 53, 87, 127, 135, 139, 
147, 205, 207, 221, 229, 249, 
251, 297, 299, 301, 313 ; cf. 29, 
note c ; 43, note b : founder of 
the Epicurean school ; 341-270 

B.C. 



INDEX 



Epiphanies, 383 : title of a work 
by Istrus 

epiphany, 123 

epode, 417 : a metrical form 

Eryxis, 323 : father of the glutton 
Philoxenus 

Euboea, 357 

Euclid, 63 : the famous geometer ; 
4th to 3rd cent. B.C. 

Eudoxus, 61, 63, 67, 69, 307 : of 
Cnidus, a member of Plato's 
Academy ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Euripides, 41, 71, 75, 137 ; 
quoted, 41, 65, 71, 89, 119, 133, 
137, 195, 209, 287, 303 : Athe- 
nian tragic poet ; circa 485- 
406 B.C. 

Europe, 231 

Evenus, 117 : of Paros, a poet 
and sophist ; 5th cent. B.C. 

FAME, 323, 325, 331, 339 

fear of death, 51-55, 127-137, 145- 
149 ; of punishment, 131, 315 
of the gods, 109-113 

festivals, 103, 117, 265, 367, 369 : 
371, 373, 413 ; see also Aphro 
dite, Apodeixeis, Dioynsia 
Endymatia, Gymnopaediae 
Metroa, Pythian games, Itevels : 
Saturnalian feast, Stheneia 

fifth, 403, 407 : a musical interval 

films (atomic), 243, 273, 293 

flute, 77, 79, 117, 133, 135 ; see 
also aulos 

Foundations, 61 : title of a work 
by Aristotle 

fourth, 403, 407 : a musical in- 

Fury, 113, 303 ; cf. 287 

Galli, 313 : worshippers of the 

Great Mother 
Garden, the, 89, 93 : Epicurus' 

school in Athens 
generation, 217-227, 231, 237, 

241, 335 
genus (in music), 79, 375, 377, 

395, 417, 419, 427-435, 443, 445 
geometry, 61, 63, 67, 71 ; cf. 399 
Giver of Laws, 263 : an epithet of 

Demeter 
gladiators, 99 
Glaucus,133 : son of Minos and Pa- 

siphae 



Glaucus, 363, 369, 373, 375 : of 
Uhegium, a writer on music and 
poetry ; late 5th cent. B.C. 

Gnathon, 323 : of Sicily, a glutton 

God, gods, 49, 53, 55, 109-127, 
147, 195, 229, 249, 261-265, 
295, 297, 301, 331, 335, 337, 
355, 359, 367, 369, 381-385, 
393, 411, 413, 451, 455 

Gorgon's head, 279 

Gortyn, 373 : a city in Crete 

Graces, the, 383 

Great Mother, the, 313, 419 ; see 
also Mother of the Gods 

Grecian host, 195 

Greece, 107, 247, 293, 331, 369 

Greek(s), 59, 87, 95, 99, 107, 245, 
301, 307, 355, 363, 369, 411, 
413, 419, 449, 451 ; see also 
Hellenic style of music 

Guardian of the Ploughing, 265 : 
an epithet of Demeter 

Gyges, cf. 197, note / : an early 
king of Lydia 

Gymnopaediae, 373 : a Lacedae- 
monian festival 

HARMONICS, 61, 357, 373, 387, 399, 
401, 429-435, 439 

harmony, 79, 403-411, 435, 451, 
455 : originally the " tuning " 
of the lyre or cithara ; hence 
the scale or mode in which a 
piece of music is played ; also 
used of the enharmonic genus 
and of the octave, cf. 404, note 
c, 409, note d. Greek music 
was in general non-polyphonic : 
hence such words as " har- 
mony " and " concord " refer 
to notes heard in sequence, and 
not played as a chord 

Hector, 69, 133 : a Trojan hero 

Hedeia, 35, 89, 329 : a member of 
Epicurus' school 

Hegesianax, 111 : a friend of 
Epicurus 

Helicon, 65 : a mountain in 
Boeotia 

Hellenic style of music, 379 

Hephaestus, 359 

Heraclean might, 221 

Heracleides, 17, 19 : a gramma- 
rian contemporary with Plu- 
tarch 

461 



INDEX 



Heracleides, 17, 305 : of Aenus, 
pupil of Plato and slayer of 
Cotys 

Heracleides Ponticus, 71, 235, 
357 : a pupil of Plato ; 4th 
cent. B.C. 

Heracleitus, 39, 257, 277, 295 : of 
Ephesus, a philosopher ; Ctli. 
cent. B.C. 

Heracles, 221, 383, 447 : a mythi- 
cal hero 

Hermione, 419 : a city in the 
Peloponnese 

Hermogenes, 123 : a speaker in 
Xenophon's Symposium 

Herodotus, 59, 91, 147 ; quoted, 
91, 123, 147 ; cf. 133, 197, note 
/: of Halicarnassus, the fa- 
mous historian ; 5th cent. B.C. 

Hesiod, quoted, 31 ; cf. 97, note 
b ; 297, note g : of Ascra in 
Boeotia, a didactic poet ; 8th 
cent. B.C. 

hexameter verse, 359, 361, 363, 
417 

Hierax, 413 : an early musician 

Hieron, 75 : tyrant of Gela and 
Syracuse ; died 467/6 B.C. 

Hieronymus, 79 : of Rhodes, a 
Peripatetic philosopher ; 3rd 
cent. B.C. 

Himera, 369 : a city in Sicily 

Hipparchia, 17 : a Cynic philoso- 
pher, wife of Crates ; 4th cent. 

B.C. 

Hipparchus, 69 : mathematician 
and astronomer ; circa 190- 
120 B.C. 

Hippocrates, 41, 101 : the famous 
physician ; 5th cent. B.C. 

Hipponax, 367, 371 : of Ephesus, 
an iambic poet ; 6th cent. B.C. 

Hismenias, 77 : of Thebes, a 
flute-player ; 4th cent. B.C. 

history, pleasures of, 57-61, 69, 
71 

Homer, 19, 61, 71, 77, 141, 355, 
359, 363, 367, 445-449, 453 ; 
quoted {Iliad), 41, 99, 131, 135, 
141, 193, 223, 279, 355, 447, 
451, cf. 59 ; (Odyssey), 19, 21, 
29, 31, 97, 127, 341, 453 

Hyagnis, 363, 369, 383 : a musi- 
cian, father of Marsyas 

Hyampolis, 103 : a city of Phocis 

462 



hypate, 401, 403, 407, 409 : a 
note of the scale 

hypate hypaton, 387 : the lowest 
note of the lowest tetrachord 

Hyperboreans, 385 : a mythical 
northern race 

Hypodorian mode, 429 

Hypolydian mode, 419 

Hypophrygian mode, 429 

hyporcheme, 373 

Hyrcanians, 109 : a people dwell- 
ing on the southern shore of the 
Caspian 

IAMBIC VERSE, 417 

Iambus : see Dionysius Iambus 
Idaean Dactyls, 363 
ideas, theory of, 235, 237 
Idomeneus, 251, 313 : a follower 

of Epicurus 
instrumental music, 367 
intellectual life, 31 ; pleasures of, 

57-83 
intervals (musical), 375, 377, 399- 

403, 407, 429, 443, 445 
Ion, 301 : eponymous ancestor of 

the Ionians 
Ionian mode, 387, 389 
Ismenias : see Hismenias 
Istrus, 383 : author of a work 

entitled Epiphanies of Apollo ; 

3rd cent. B.C. 
Italy, 363, 375 
Ithaca, 29, 359 

Justice (a deity), 297 

Kindly, 121 : a divine epithet 

Lacedaemon, 373, 449 ; see also 

Sparta 
Lacedaemonians, 247, 411, 429 
Lachares, 45 : Athenian general, 

for a short time tyrant of 

Athens ; early 3rd cent. B.C. 
Lady of Nuptials, 265 : an epithet 

of Hera 
Lais, 99 : a famous courtesan ; 

early 4th cent. B.C. 
Lamprocles, 387 : of Athens, a 

musician ; early 5th cent. B.C. 
Lamprus, 425 : a musician ; 5th 

cent. B.C. 
Lampsacus, 45, 329 : a city on 

the Hellespont 



INDEX 



Lasus, 419 : of Hermione, poet 
and musician of the late Oth 
cent. B.C. 

Iaw(s), 289, 295-299, 303-315, 329, 
331 

Leonteus, 197 : a pupil of Epi- 
curus 

Leontiades, 103 : a Theban 
friendly to Sparta ; killed in 
379 B.C. 

Leontion, 35, 89, 331 : a member 
of Epicurus' school 

Lesbian singers, 367 

Lesbos, 367 : an island in the Ae- 
gean 

Lethe, 341 : a river in the under- 
world 

Leto, 359 : mother of Apollo and 
Artemis 

Leuctra, 93, 103 : a town in 
Boeotia ; scene of Epameinon- 
das' victory over the Spartans 
in 371 B.C. 

lichanos, 375, 393, 445 : a note of 
the scale 

Linus, 357 : a legendary musician 

Lives, 61 : title of a work by 
Aristoxenus 

Locri, 373 : a city in southern Italy 

Locrian, 375 

Lycophron, 197 : a friend of the 
Epicurean Leonteus 

Lycurgus, 123, 247, 301, 311, 313, 
327 ; cf. 91, note e : reputed 
author of the Spartan constitu- 
tion 

Lydian, 197 ; mode (in music), 
371, 379, 385-389 

lyre, 63, 135, 281, 383, 413, 419, 
447 

Lysias, 355, 357, 381, 451 : a 
speaker in the Be Musica 

Maiden Songs (Parthencia), 389 
Mantinea, 395, 429 : a city in the 

Peloponnese 
Many-Headed nome, 367, 369 
Marathon, 91, 103 : scene of the 
Athenian victory over the 
Persians in 490 B.C. 
Marcellus, cf. 91, note d 
Marriage of Aphrodite and He- 
phaestus, 359 : title given to a 
song of Pomodocus (Odyssey, 
viii. 266-366) 



Marsyas, 363, 369, 383 ; also 

called Masses, 309 : a legendary 

musician 
Masses : see Marsyas 
mathematics, 399, 403 ; pleasures 

of, 61-69 
means (between extremes), 399- 

407 
Megara, 397 ; a " strong city," 

263, taken by Demetrius Poli- 

orcetes * cf. 174 
Melanippides,' 75, 385, 419, 421 : 

of Melos, a dithyrambic poet ; 

early 5th cent. B.C. 
Meles, 365 : of Colophon, father of 

Polymnestus 
Melissus, 195, 305 : of Samos, an 

Eleatic philosopher ; 5th cent. 

B.C. 

Menander, 117 ; cf. 65 : Athenian 
poet of the New Comedy ; 342- 
291 B.C. 

Menedemus, 307 : a follower of 
Plato 

Meropes, 383 : legendary inhabi- 
tants of Cos, opponents of 
Heracles 

mese, 375, 393, 403, 407, 409 : a 
note of the scale 

Metellus, 389 : of Agrigentum, a 
musician ; teacher of Plato 

metre, 359, 361 

Metroa : see Great Mother, Mo- 
ther of the Gods 

Metrodorus, 17, 19, 23, 27, 47, 51, 
69, 79, 85, 93, 95, 123, 199, 249, 
299, 305, 309-313, 329 ; cf. 195, 
note c ; 201, note c ; 301 : of 
Lampsacus, a follower of 
Epicurus ; 330-277 B.C. 

Miletus, 423 : a city on the coast 
of Asia Minor 

Miltiades, 87, 91 : Athenian ge- 
neral and statesman ; circa 
550-489 B.C. 

Mimnermus, 371 : of Colophon, 
lyric poet; 7th to 6th cent. B.C. 

Minos, 133 : king of Crete 

Mithres, 85, 309 : a Syrian, friend 
of Epicurus 

Mixolydian (mode or scale), 387, 
415, 429, 441 

mode (in music), 377, 385-389, 
393, 395, 417, 429, 433, 441 : 
we have not attempted to dis- 

463 



INDEX 



entangle the different senses of 
harmonia, tasis, tonos and 
tropos or of the Greek adverbs 
Doristi, Lydisti, Phrygistl etc. 
in the translation. In Aristo- 
xenus a precise distinction can 
be found ; but in the earlier 
writers the words appear to 
have been used rather loosely. \ 
See also scale 

modulation, 365, 371, 395, 429, 
431, 441 

Mother of the Gods, 393 ; see also 
Great Mother 

Muse(s), 65, 75, 77, 359, 455 

Museum, the, 75 : a centre of 
learning established by Pto- 
lemy I at Alexandria 

music, 71-79, 123, 133, 353-455 
passim ; pleasures of, 73-77 

Mysians, 371 

Mysians, 429 : title of a dithy- 
ramb composed by Philoxenus 

Nanartjs, 75 : satrap of Babylon 
natural philosophy, 53, 105, 199, 

235, 237, 249, 261 ; cf. 231 
nature, 217, 221-225, 229, 231, 

235, 237, 257, 261, 283, 291, 

301 
Neocles, 39, 89, 105 : brother of 

Epicurus 
Nestor, 193 : king of Pylos in the 

Homeric poems 
nete, 391, 393, 401, 403, 407, 409, 

415 : a note of the scale 
Nicias, 63 : an Athenian painter ; 

4th cent. B.C. 
Nicidion, 89 : a member of Epi- 
curus' school 
Nile, 309 

Niobe, 385 : daughter of Tantalus 
" no more this than that," 199- 

209 
nome, 359-373, 419, 431, 433 : a 

musical form 
Notices on Pkrygia, 363 : title of 

a work by Alexander Polyhistor 
Numa, 301 : early king of Rome 

OCTAVE, 401-407, 435, 441 
Odysseus, 61, 193 : a leader of the 

Greeks at Troy 
Oedipus the King, cf. 59 : a tra- 
gedy by Sophocles 

464 



Olympia, 107 : a sanctuary of 
Zeus in Elis ; scene of the 
Olympic festival, which occur- 
red every four years and 
traditionally began in 776 B.C. 

olympiads, 27 

Olympus, 363, 367, 369, 375, 379, 
383, 385, 389-393, 419, 431 : a 
legendary Phrygian aulete 

Olympus, 369 : the Younger ; 
also a legendary figure 

On Kingship, 75 : title of a work 
by Epicurus 

On Music, 385, 389 : title of a 
work by Aristoxenus 

On Poems, 69 : title of a work by 
Metrodorus 

On the Ancient Poets and Musi- 
cians, 363 : title of a work by 
Glaucus 

On the Heavens, 235 : title of a 
work by Aristotle 

On the Highest Good, 45 : title of 
a work by Epicurus 

On the Soul, 235 : title of works 
by Aristotle and Dicaearchus 

Onesicrates, 353-357, 361, 381 : a 
speaker in the De Musica 

opinion, 231, 239, 271, 277, 281- 
285, 313 ; see also belief 

oracle(s), 107, 247, 449 

Orpheus, 363, 369, 375 : a le- 
gendary Thracian musician 

orthios, 415 : a metrical foot 

Orthios nome, 369, 373 

Oxys nome, 361 

paean(S), 355, 373, 375, 389, 451, 
455 

paeon, 431, 433 ; cf. 375 : a me- 
trical foot 

paeon epibatos, 417, 431 : a me- 
trical foot 

Pan, 123 ; pipes of, 383, 385 

Panathenaic festival, 371 

Pancrates, 395 : a composer 

Pantheia, 61 : a personage in 
Xenophon's Education of Cyrus 

paramese, 375, 387, 393, 403, 407, 
409 : a note of the scale 

paranete, 391, 393, 445 : a note 
of the scale 

parhypate, 375, 391 : a note of the 
scale 

Parmenides, 195, 229-235, 241, 



INDEX 



245, 269, 277, 295, 303, 307 : 
of Elea, a philosopher ; 5th 
cent. B.C. 

Peiraeus, 309 : harbour city of 
Athens 

Peleus, 447 : father of Achilles 

Pella, 79 : a city in Macedonia 

Pellene, 429 : a city of Achaia 

Pelopidas, 91, 103 : Theban 
statesman and general; circa 
410-364 B.C. 

Peloponnese, 311 

pentachord, 423 : an arrange- 
ment of five notes in the range 
of a musical fourth 

Periander, 133 : ruler of Corinth 
circa 625-585 B.C. 

Pericleitus, 367 : of Lesbos, a ci- 
tharode ; later than Terpan- 
der and earlier than Hipponax 

Peripatetics, 235, 237, 357 ; cf. 
47 : followers of Aristotle 

Persian history, 61 

Phaeacian good cheer, 61 

Phaedrus, 261 : title of a work by 
Plato 

Phaethon, 67 : son of Helios and 
Clymene 

Phanias, 87 : a Peripatetic philo- 
sopher ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Phemius, 359 : a bard in the 



Pherecrates, 421 : a writer of Old 
Comedy ; 5th cent. B.C. 

Pherecydes, 39 : of Syros, a 
writer on cosmogony and theo- 
gony ; 6th cent. B.C. 

Philammon, 359, 365 : of Delphi, 
an early musician 

Philip I, 309 : king of Macedon 
359-336 B.C. 

Philip, 63 : of Opus, mathemati- 
cian and astronomer ; 4th 
cent. B.C. 

Philoctetes, 25 : one of the Greek 
leaders on the expedition to 
Troy 

Philoxenus, 101 : Alexander the 
Great's admiral 

Philoxenus, 381, 419, 425, 427 : 
of Cythera, a dithyrambic poet; 
435-379 B.C. 

Philoxenus, 323 : a glutton 

Phlius, 395 : a city in the Pelo- 
ponnese 



Phocion, 99, 305, 353 : Athenian 
general and statesman ; 402- 
318 B.C. 

Phocis, 103 : a district in north 
central Greece 

Phoebus, 93 ; see also Apollo 

Phormio, 123 : a Spartan, visited 
by the Dioscuri 

Phormio, 305 : a pupil of Plato 

Phrygia, 363, 367 

Phrygian (mode in music), 371, 
379, 393, 429-433 

Phrynichus, 395 : Athenian tra- 
gic poet ; 6th to 5th cent. 

B.C. 

Phrynis, 365, 423 : a musician, 
of Mytilene ; flourished circa 
450 B.C. 

Pieria, 359 

Pierians, 77 ; see also Muses 

Pierus, 359 : of Pieria, a legen- 
dary musician 

Pindar, 121, 123, 365, 371, 373, 
385, 389, 395, 415, 425, 427 ; 
quoted, 77, 121, 339, 341 : lyric 
poet ; 518-438 B.C. 

pipes of Pan, 383, 385 

Plataea, 91 : a city of Boeotia, 
scene of the Greek victory over 
the Persians in 479 B.C. 

Plato, 49, 59, 69, 85, 129, 141, 
191-195, 215, 231, 235-247, 261, 
269, 277, 293, 295, 305, 307, 
331, 385-389, 399-405, 455; 
quoted, 17, 119, 121, 261, 295, 
297, 399 ; cf. 37, note d ; 139, 
notes b-d ; 282, note d : 
Athenian philosopher ; circa 
427-347 B.C. 

Platonic writings of Aristotle, 257 

Platonists, 357 

pleasure, 15-149 passim, 195, 229, 
247, 249, 253, 283, 285, 295- 
299, 329, 337, 421, 453 

Plutarch's school, cf. 15-23, 109, 
127, 129, 191 

poetic inventions, 57 

poetry, 71, 73, 367 

poets, 41, 309, 359, 369, 371, 395, 
421 ; comic, 421, 425 ; lyric, 
359, 365, 425 ; tragic, 395, 417 

Polyaenus, 39, 93, 123, 205 : a 
follower of Epicurus 

Polyeidus, 397 : a musician 

Polymnestian, 361, 365 

465 



INDEX 



Polymnestus, 361, 365, 371, 373, 
379, 417 : of Colophon, an early 
musician 

Poseidon, 263 

Potidaea, 253 : a city on the 
isthmus of Pallene 

Pratinas, 369, 373, 425, 449 : of 
Phlius, lyric and dramatic 
poet : 6th to 5th cent. B.C. 

preludes, 361, 367 

Prenuptial rites, 265 

Processionals, 359, 389 

prosodiac, 417, 419 : a metrical 
foot 

Protagoras, 17, 199 : of Abdera, a 
Sophist ; 5th cent. B.C. 

proverbs, 19, 21, 27, 45, 245, 281 

providence, 53, 107, 109, 113, 117, 
121, 213, 285, 295, 331 

Ptolemy I, 63, 75 ; cf. 262, note 
a : Soter, ruler of Egypt from 
323 to 282 B.C. 

Ptolemy II, 191; cf. 154: Phi- 
ladelphus, sole ruler of Egypt 
from the death of Ptolemy So- 
ter until 246 B.C. 

pycnon, 377, 395 : the name of 
two intervals in the tetrachord 
when their sum is less than 
the remaining interval 

Pyrrhaeans, 307 : the people of 
Pyrrha, a city of Lesbos 

Pyrson, 111 : a friend of Epicurus 

Pythagoras, 17, 67, 141, 329, 441, 
455 : a philosopher ; 6th cent. 

B.C. 

Pythia, 123 : priestess of Apollo 

at Delphi 
Pythian, 337 : epithet of Apollo 
Pythian games, 363, 371, 397 
Pythocleides, 387 : an aulete, 

teacher of Lamprocles ; late 

6th cent. B.C. 
Pythocles, 69, 293 : a follower of 

Epicurus 
Python, 305 : a follower of Plato 
Python, 385 : a fabulous serpent 

Replies, 93 : title of a work by 

Metrodorus 
Reply to the Natural Philosophers, 

235 : title of a work by Theo- 

phrastus 
Reply to the Sophists, 47 : title of 

a work by Metrodorus 

466 



Reply to Thcophrasfus, 207 : title 

of a work by Epicurus 
Republic, 385 : title of a work by 

Plato 
Return of the Heroes, 359 : title 

given to the song of Phemius 

(Odyssey, i. 325-327) 
Reveller, 265 : an epithet of 

Dionysus 
Revels (a festival), 265 
rhythm(s), 79, 359, 365, 369, 375, 

379, 395, 397, 415-419, 431, 

433, 437, 439 
Romans, 301 
Rome, 91, 331 

Sacadas, 371, 373, 379 : of Argos, 
a musician ; 6th cent. B.C. 

Sack of Troy, 359 : title given to 
the song of Demodocus (Odys- 
sey, viii. 499-520) 

sage, the, 29, 33, 71, 73, 103, 105, 
251-257, 295, 299, 303, 307, 
311, 313, 323 

Salamis, 103 : an island off At- 
tica ; scene of the naval victory 
of 480 B.C. 

Samians, 75 

Sappho, 387 : of Lesbos, a poe- 
tess ; 7th to 6th cent. B.C. 

Sardanapalus, 75 : king of As- 
syria ; 7th cent. B.C. 

Sardonic laughter, 91 

Saturnalia, 353 

Saturnalian feast, 93 

Saturninus, 191 ; cf. 188 : L. 
Herennius Saturninus, pro- 
consul of Achaia, a.d. 98-99 

scale (musical), 365, 391, 395, 415, 
431, 437, 441. See also mode 

Schoinion, 361 , 365 : a musical 
nome 

Scyths, 77, 109 

semitone, 379, 443 

sensation, 127, 135, 145. 147, 201, 
229, 231, 235, 273-285, 289, 
293, 411 

sense(s), 83, 199, 231, 233, 241, 
251-257, 273, 277, 281, 283, 
291, 293, 411, 441 

sense-object, 205, 291 

sense organs, 203, 285 

Sicily, 85, 305, 323, 331 

Sicyon, 357, 371 : a city in the Pe- 
loponnese 



INDEX 



Simonidcs, 75, 389, 395 : of Ceos, 
lyric poet ; circa 556-468 B.C. 

Socrates, 17, 123, 193, 195, 231, 
245, 247, 251-261, 269, 277, 295, 
305, 329 : Athenian philoso- 
pher, 469-399 B.C. 

Solon, 311, 313 : Athenian legis- 
lator and poet ; 638-560 (?) 
B.C. 

sophist, 247, 257, 263, 277, 293, 
303 

sophistries, 229 

Sophocles, 63, 71, 107, 123, 333 ; 
quoted, 59, 63, 107, 333 : Athe- 
nian tragic poet ; 495-406 

B.C. 

Sositheiis, 111 : a friend of Epi- 
curus 

Soterichus, 355, 381, 451 : of Ale- 
xandria, a speaker in the Be 
Musica 

Sparta, 91, 311, 367, 371, 449; 
see also Lacedaemon 

Spartan(s), 201, 301 ; cf. 119, 
note b ; see also Lacedae- 
monians 

Speusippus, 193 : Plato's suc- 
cessor as head of the Academy ; 
died 339 B.C. 

Spondeion (scale), 377 ; (libation 
song), 389 ; cf. 391, 393 

Stagirites, 307 : the people of 
Stagira, Aristotle's native city 

Stesichorus, 359, 369, 379 : lyric 
poet ; 6th cent. B.C. 

Stheneia, 413 : an Argive festival 

Sthenius, 413 : an epithet of Zeus 

Stilpon, 195, 261-267 : ofMegara, 
a philosopher ; late 4th cent. 

Stoa, ' 279 ; cf. 242, note a : a 
school of philosophy 

Strato, 237 : succeeded Theo- 
phrastus as head of the Lyceum 
in 287 B.C. ; died 270/68 B.C. 

Strife (personified), 223 

stvle, 81, 361, 365, 379, 391, 395, 
397, 413, 415, 441, 449 

superstition, 55, 109-113, 119, 131 

suspension of judgement, 277-293 

swerve (of atoms), 291 

Symposium, 205 : title of a work- 
by Epicurus 

Syracusans, 45 

Syrian, 85, 309 



syrinx, 79, 397 : a device for 
raising the pitch of the aulos 

Tegea, 365: a city in the Pe- 
loponnese 

Telephancs, 397 : of Megara, an 
aulete ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Telesias, 425 : of Thebes, a mu- 
sician ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Temp6, 383 : a narrow valley in 
Thcssaly 

Terpander, 359-371, 375, 379, 
389, 391, 415, 419, 449: of 
Antissa, an early musician 

Terpandrean nome, 361 

Terpandrean style, 379 

tetrachord, 377, 393, 395, 401- 
405, 429, 433, 435, 443, 445 : 
four notes in the range of a 
musical fourth 

tetrameter, 417 : a metrical line 

Tetraoidios, 361 : a musical nome 

text newly emended, 18, 24, 30, 
44, 54, 60, 76, 78, 84, 88, 96, 
108, 114, 120, 128, 130, 132, 
138, 142, 146, 192, 194, 200, 
204, 210, 212, 238, 244, 246, 
252, 258, 266, 270, 272, 282, 
286, 288, 326, 336, 356, 360, 
364, 386, 388, 394, 402, 414, 
422 (Lloyd-Jones), 424, 434, 
448 ; new readings suggested 
also at 26 (Post), 44, 106 (Post), 
108 (Post), 128 (Post), 130 
(Post), 132 (Post), 196 (Post), 
210, 220 (Post), 230 (Post), 236, 
248 (Post), 250, 266 (Warming- 
ton), 282, 292, 324 (Post), 334 
(Post), 340 (Post), 362 (Post), 
422 (Lloyd-Jones), 430 

Thaletas, 369, 373, 375, 379, 449 : 
of Gortyn, a musician ; 7th 
cent. B.C. 

Thamyras or Thamyris, 63, 359 : 
a legendary musician of Thrace 

Thasian wine, 35, 87 

Thebans, 103, 331 

Thebe, 61 : wife of Alexander of 
Pherae ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Thebes, 99, 365, 425 ; a city of 
Boeotia 

Themistocles, 87, 103, 247, 331 : 
Athenian statesman in the 
period of the Persian wars 

Theodoreans, cf. 277, note e : 

467 



INDEX 



followers of Theodoras, a so- 
phist of the 3rd cent. B.C. 

Theon, 17-23, 31, 85, 109, 129 : a 
member of Plutarch's school 

Theophrastus, 17, 77, 79, 87, 207, 
235, 293, 309 : of Eresus ; 
succeeded Aristotle (322 B.C.) 
as head of the Lyceum ; died 
287 B.C. 

Theopompus, 61 : of Chios, a 
historian ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Thirty, the, 253 : oligarchic ru- 
lers of Athens, 404-403 B.C. 

Thrace, 305, 359 

Thrasonides, 75 : a character in 
a comedy by Menander 

Thrasybulus, 91, 329 : Athenian 
general and statesman who put 
down the Thirty Tyrants ; died 
388 B.C. 

Thrasyleon, 75 : a character in a 
comedy by Menander 

Thrasyllus, 395 : of Phlius, a mu- 
sician 

Timarchus, 249 : invited by 
Metrodorus to join the Epicu- 
rean school 

Timocleia, 61 : a noble Theban 
lady ; 4th cent. B.C. 

Timocrates, 95, 301, 305 : brother 
of the Epicurean Metrodorus 

Timotheus, 361, 381, 397, 419, 
423, 427 : of Miletus, a 
dithyrambic poet ; 5th to 4th 
cent. B.C. 

Titans, 359 

tone, 377, 407, 443 : a musical 
interval 

Torebus, 385 : an early musician, 
perhaps to be identified with 
the Lydian king of that name 

tragedy, 387, 389, 395 

Trimeles, 361, 371 : a musical 
nome 

trimeter, 417 : a metrical line 

trite, 391, 445 : a note of the 
musical scale 

Trochaios, 361 : a musical nome 

trochee, 415, 431 : a metrical foot 

Troezen, 365 : a city in the 
Peloponnese 



Troy, 359 

trumpets, 413 

Truth (personified), 233 

Tumult (personified), 223 

Typhon, 261 : a mythological 

monster 
tyrant(s), 27, 87, 115, 307, 309, 

329 
Tyrtaeus, 395 : of Mantinea, a 

musician ; 4th cent. B.C. 

UNIVERSE, 213, 223, 229, 237, 
291, 297, 335, 453 

Visit to the Dead, 63 : a paint- 
ing by Mcias 

void, the, 211, 219, 223, 229, 231, 
243, 245 

War of the Titans with the 
Gods, 359: title of a compo- 
sition by Thamyris 

wine, 31-35, 73, 93, 95, 99, 117, 
201, 205, 207, 213, 271, 453 

Xenocrates, 215, 235, 295, 307 : 
successor of Speusippus (339 
B.C.) as head of the Academy ; 
died 314 B.C. 

Xenocritus, 373, 375 : of Locri, an 
early musician 

Xenodamus, 373 : of Cythera, an 
early musician 

Xenophon, 61, 81 ; cf. 105 ; quo- 
ted, 123 f. : Athenian historian ; 
circa 430-circa 354 B.C. 

Xerxes I, 331 : king of Persia 
from 485 to 465 B.C. ; defeated 
by Themistocles at Salamis, 
480 B.C. 

Zeno, 307 : of Elea, pupil of 

Parmenides ; 5th cent. B.C. 
Zeus, 77, 121, 123, 263, 265, 357, 

413 
Zeuxippus, 15, 19, 31, 109, 129 : a 

member of Plutarch's school 
Zoroaster, 235 : title of a work by 

Heracleides Ponticus 



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" On Marvellous Things Heard," " Mechanical Problems," 

" On Indivisible Lines," " Situations and Names of 

Winds," "On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias." 



4 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. 
Aristotle: Oeconomica and Magna Moralta. G. C. 

Armstrong. (With Metaphysics, Vol. II.) 
Aristotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. 
Aristotle: On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 

W. S. Hett. 
Aristotle : Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck ; Motion and 

Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Corn- 

ford. 2 Vols. 
Aristotle: Poetics; Longinus on the Sublime. W. 

Hamilton Fyfe; Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. 
Aristotle : Politics. H. Rackham. 
Aristotle: Posterior Analytics. H. Tredennick ; Topics. 

E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle : Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. 
Aristotle: Rhetorica ad Alexandrum. H. Rackham. 

(With Problems, Vol. II.) 
Aristotle : Sophistical Refutations. Coming-to-be and 

Passing-away. E. S. Forster; On the Cosmos. D. J. Fur- 
ley. 
Arrian : History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. 

Iliffe Robson. 2 Vols. 
Athenaeus : Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 
Babrius and Phaedrus (Latin). B. E. Perry. 
St. Basil : Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. 
Callimachus : Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Callimachus : Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. 

A. W. Mair ; Aratus. G. R. Mair. 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. 

COLLUTHUS. Cf. OPPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Cf. Longus. 

Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor 

Orations : 1-XVII and XX. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes II : De Corona and De Falsa Legations. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes III: Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

Timocrates, Aristogeiton. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes IV-VI : Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. 
Demosthenes VII : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, 

Exordia and Letters. N. W ; . and N. J. DeWitt. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

l)io Cassius : Roman History. E. Gary. 9 Vols. 

Dio Chrysostom. 5 Vols. Vols. I and II. J. W. Cohoon. 

Vol III. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. Vols. IV 

and V. H. Lamar Crosby. 
Diodorus Siculus. 12 Vols. Vols. I- VI. C. H. Oldfather, 

Vol. VII. C.L.Sherman. Vol. VIII. C, B. Welles. Vols. 

IX and X. Russel M. Geer. Vol. XL F. R. Walton. 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 
Dionysius of Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Gary. 7 Vols. 
Epictetus. W. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 
Eusebius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
Galen : On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 

Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Isaeus. E. S. Forster. 

Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
Josephus. 9 Vols. Vols. I-IV. PL St. J. Thackeray. Vol. 

V. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. Vols. VI 

and VII. Ralph Marcus. Vol. VIII. Ralph Marcus and 

Allen Wikgren. Vol. IX. L. H. Feldman. 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 
Longus : Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's translation re- 
vised by J. M. Edmonds; and Parthenius. S. Gase- 

lee. 
Lucian. 8 Vols. Vols. I-V. A.M.Harmon. Vol. VI. K. 

Kilburn. Vol. VII. M. D. Macleod. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 

Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 

Lysias. W. 11. M. Lamb. 

Manetho. W. G. Waddell; Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines. 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. 
Minor Attic Orators. 2 Vols. K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burtt. 
Nonnos : Dionysiaca. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. A. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L. 

Page. 
Parthenius. Cf. Longus. 
Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. 11. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI-X. F. H. Colson. General Index. 

Rev. J. W. Earp. 

Two Supplementary Vols. Translation only from an 
Armenian Text. Ralph Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus: Imagines; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato : Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, 

Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato : Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato : Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato : Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler ; Ion , 

W. R. M. Lamb. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

Plato : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 

Plato : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epi- 
stulae. Rev. R. G. Bury. 

Plotinus. A. H. Armstrong. 6 Vols. Vols. I-II. 

Plutarch: Moralia. 15 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. C. Babbitt. 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson. Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XI. L. 
Pearson, F. H. Sandbach. Vol. XII. H. Cherniss, W. C. 
Helmbold. Vol. XIV. P. H. De Lacy and B. Einarson. 

Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 1 1 Vols. 

Polyrius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy : Tetrarirlos. C/. Manetho. 

Quintus Smyrnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Straho : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds ; Herodes, 
etc. A. D. Knox. 

Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 
2 Vols. 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 

Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. 

Xenophon : Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant 



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